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BY: Tulaashini a/p Kalidasan Nor Baizura binti Ismail Nur Syafna binti Mohd Yusof

a) In Malaysian Teacher professionalism there are many western branches and theories of philosophy of Education include. Discuss. b) How far did the western traditional philosophy of Education comprises the Philosophy of National Education (NPE)

Western Philosophy Branches



Branches of philosophy







The study of existence and the nature of reality.

The study of knowledge and how and what we know

The study of reasoning.

The study of value

Metaphysics Greek word Metaphysika Literally means after physics

Epistemology Greek word Episteme means knowledge or science Logos means explanation.

Logic Greek word "logos", Which has a variety of meanings including word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason or principle

Axiology Greek word Means Axios means value or worth Logos means reason

Metaphysics ( Main Sections)

Ontology The study of being and existence. Natural Theology

The study of God including the nature of religion and the world.
Universal Science The study of fist principles of logic and reasoning.

Examines things such as reality, what exists in this world and how it is arranged. Attempts to provides answers which go beyond scientific investigation. Speculative and focuses on the cause-andeffect relationship of things and phenomena.

The theory of knowledge that study about knowledge and beliefs. Focuses on the analysis and generation of knowledge and the pursuit of knowledge. Focuses on how to pursue knowledge and the correct way to do it. Example: What is knowledge? What are the sources of knowledge?

Sources of knowledge
Revelation. Based on our sensory experiences. Intuition (Instinctive knowing). Expert opinion based on the knowledge and skills possessed. Logic. Scientific methods.

Western Philosophy
There are two types of western philosophy: Traditional Modern

Western Philosophy

Realism Idealism Perennialism Essentialism

Existentialism Pragmatism Progressivism Reconstructivism

o Aristotle, the Father of Realism. o Character is developed through training in the rules of conduct o The Realist curriculum emphasizes the subject matter of the physical world, particularly science and mathematic.

Realism stresses on the objective knowledge and values The essential doctrines of realism hold that There is a world of real existence that human being have not made or constructed This real existence can be known by the human mind Such knowledge is the only reliable guide to human conduct both individual and social

Plato, Father of Idealism, espoused this view about 400 years BC, in his famous book, The Republic. Aim: To discover and develop each individuals ability and full moral excellence in order to better serve society. The character is developed through imitating example and heroes.

Reality is spiritual or mental and unchanging. Knowing is the rethinking of latent ideas and values are absolute, eternal and universal.

Idealists stressed on the importance of mind over matter. Ideas are the only true reality. They do not reject matter, but hold that the material world is characterized by change, instability and uncertainty while ideas are enduring.

Comparison between Perennialism and Essentialism(Traditional)

Perennialism Characteristics of human nature are universal and fixed Teach knowledge and universal values which are everlasting Curriculum: Humanities and literature Teacher: Expert disseminator of knowledge Teaching method: Didactic Pupils: Passive recipients of knowledge Aspects Concept Essentialism Focus given to the basics

Goals of Education

Teach knowledge and basic culture Curriculum: Basic skills ( reading, writing and arithmetic) Teacher: Skilled disseminator of knowledge Teaching method: Didactic Pupils : Passive recipients of knowledge