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Wireless Communications

Mobile Radio Propagation: Large-Scale Path Loss

Radio wave propagation

Signal/data as electromagnetic waves Signals undergo reflection, diffraction & scattering In urban area, high rise buildings makes it impossible to have LOS Buildings cause diffraction Signals travel along multi-paths with different lengths Strength of waves decrease as distance between Tr & Rr increases We need propagation models to predict the average signal at a specific distance Small & large scale fading models

Fading models
Large scale: predicting mean signal strength for an arbitrary (T-R) separation distance [100s or 1000s of meters] Small scale: characterizing the signal fluctuations (30 to 40 dB) over a short distance [few wavelengths 1 to 10 m] or even for short duration.

Small-scale and large-scale fading

Wavelength of radio signals

Wavelength in meters = c / f C = 3 X 10^8 m/sec

Free space propagation models For clear LOS between T-R

Ex: satellite & microwave communications

Assumes that received power decays as a function of T-R distance separation Given by Friis eqn:
Pr ={[PtGtGr^2] / [(4)^2d^2L]} L is the system loss factor L >1 indicates loss due to transmission line attenuation, filter losses & antenna losses L = 1 indicates no loss in the system hardware Path loss PL(dB) = 10 log [Pt/Pr] = - 10 log {GtGr ^2/(4)^2d^2} PL = - 10 log { ^2/(4)^2d^2} with unit antenna gains Far-field distance df = 2D^2/ where D-largest dimension of the antenna df >>D

Received power
Pr eqn cannot hold for d = 0. A close-in distance do is used as reference Pr for a distance d>do>df

Pr(d) = Pr(do){do/d}^2

Received power can be given in dBm or dBW

Pr(d) dBm = 10 log {Pr(do)/0.0001W} + 20 log [do/d]


If a receiver is located 12 km from a 50Watts transmitter, find the received power in W and in db for free space propagation, assuming a carrier frequency of 9GHz and antennas of unit gain each.

Antenna basics

Length in terms of wavelengths to prevent standing waves Half-dipoles Dipoles Helical Log-periodic Dish antennas ..

Satellite receiving station

Cell antenna

Log-periodic antenna

Yagi antenna

Radiation pattern of antennas

Basic propagation mechanisms

1. Reflection
By surface of earth, buildings, & walls

2. Diffraction
Geometry of the object, amplitude, phase and polarization of the incident wave

3. Scattering (objects small than the wavelength)

By rough surfaces, small objects 9foliage, street signs, lamp posts), irregularities in the channel

Reflection from smooth surface

Typical electromagnetic properties

Classical 2-ray ground bounce model

2 ray model
Reasonably accurate to predict large signal strength over long distance (several kms) as well as for microcells in urban area Earth is assumed to be flat between TR Etot = Elos + Er

Method of Images

Path difference = d d

= sqrt{(ht+hr)^2 + d^2} - sqrt {(ht+hr)^2-d^2} For d>>ht,hr

= 2ht hr/d
Phase difference = 2 / Time delay = /c

Advantages & disadvantages of the 2 rays

Simple Disadvantage the model is over simplified that reflection from factors such as buildings, vegetation & terrain profile are missing in this model.

= d d ~2ht hr / d Pr = PtGtGr ht hr / d^4

Received power falls off with distance to the fourth power or at a rate of 40 dB/decade (much more than in free space model).

Diffraction (knife-edge) geometry

Illustration of Fresnel zones for different knife-edge diffraction scenarios.

Fresnel diffraction geometry

Fresnel diffraction or near-field diffraction occurs when a wave passes through an aperture and diffracts in the near field, causing any diffraction pattern observed to differ in size and shape, depending on the distance between the aperture and the projection

Multiple knife-edge diffraction

The average large-scale propagation path loss (theoretical)

(PL) (d/do)n - d is the T-R (Transmitter-Receiver) separation, - do is the free space reference distance which is closer to the transmitter (should always be in the far field). - n is the path loss exponent (it indicates the rate of path loss) It depends on the propagation environment. In dB format: (PL)dB = PL(do) + 10nlog(d/do) The PL includes all possible average path losses. On a log-log scale plot, the modeled path loss is a straight line with a slope equal to 10n dB per decade. In large coverage cellular system , 1 km reference distances are commonly used and in microcell systems much smaller distances (100 m to 1 m) are used

Typical large-scale path loss

Okumura model
Widely used for signal prediction in urban areas Freq range 150Mhz to 1920 Mhz Distances 1 to 100km Ant heights 30m to 1000m Okumura developed a set of curves giving the median attenuation relative to free space (Amu) in an urban area over a quasi-smooth terrain with BS ht 200m and mobile antenna height hr 3 m.

L50 (dB) = Lf + Amu(f,d) G(ht) G (hr) Garea

- L50 is 50 percentile median value of the propagation loss - Lf is the free space propagation loss - Amu is the median attenuation relative to free space - Garea is the gain due to the type of the environment

Okumura model ..

Okumuras model is based solely on measured data (Tokyo, Japan) and does not provide any analytical explanation Extrapolations of the curves can be derived to obtain values outside the measurement range Best and most and very simple accurate model for path loss prediction in urban areas where there are many urban structures but not many tall buildings. Slow response to changes in terrain, so not well suited for rural areas Used in Japan Usually 10 to 14 db with deviation from measured and predicted loss

Hata model

Hata provided urban area propagation as a standard formula and supplied correction equations for application to other situations
- L50 is 50 percentile median value of the propagation loss

L50 urban(dB) = 69.55 + 26.16logfc 13.82 log(ht) a(hr) + (44.9 6.55Loght)log(d)

- fc is freq in 150Mhz to 1500Mhz

For a small to medium city the mobile antenna correction factor is: A(hr) = (1.1logfc 0.7) hr (1.56logfc 0.8) db For large city: A(hr) = 8.29(log1.54hr)^2 1.1 db for fc <300Mhz A(hr) = 3.2(log11.75hr)^2 4.97 db for fc >300Mhz Path loss in suburban is modified from above eqn: L50 (dB) = L50 (urban) 2 [log (fc/28)]^2 5.4 Path loss in rural: L50 (dB) = L50 (urban) 4.78(log fc )^2 + 18.33 log Fc 40.94

Okumura and Hatas model

Measured data from San Francisco