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DC TO DC CONVERTOR USING PID CONTROLLER

A PROJECT UNDERTAKEN BY P Vamshi Mahesh Reddy(09-423) K Rajiv Reddy(09-431) G C Nagarjun Reddy(09-436)

INTERNAL GUIDE: Mr .B.OBULESU

1.INTRODUCTION
A DC-DC CONVERTER IS A POWER CONVERTER ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT USED FOR CONVERTING DIRECT CURRENT(DC) SOURCES FROM ONE VOLTAGE LEVEL TO THE OTHER. THESE CONVERTERS FIND USE IN APPLICATIONS SUCH AS:-

PORTABLE DEVICES LIKE MOBILE PHONES AND LAPTOPS


VOLTAGE REGULATION FILTERING OVERLOAD PROTECTION LIMITING INRUSH CURRENT
Sir MVIT,Bangalore

DC-DC converter working with limited energy storage battery cells, need to work on conditions like low voltage to high voltage conversions, input current exceeding the voltage of some order, input voltage side disturbances.
A closed loop push pull converter is designed aiming the above working conditions. The output is maintained at a reference value for any input voltage disturbances by controlling the gate pulses of the MOSFET A coaxial transformer having two-turn center tapped primary winding with low inter primary leakage inductance results in leakage inductance confined to the secondary side only the capacitor on the load side acts as tuned filter

HARD SWITCHING, SOFT SWITCHING


In the 1970s, conventional PWM power converters were operated in a switched mode operation. Power switches have to cut off the load current within the turn-on and turn-off times under the hard switching conditions. Hard switching refers to the stressful switching behaviour of the power electronic devices. During the turn-on and turn-off processes, the power device has to withstand high voltage and current simultaneously, resulting in high switching losses and stress.

In the 1980s, lots of research efforts were diverted towards the use of resonant converters. The concept was to incorporate resonant tanks in the converters to create oscillatory (usually sinusoidal) voltage and/or current waveforms so that zero voltage switching (ZVS) or zero current switching (ZCS) conditions can be created for the power switches. This resulted in reduction of power loss and improvement of switching frequency ranges. Disadvantages of this method include EMI (noise) and requirement of Frequency Modulation.

In the late 80s and 90s, new generations of Converters were developed. These soft-switched converters have switching waveforms similar to those of conventional PWM converters except that the rising and falling edges of the waveforms are smoothed with no transient spikes. Unlike the resonant converters, new soft-switched converters usually utilize the resonance in a controlled manner. Resonance is allowed to occur just before and during the turn-on and turn-off processes so as to create ZVS and ZCS conditions.
I Safe Operating Area

On

Hard-switching

snubbered

Soft-switching Off

TYPES OF RESONANT CONVERTERS

1.LOAD RESONANT CONVERTERS:- here, the load circuit is part of the resonant circuit, hence the load either has the resonant inductors current flowing through it, or the resonant capacitors voltage across its terminals. Power flow to the load is controlled by the converter switching frequency in comparison to the resonant frequency of the LC tank. 2.QUASI-RESONANT CONVERTERS:-these are also called resonant switch converters. Here, LC resonance is used only to switch the shape voltage and current to provide either a zero voltage or zero current switching. 3.RESONANT DC-LINK CONVERTERS:-these are used typically in conjunction with DC-AC inverters in AC drives. Here, LC resonance is utilised to make the DC voltage ocillate around some DC value so that it has a zero crossing during which the status of the inverter switches can be changed.

ZVS PUSH PULL TOPOLOGY


MOSFET switches S1 and S2 in the primary side of the circuit experience the push pull concept, where at a time one of the switch conducts and the other is off. This readily minimizes voltage drop on low voltage input side. The switches share the current equally providing excellent surge capability each running at 50% duty cycle, 180 out of phase. The square wave from the switches is applied to the transformer. The magnetizing current of the transformer will flow through the body diodes of MOSFET leading to zero voltage turn on.

MODES OF OPERATION In general, the converter operates in conventional pushpull fashion, with the switches each running at 50% duty cycle,180 out of phase. The net effect is a square-wave voltage impressed across the primary of the transformer During switch commutation, the magnetizing current of the transformer will flow through the body diodes of the MOSFETs, leading to a zero-voltage turn-on. The output stage is a conventional full-wave rectifier, with the exception of the Additional C, L and resonant components, which along with the leakage of the transformer form the LCL-resonant circuit. The converter has four fundamental modes of operation, as depicted in Figures, where damping has been ignored. In normal operation, Modes 1 and 3 represent brief switching transitions wherein the transformer magnetizing current is commutated. The majority of the power flow occurs in Modes 2 and 4.

SERIES RESONANT CONVERTER

Discrete, Ts = 1e-008 s. powergui


Scope7 P1
g S D

+ v -

Scope8

Vo5

Scope5

L3
+ v -

M1
+ v -

D4

D5 39.74 R
+ v -

LT 2 1
+ v -

Vo4 Scope2 i +L2 Current

Vo6 Scope6 DC

Display

Measurement

Vo1

Scope1

Vo3 P2
g D m S

L1 Scope4

D6

D7

M2
+ v -

Vo2

Scope3

Ilr of series resonant converter

PARALLEL RESONANT CONVERTER

Discrete, Ts = 1e-008 s. powergui


Scope7 P1
g S D

+ v -

Scope8

Vo5

Scope5

L3
+ v -

M1
+ v -

D4

D5 39.74 R
+ v -

LT 2 1
+ v -

Vo4 Scope2 i +L2 Current

Vo6 Scope6 DC

Display

Measurement

Vo1

Scope1

Vo3 P2
g D m S

L1 Scope4

D6

D7

M2
+ v -

Vo2

Scope3

OPEN LOOP SERIES RESONANT CONVERTER CIRCUIT WITH DISTURBANCE

OPEN LOOP WITH DISTURBANCE-SIMULATION OUTPUTS

Discrete, Ts = 1e-008 s. pow ergui

Scope6 P1
g S D

+ v -

Scope7 Scope

Vo5

Scope5

M1 LT
+ v -

+ v -

L1 D4 Scope2 D5 17.36 Display


+ v -

Vo4

Vo6 DC
+ v -

2 1 3 L2 i +L3

Current Measurement

Vo1

Scope1

Vo3 P2
g D m S

D6 Scope4

D7

M2
+ v -

Vo2

Scope3

OUTPUT VOLTAGE AND CURRENT

CLOSED LOOP CONVERTER TO REDUCE DISTURBANCE

CLOSED LOOP SIMULATION RESULTS


Discrete, Ts = 1e-005 s. pow ergui
P1
g S D + v -

Scope7

Vo5

Scope5

L1
+ v -

M1
+ v -

D4 Scope2

D5 59.22 R C2 Display
+ v -

LT Scope6 2 1

Vo4

DISTURBANCE2
Conn1 Conn2

Vo6

L2

+ v -

3
g D g D

Vo1

Scope1

Vo3 P2
g D m S

Scope4

M2
+ v -

Vo2

M4

M3

Scope3 1

Discrete PID C ontroller


Out1 Out2 In1

Gain

PID
50 SET VALUE

pulses

0 VCR

2 LOAD-R

OUTPUT VOLTAGE AND CURRENT-EFFECT OF PI/PID CONTROLLER

FUTURE PROSPECTS OF THE PROJECT PERFECT THE CLOSED LOOP SIMULATION RESULT AND BUILD HARDWARE OF THE CORRESPONDING CLOSED LOOP CIRCUIT

DEVELOP A VARIABLE VOLTAGE SOURCE AS COMPARED TO THE CURRENT CONSTANT VOLTAGE SOURCE
DEVELOP A REAL TIME APPLICATION FOR THE IMPLEMENTED HARDWARE

CONCLUSION
The MATLAB circuit model for closed loop system with PI controllers was developed and the DC to DC converter system was successfully simulated using this model. The LCL resonant topology is suited for unregulated DC-DC conversion from a low voltage to a high voltage source. The circuit exhibits ZVS for the MOSFET switches and capacitively snubbed operation for the output rectifier. The LCL resonance reduces the energy trapped in the primary leakage inductance at turn off. The open loop and closed loop ZVS LCL resonant push pull DC-DC