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Presented by : Rohit Agarwal (12541010)


1.What is Fenestration? 2. Governing Body for Fenestration 3. Benefits of Improving Fenestration 4. Types of Windows 5. Anatomy of Window 6. Types of Glazing/Glasses 7. Energy Rating 8. NFRC Label 9. Manufactures of Glazing system and Doors

What is fenestration
The word fenestration comes from the Latin word fenestra ("window"). In general, it refers to openings in a structure. In architecture construction and building: Fenestration, refers to the design and/or disposition of openings in a building or wall envelope. Fenestration products typically include: windows, doors, louvers, vents, wall panels, skylights, storefronts, curtain walls, and slope glazed systems.

The governing body for fenestration rating is NFRC
NFRC stands for National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) it is a not-for-profit 501(c)(3) organization, is an American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Accredited Standards Developer (ASD) and develops and administers comparative energy and related rating programs for fenestration products.

Why Does the NFRC Label Matter?

It is important because this label provide us with the knowledge of: Whole Product Ratings The NFRC involve testing of the full window -including glass, frame, spacers, and any other component that is a permanent part of the complete product.

Information You Can Trust The NFRC Label is the only window label
that provides Certified Ratings that are acquired through independent testing of the product.

A Fair and Accurate Basis for Comparing Products Ratings on the

NFRC Label have been achieved through standardized test methods at independently operated laboratories. This standardized method allows us to compare Certified Ratings on the NFRC Label of Manufacturer A to those on the Certified Label of Manufacturer B for equal and fair comparisons.

Confidence That the Product You are Buying Will Meet Your Needs
The NFRC Label provides the performance information that we need to determine how the window will perform in the home.

A Way to Verify the Accuracy of the Label The NFRC rating process
provides you with a way to verify that the Certified Ratings provided on the NFRC Label are accurate via the Certified Products Directory (CPD). The NFRC Label provides the manufacturer name, the type of window, as well as the Full CPD Number, making searching the database for the product a snap


Improve Day lighting Improve Energy Efficiency Improve Comfort

Reduce Fading
Improve Safety and Conform to Codes

Improve Day lighting

In the past, many commercial buildings used reflective or tinted glass products to reduce solar heat gain through the windows , but these products also reduce the amount of visible light. This reduction in Visible Transmittance (VT) can lead to an increase in the amount of artificial lighting needed in buildings. So to take the advantage of the day light Spectrally selective glasses are used. These glasses block or re-rediate the IR energy and thus reducing the solar gain from windows while maintaining higher levels of visible light transmittance.

Spectrally-selective glass can block radiation from the sun and still allow high levels of visible light -- reducing the need for electrical lighting

Improve Energy Efficiency

Windows may appear passive, but in reality they are always performing. They affect the flow of heat in and out of the building, as well as the amount of natural light, and this influences how much electricity we need to use to keep the room comfortable.

By improving the performance of your windows, you may be able to save on energy bills to heat, cool, and light your home.

Improve Comfort
With the poor quality of fenestration i.e. the windows which are not well insulated can create drafts in the building. During the winters , Windows and doors with lower U-factor ratings will lessen this effect, reduce the feeling of draft, and lower heating bills. But during the summer season it is much more difficult to cool a room with poor quality of window because the sun is able to directly influence and heat the air temperature of the room. So ,Windows with lower Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) will lessen this effect and improve the ability to efficiently keep a room cool lowering cooling bills and reducing frequent temperature fluctuations.

Reduce Fading
Solar radiation is the main cause of fading. UV radiation is responsible for about 40-60 percent of the damage. UV radiation enters a home through its windows. Single-pane glass reflects about 25 percent of the sun's UV radiation while insulating glass reflects up to 40 percent. Using low-E coated glass provides additional protection, reflecting up to 74 percent. Some window film products and laminated glass products can block up to 99 percent of UV radiation. Window film is the combination of a form of transparent plastic and an adhesive, which creates a light, reflective covering for windows..

Improve Safety and Conform to Codes

In some instances, replacing old windows can improve the safety of the home. For added security, window options that incorporate wire mesh to reduce penetration can also be purchased. These windows can be used to prevent burglary and may reduce damage to windows in areas that are prone to flying debris.


Single-hung - means that

one of the windows sashes is fixed in place and does not move.

Double-hung means that

both sashes in a frame are operable.

Types of Windows
Awning Window: A window that opens from a top hinge
and projects outward.

Casement Window: A window containing one or more

side-hinged openings that open either outward or inward. A conventional casement window has a sash that projects outward.

Dual Action Window: A window that operates in two

different ways -- typically, the window consists of a sash that may tilt from the top or may swing inward from the side.

Greenhouse/Garden Window: A window unit that consists of

a three-dimensional, five-sided structure generally protruding from the wall in which it is installed. The window may or may not open.

Hinged Escape / Rescue / Egress Window: A window that

opens wide enough to allow escape from inside (and entrance for rescue workers). Many building codes require egress windows in all bedrooms that do not have doors that exit the building. For example, a basement room can not be described as a bedroom unless there is an egress window (and large enough window well) or door to the exterior of the building.

Transom: A non-operable window that is often installed above

either another window or a door. Transoms may consist of a glazed frame or a non-operable sash within a frame.

Skylights: skylights may also be flat panels (similar to a

regular windows) with a purpose of all is to provide additional natural daylighting into the building

Anatomy of a Window

This image represents a DOUBLE GLAZED vinyl window.

Glazing: The transparent or semitransparent in-fill material in a glazing system. Glass: An inorganic, amorphous substance, usually transparent, composed of silica
(sand), soda (sodium carbonate), and lime (calcium carbonate) with small quantities of other materials.

Windows are often described by the number of glazing they contain:

Single-Glazed=one pane of glass Double-Glazed=Two panes of glass Triple-Glazed=Three panes of glass* Quad-Glazed=Four panes of glass*
*In some instances, at least one layer of glass may be replaced by a lighter transparent material to lessen the weight The space between the layers of glass is filled with a gas or combination of gasses, which is then sealed in place, creating a sealed insulated glazing unit. The gases used are Argon, Krypton, Xenon

The lower the emissivity of the glass, the lower the rate of heat loss and the lower the U-factor.

The component that separates and maintains the space between the glazing surfaces of an insulating glass unit (IGU), excluding any sealants.
Current spacers may be made of metal, non-metal materials, or a combination of both. Because they are located within the window structure. Spacers can affect the overall window performance rating based on the conductance of the material(s) from which they are made.

The enclosing structure of a window, door, or skylight which fits into the wall or roof opening and receives either glazing, sash, or vents. Types: Wood, metal (aluminum), vinyl, fiberglass, and composite (combination of materials) The choice of frame material for the window can depend on many factors like style preference, cost, building needs (weight of material, for example). Material choice can also affect the windows overall rating performance.

There are variety of glasses that are used in fenestration based on following characteristics:

Thermal Insulation Solar Control Safety & Security Fire Resistance Noise Control Self-cleaning

Thermal insulation
Thermal insulating glass for windows are also known as "low-E" (for low-emissivity) glass

These usually forms the inner pane of an insulating glass unit (IGU).
Low-E glass allows solar heat to pass into a building and warm the interior Recent regulations call for the use of energy-efficient products to cut CO2 emissions and protect the environment.

Solar control
Designed to reduce or prevent solar heating of buildings.
There are two approaches that can be used: the glass is either tinted (colored) throughout the material (called a "body tint"), or else it has a microscopically thin and transparent coating on one side.

These technologies reduce the solar heating that tends to take place in large buildings, and thus reduces the need for air-conditioning.
It is therefore an energy-saving technology.

Safety and security

To improve its resistance to impact and breakage, glass can be either toughened or laminated. Toughened glass offers a distinct safety advantage, not only being less likely to break but also, when it does break, producing very small fragments that are relatively harmless. Laminated glass can be made so strong that it is practically impossible to break through Application could be in bullet-resistant applications. In the case of breakage, fragments adhere to the flexible "interlayer" between glass layers, reducing the chance of injuries.

Fire resistance
A range of fire-resistant glass types is available that offers increasing levels of protection, which is measured in defined time periods (30, 60, 90, 120, 180 minutes). Fire-resistant glass must meet strict levels of integrity and insulation Fire-resistant glass must always be specified as part of a tested and approved glazing system and installed by specialists to be sure of reaching expected fire performance

Noise control
Its benefits are greatest for people living or working near busy high streets, urban traffic, motorways, railway lines and airports, or on a flight path. The acoustic glass in a double-glazed unit uses a special interlayer that acts as a dampening core so that sound energy is effectively blocked from passing from the outside to the inside pane of glass. Acoustic glass can be combined with many other products for multifunctional glazing, such as thermal insulation, solar control, and self-cleaning glass.

Self cleaning glass

Self-cleaning glass has been coated with a special dual-function layer that harnesses the elements windows namely, sun, and rain - to break down and wash away dirt. This first function is photo-catalytic is to break down the dirt that collects on it. The second function is to spread rain-water evenly over the glass. Most glass is hydrophobic (water-repellent), causing water to bead into droplets before it runs off, thus touching only a fraction of the surface. The hydrophilic self-cleaning coating prevents this beading into droplets, causing water to run across the entire surface, washing away the components that the dirt has been broken down into.

Energy Ratings
What the Ratings Mean?
In order to apply the ENERGY STAR label to products, manufacturers must first test their FENESTRATION products according to NFRC procedures, which include independent testing at NFRC approved laboratories. The NFRC label provides ratings for U-factor and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient, and Visible Transmittance (required ratings), and may include information on testing for Air Leakage and Condensation Resistance.

measures how well a product prevents heat from escaping a building. U-factor ratings generally fall between 0.15 and 1.20. The lower the U-factor, the better a product is at keeping heat inside the building. U-factor is particularly important during the winter heating season in colder climates.

Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC)

measures how much heat from the sun is blocked. SHGC is expressed as a number between 0 and 1. The lower the SHGC, the more a product is blocking solar heat gain.

Visible Transmittance (VT)

measures how much light comes through a product. VT is expressed as a number between 0 and 1. The higher the VT, the higher the potential for daylighting

Air Leakage
measures how much outside air comes into a building through a product. Air leakage rates typically fall in a range between 0.1 and 0.3. The lower the air leakage, the better a product is at keeping air out.

Condensation Resistance
measures how well a product resists the formation of condensation. Condensation resistance is expressed as a number between 1 and 100. The higher the number, the better a product is able to resist condensation.

Other Options while purchasing a window

Water infiltration
measures the amount of water and pressure that a window can resist to keep the water from leaking through it. The higher the water infiltration rating, the better the window is at resisting water leakage.

Structural performance ratings :

measure the amount of air pressure (wind load) a window can resist before failing. The amount of structural pressure ratings required for windows in the area is often determined by local code requirements. The higher the structural performance ratings, the more wind load a window can resist.

Acoustical performance ratings :

measure the amount of sound transmission through a window. The higher the sound transmission rating, the better the product is at blocking noise from coming through the window.

Security performance ratings :

measure the ability of a window to resist different types of forces. For example, there are burglar-resistant windows, fire-resistant windows, bullet-resistant windows, wind-borne debris-resistant windows, and many others.

The NFRC label

This label should remain on window until after the final inspection. The various elements on the NFRC label are : The U-factor Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) and Visible Transmittance (VT) Air Leakage and Condensation Resistance ratings are optional and manufacturers are not required by NFRC to test their products for these.

Manufactures of Windows and doors in India

Sound Of Silence
Address: No. 334, Adie Mansion, M. S. Ali Road, Grant Road East, Mumbai - 400 007, Maharashtra, India Phone: +(91)-(22)-23011952 / 23011953 Fax: +(91)-(22)-23011751 Preferred Number: 08376806044 Website:

Tisya Impex Private Limited

Address: Shiba S. No. 261/2/9, Plot No. 11- A, Silver Oak Society, Baner Road, Pune 411 045, Maharashtra, India Phone: +(91)-(20)-27291624 Fax: +(91)-(20)-27291624 Preferred Number: 08447561585 Website:

Poly Extrusions (India) Private Limited

New Delhi
Address: G. I. - 33, G. T. Karnal Road, Industrial Area, Azadpur, New Delhi - 110033, Delhi, India Phone: +(91)-(11)-27438588 / 25535373 Fax: +(91)-(11)-27438588 Preferred Number: 08447538934 Website:


Address: Plot No. 32, 1st Link Street, Nehru Nagar, Old Mahabalipuram Road Kottivakkam, Chennai - 600 041, Tamil Nadu, India Phone: +(91)-(44)-24543436 / 24543444 Fax: +(91)-(44)-24524543435 Website:

Shreejee Glass & Glazing

Address: No. 2/17, Sector - 2, Rajendra Nagar, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad - 201 005, Uttar Pradesh, India Phone:+(91)-(120)-4134155 / 4137956 / 4137857 Fax: +(91)-(120)-4137857 Preferred Number: 08447571569 Website:

Shobha Products
Address: 159, GIDC Makarpura Industrial Estate, Vadodara - 390 010, Gujarat, India Phone:+(91)-(265)-2638306 / 2638406 Fax: +(91)-(265)-2638551 Preferred Number: 09953352901 Website: