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RENCANA DAN PROSEDUR TANGGAP DARURAT

Dr. RICKI M. MULIA, ST. MSc

Biodata
Nama : Instansi : Ricki Marojahan Mulia Kepala Seksi Analisis Pusat Higiene Perusahaan, Kesehatan Keselamatan Kerja Disnakertrans Prov. DKI Institusi Program Doktor Ilmu Lingkungan, Universitas Indonesia Faculty of Enviromental Science, Department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University (The Netherland) Postgraduate Diploma, Occupational Health and Safety Diploma Science 1997 - 1998 Gelar Doktor (Cum Laude) M.Sc. dan Waktu 2009 - 2012 2000 - 2002

Management. University of Queensland - Australia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Sumatera Utara Sarjana Teknik 1989 - 1995
PUBLIKASI 1. Mulia Ricki M. (2005) Kesehatan Lingkungan, Penerbit Graha Ilmu, Yogyakarta 2. Mulia, Ricki M., Kusnoputranto H., Moersidik ,Setyo S., Sihombing R. (2012). Optimization Operational Variable of Bench Scale Biological Flue Gas Desulphurisation Application in Sulfuric Acid Industry. World Applied Sciences Journal 18(9): 1310-1314, 2012. ORGANISASI Asosiasi Ahli Hiperkes dan Keselamatan Kerja DKI Jakarta Asosiasi Laboratorium Lingkungan DKI Jakarta Member of Toast Master International, Jakarta City Hall - Indonesia Anggota Panitia Teknis, Komite Akreditasi Nasional LAIN-LAIN 1. Penanggung jawab Mata Ajar Higiene Industri 1 di Magister Kedokteran Kerja dan Spesialis Kedokteran Okupasi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia 2. Email: Ricki_M@yahoo.com Facebook: Ricki Mulia

Keadaan Darurat
Keadaan darurat (emergency) adalah suatu kondisi/situasi yang abnormal dan berbahaya yang membutuhkan penaganan segera untuk mengendalikan, membetulkan dan mengembalikan pada kondisi sebelumnya atau kondisi yang selamat . (Pusperkes,2001)

Ricki M. Mulia

Types of Emergency
Earthquakes Hurricanes Tornadoes Energy/utility outages Fire hazards Hazardous materials releases Terrorism

Sources: http://www.osha.gov

Workplace Emergency
An unforeseen situation that threatens your employees, customers, or the public, disrupts or shuts down your operations, or causes physical or environmental damage.
(Sources: http://www.osha.gov)

Industrial Emergency Sources: (Depnaker,2001/p.4)


Local Emergency On-site Emergency Off-Site Emergency

Industrial Emergency
Local Emergency
Timbul akibat kejadian yang berdampak pada bagian-bagian tertentu dalam suatu lokasi industri. Mis. Kebocoran kecil drum bahan kimia berbahaya di gudang.

On-site Emergency
Timbul akibat kejadian yang berdampak pada manusia, harta benda dan lingkungan dimana dampak dapat menyebar ke seluruh bagian lingkungan kerja. Mis. Pecahnya pipa instalasi bahan kimia berbahaya di industri.

Off-Site Emergency
Kejadian berdampak pada seluruh lingkungan kerja dan lingkungan luar.

WHAT PRICE SAFETY


DIRECT COST
INJURIES
Medical cost Funeral cost

PROPERTY DANAGE
Loss and damage

First aid expenses Cost of Investigation

INJURIES

ASSOCIATED COST
Overhead cost while production is stopped Rental of equipment to replace damaged equipment

Cost of processing report

WAGE LOSSES
Iddle time Manhours spent in cleaning up accident area Time spent repairing damaged equipment

PRODUCTION LOSS
Product spoiled by accident

OFF THE JOB ACCIDENTS


Training replacement worker

INTANGIBLES
Lowered employee morale Unfavorable public relations

Ricki M. Mulia

HIDDEN COST

Phases of Emergency Management


Prevention

Recovery

Preparedness

Response

Sources: Safety Engineering UQ

Emergency prevention
Merupakan tahapan atau langkah pencegahan terjadinya bencana.( Arie Priambodo, p.17)

Emergency preparedness
Merupakan kesiapsiagaan terjadinya bencana.( Arie Priambodo, p.17) dalam menghadapi

Langkah awalnya adalah melakukan perencanaan dengan benar

Employee emergency plans


1. "Emergency action plan elements." The emergency action plan should address emergencies that the employer may reasonably expect in the workplace. 2. "Emergency evacuation." At the time of an emergency, employees should know what type of evacuation is necessary and what their role is in carrying out the plan. 3. "Emergency action plan training." The employer should assure that an adequate number of employees are available at all times during working hours to act as evacuation wardens so that employees can be swiftly moved from the danger location to the safe areas. 4. "Fire prevention housekeeping." The standard calls for the control of accumulations of flammable and combustible waste materials. 5. "Maintenance of equipment under the fire prevention plan." Certain equipment is often installed in workplaces to control heat sources or to detect fuel leaks.

Sources: http://www.osha.gov

Emergency Preparedness
Key Principles
Containment, suppression and control of incident Rescue and treatment Communication Time of event considered (after hours contact?)

Structured and co-ordinated approach

Sources: Safety Engineering UQ

Mitigate hazards according to the hierarchy of controls

Elimination or substitution:
Whenever possible, eliminate the hazard from the work area (e.g., repair or remove fallen electrical power lines before allowing other work to proceed in the area). Although desirable, elimination and substitution may not be options for most airborne/chemical hazards created by a natural disaster.

Engineering controls:
Take steps to reduce or eliminate exposure to a hazard, such as by guarding the pinch points associated with a machine's moving parts, providing ventilation to a permit-required confined space, using heavy equipment with temperature-controlled cabs, and placing barriers around the swing radius of rotating heavy equipment.

Work practice or administrative controls:


Implement work procedures that reduce the probability of exposure. For example, use well-rested crews and daylight hours to perform higher hazard or unfamiliar tasks, take frequent breaks during hot weather, remove non-essential personnel from the area during certain task/operations, and decontaminate equipment and personnel after contact with contaminated floodwater or chemicals. When possible, use water to suppress dust and work up-wind in dusty conditions. Where extensive hot work is performed in the form of cutting and burning, use extended length torch handles to increase the distance from the individual's breathing zone to the generation of toxic fumes.

Personal protective equipment (PPE):


If other controls are not available, infeasible, or do not provide sufficient protection, select and use PPE appropriate for the hazard and level of exposure. OSHA provides additional assistance on selecting and using PPE. Sources: http://www.osha.gov

Work Practices for basic safety


Establish and maintain evacuation routes and an alerting system to notify individuals in case an evacuation becomes necessary. Provide, maintain, and inspect fire protection and suppression equipment for the fire hazards in the work area. Ensure that first aid supplies and services, and medical care are readily available. Drink water from sources proven to be safe for drinking. Do not consume food or beverages that were exposed to floodwaters or perishables that may have spoiled. Additionally, do not eat, drink, or smoke in areas containing debris, floodwaters, or sludge. Wash hands before eating, drinking, smoking, or using the restroom. If potable water is not available, use hand sanitizer or commercial sanitizing wipes. Minimize accumulation of trash and keep garbage in closed containers. Use insect repellent containing DEET or Picaridin to prevent insect bites. Minimize the creation or disturbance of dust and work upwind of dusty activities when possible. Provide prompt first aid for cuts and scrapes. Antibiotic resistant bacteria can result in severe injury and illness. Wash and sanitize cuts and scrapes without delay and report the injury to your supervisor. Bandage/cover cuts and scrapes and keep them from coming in contact with polluted or contaminated floodwater. Seek medical help at the first sign of infection. Sources: http://www.osha.gov

Employee Organizational Structure


Facility Emergency Controller
( Site Manager)

Response Controller ( Operational Manager)

Security and Communication ( Security Officer)

Personnel ( Personnel Manager)

Health ( Safety Manager)

Sources: Safety Engineering UQ

Emergency Response
Emergency response or responding to emergencies
means a response effort by employees from outside the immediate release area or by other designated responders (i.e., mutual aid groups, local fire departments, etc.) to an occurrence which results, or is likely to result, in an uncontrolled release of a hazardous substance. Responses to incidental releases of hazardous substances where the substance can be absorbed, neutralized, or otherwise controlled at the time of release by employees in the immediate release area, or by maintenance personnel are not considered to be emergency responses within the scope of this standard. Responses to releases of hazardous substances where there is no potential safety or health hazard (i.e., fire, explosion, or chemical exposure) are not considered to be emergency responses.

Sources: http://www.osha.gov

Emergency Response

Emergency Response
Response merupakan tindakan tanggap bencana yang meliputi dua unsur penting :( Arie Priambodo, p.17)
1. Penyelamatan Tindakan tanggap bencana ditujukan untuk menyelamatkan dan menolong jiwa manusia. 2. Pertolongan Tindakan tanggap bencana juga ditujukan untuk menyelamatkan material yang berhubungan dengan keberlangsungan hidup.

Emergency Recovery
Recovery merupakan tahap atau langkah pemulihan sehubungan dengan kerusakan atau akibat yang ditimbulkan oleh bencana.

Tahap recovery meliputi:


Pemulihan Pengawasan

Spills and Emergencies


Spill liquids often may be diluted and neutralize In some cases, eliminated by spreading an absorbent material such as clay absorbent (i.e.calcium bentonite) Placing pillows or pads an absorbent material on the liquid, after which the absorbent material is collected into container for later disposal Use correct PPE

Ricki M. Mulia

Personal Decontamination
Always wash their hands with soap and water before eating, drinking, smoking, applying lip balm or cosmetics to prevent contamination of their mouth, nose or eyes with hazardous materials or infectious agents. Use a waterless alcohol-based hand cleaner if water is not available. Shower and change into clean clothes at the end of each workday. Separate work clothes from their general laundry to prevent exposing family members to hazardous materials and infectious agents.

Sources: Sources: http://www.osha.gov