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Chapter 11

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2011 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives
Identify five traditional organizational structures and the pros and cons of each 2. Describe the product-team structure and explain why it is a prototype for a more open, agile organizational structure 3. Explain five ways improvements have been sought in traditional organizational structures 4. Describe what is meant by agile, virtual organizations


Learning Objectives (contd.)

Explain how outsourcing can create agile, virtual organizations, along with its pros and cons 6. Describe boundaryless organizations and why they are important 7. Explain why organizations of the future need to be ambidextrous learning organizations


Organizational Structure

Organizational structure refers to the formalized arrangement of interaction between and responsibility for the tasks, people, and resources in an organization It is most often seen as a chart, often a pyramidal chart, with positions or titles and roles in cascading fashion


Simple Organizational Structure

A simple organizational structure is one where there is an owner and a few employees and where the arrangement of tasks, responsibilities, and communication is highly informal and accomplished through direct supervision This type of structure can be very demanding on the owner-manager Most businesses in this country and around the world are of this type

Functional Organizational Structure

A functional organizational structure is one on which the tasks, people, and technologies necessary to do the work of the business are divided into separate functional groups (such as marketing, operations, and finance) with increasingly formal procedures for coordinating and integrating their activities to provide the businesss products and services


Ex. 11.2

Functional Organization Structures


Divisional Structure

A divisional organizational structure is one in which a set of relatively autonomous units, or divisions, are governed by a central corporate office but where each operating division has its own functional specialists who provide products or services different from those of other divisions This expedites decision making in response to varied competitive environments The division usually is given profit responsibility

Ex. 11.3

Divisional Organization Structure


Strategic Business Unit

The strategic business unit (SBU) is an adaptation of the divisional structure whereby various divisions or parts of divisions are grouped together based on some common strategic elements, usually linked to distinct product/market differences The advantages and disadvantages of the SBU form are very similar to those identified for divisional structures


Holding Company Structure

A final form of the divisional organization is the holding company structure, where the corporate entity is a broad collection of often unrelated businesses and divisions such that it (the corporate entity) acts as financial overseer holding the ownership interest in the various parts of the company but has little direct managerial involvement


Matrix Organizational Structure

The matrix organizational structure is one in which functional and staff personnel are assigned to both a basic functional area and to a project or product manager The matrix form is intended to make the best use of talented people within a firm by combining the advantages of functional specialization and productproject specialization


Ex. 11.5 Matrix

Organizational Structure


Product-Team Structure

The product-team structure seeks to simplify and amplify the focus of resources on a narrow but strategically important product, project, market, customer, or innovation The product-team structure assigns functional managers and specialists to a new product, project, or process team that is empowered to make major decisions about their product


Ex. 11.6

The Product-Team Structure


Trends Affecting Organizations in the 21st Century


The Internet Speed


Efforts to Improve Traditional Structures

Redefine the role of corporate headquarters from control to support and coordination Balance the demands for control/differentiation with the need for coordination/integration Restructure to emphasize and support strategically critical activities Reengineer strategic business processes Downsize and self-manage


Creating Agile, Virtual Organizations

Virtual organization: a temporary network of independent companiessuppliers, customers, subcontractors, even competitorslinked primarily by information technology to share skills, access to markets, and costs An agile organization is one that identifies a set of business capabilities central to highprofitability operations and then builds a virtual organization around those capabilities


OutsourcingCreating a Modular Organization Outsourcing is simply obtaining work previously done by employees inside the companies from sources outside the company A modular organization provides products or services using different, self-contained specialists or companies brought together outsourcedto contribute their primary or support activity to result in a successful outcome Business process outsourcing (BPO) is the most rapidly growing segment of the outsourcing services industry worldwide


Types of Boundaries

Horizontal boundariesbetween different departments or functions in a firm. Vertical boundariesbetween operations and management, and levels of management, between corporate and division Geographic boundariesbetween different physical locations; between different countries or regions of the world and between cultures External interface boundariesbetween a company and its customers, suppliers, partners, regulators, and competitors

Becoming Boundaryless

Jack Welch coined the term boundaryless to illustrate his vision for GE Outsourcing, strategic alliances, product-team structures, reengineering, restructuringall are ways to move toward boundaryless organization Technology, particularly driven by the Internet, has and will be a major driver of the boundaryless organization


Ex. 11.12 From Traditional Structure to B-Web Structure


Ambidextrous Learning Organization

The evolution of the virtual organizational structure as an integral mechanism managers use has brought with it recognition of the central role knowledge plays in implementation The shift from exploitation to exploration (Rangan) indicates the growing importance of organizational structures that enable a learning organization to allow global companies the chance to build competitive advantage An ambidextrous organization emphasizes coordination over control as well as flexibility