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Action Planning exercise

Forbes Davidson


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Scenario Roles: staff, participants Groups Time Schedule Time planning and management Output

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Process to develop action plan

Identify problems
Set and analyse objectives

Force -field analysis Develop options Monitor and evaluate analyze impact/ prioritize choose/ decide Plan action communicate, get support implement operate and maintain Ongoing development of support and revision

Problem analysis Objectives:

Clarify relation between problems and issues Introduce the relationship between problems and objectives Identify key questions for analysis of problems Clarify relationships between problems

Forbes Davidson


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problem focus

Forbes Davidson


need to focus on clear issues

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need for focused strategy



Forbes Davidson


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relationship between problems objectives and goals

problem/ opportunity
Forbes Davidson problem.ppt

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concept developed from idea of Edward de Bono

The $50,000,000 problem definition

Case of the Isle of Wight

Situation 1
Water shortage Volume of water No local resources Decision to make pipeline to mainland at cost of 30 million ($50 million) Pipeline implemented Plenty of water Everyone happy (except taxpayers?)
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forecast demand



Situation, part 2
Water company Volume of water privatised Experiments with water meters on the island Peoples habits change dramatically, reducing Water meters the demand for water to well below the original point at which there was a problem
Forbes Davidson problem.ppt 4/11/20 13

pipeline supply Originally forecast demand Actual demand Time


Poor definition of the original problem can be very expensive! Question: what would be a definition of the problem in this case that could have saved a lot of the $50,000,000?

Forbes Davidson


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Problem formulation
The formulation should be something like: There is a mismatch of supply and demand for water on the island, particularly at the peak tourist season This leaves open whether future action will concentrate on the supply side, the demand side or both. This quality is very important at problem definition stage - it is the foundation of all later action.
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Relations between problems The problem tree

Effects Effects Effects Effects




Core problem

Roots or causes

Roots or causes

Roots or causes

Roots or causes

Roots or causes

Roots or causes
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Roots or causes

Roots or causes


Relations between problems The problem tree: example

unemployment limits on new housing

Core problem Roots Effects

health problems

harm to tourist industry

unwillingness of industry to invest

periodic water shortage

mismatch between supply and demand

limited supply limited finance No water meters wasteful habits

high usage

limited ground water

Leakage in system


WORKSHOP ON PARTICIPATIVE URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND UPGRADING FOR ALICE, EASTERN CAPE MAY 7 - 13, 1995, CRAWFORDS CABINS, CINTSA BEACH, EASTERN CAPE _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Hospital too small to meet needs

Overloaded Hospital

High prevalence of TB & other communicable diseases

Dust roads devaluate properties

Dust roads damage cars

Storm water drains frequently blocked by sand after rain

Rubbish scattered in the town roads

+- 400 sites have pit latrine (Niselamanzi village)

+-350 families use bucket system (Hillcrest & Khyelitsha)

1/3 of housing lack electricity

Poor health

Dust from gravel roads is a health hazard Poor sanitation (inadequate management of municipal waste) Poor road maintenance Present water infrastructure cannot cope with growing population/town Overcrowding Overloading of existing infrastructure Poor health care

Lots of gravel roads

Low income households cannot afford houses High population growth

Insufficient capacity at municipality in Engineering&Townp lanning

Lack of resources (finance) to improve infrastructure

Low institutional capacity/support from province

High population growth

Many low income household s in Alice

High birthrate


Lack of skilled personnel

No grant applications made

No money to hire skill personnel

Ignorance of financing mechanism

Finance application to RDP not being processed

Perception of relatively better chances of survival in Alice

Lack of facilities in neighbouring areas

D 1.2

Problem analysis: key questions

why is it a problem? whose problem? Where is the problem? When is it a problem? How long has it been a problem? Are you dealing with the core problem, symptom or solution? What would happen if you do nothing?
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Problem analysis: conclusions

Good problem analysis lays the foundations for effective planning It is worth spending the time to do problem analysis well as it leads to creative and innovative actions Problem or opportunity analysis is not easy to do well -it requires changes in the way of thinking Dont shoot from the hip! Solutions will be developed later
Forbes Davidson problem.ppt

PLANNING HEALTH WARNING Lack of good thinking can seriously injure your plans 4/11/20
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