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Emergency Procedure


NDT Group, Industrial Technology Division Malaysian Nuclear Agency(Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor


Emergency Procedure
A condition which call for immediate action beyond the scope of normal operating procedures to avoid or mitigate the consequences of an accident


Emergency Procedure
Radiological emergency

can occur at any time or place where

radioactive materials or radiation generating machine are used, stored, transported


Emergency Procedure
Facilities for radioactive work are so designed such that
can operate with sufficient safety margins to provide assurances that there are no undue radiological risk to personnel and public


Emergency Procedure
Nevertheless, in spite of all precautionary measures, the remote possibility of failure the occurrence of accidents can be excluded & unacceptable releases or exposure of radioactive material may happen


Emergency Procedure
It is essential that to license personnel who is capable to cope with EMERGENCY SITUATIONS i.e. minimise or eliminate (?) hazards which could jeopardise the health & safety of personnel and public (ACT 304 AELB)


Emergency Procedure
All radioactive materials and radiation generating machines are managed by means of strict controls of personnel and radiation sources.


Emergency Procedure

Breakdown of those means is the main element of emergency situations; other than that : fire, explosion, transport accidents or equipment failure


Emergency Procedure
Emergency procedure guiding principles
ensure that external exposure of the public and emergency crew are kept to the lowest practical amount be specific in relation to the equipment, radioactive substance in use, and possible modes of accident


Emergency Procedure
Emergency procedure on X-ray machine 2 forms of accident: machine unintentionally energised unaware entering irradiating area


Emergency Procedure
Actions to be taken (X-ray): Radiographer
switch-off machine instantly leave everything as it is ensure exposed persons to stay inform in charged personnel contact supervisor or safety officer


Emergency Procedure
Actions to be taken (X-ray): Supervisor
exclude exposed person(s) from work until exposure known seek assistance to assess dose (MINT) get film badge reading or other personnel monitoring devices (MINT) make full investigation


Emergency Procedure
Emergency procedure for radioactive source
Some failures mode
source separated from shutter source jammed in the guide tube Source incompletely retracted unaware entering irradiating area


Emergency Procedure


Emergency Procedure
Action to be taken (Radioactive source) : Radiographer
measure dose rate around the erected boundary; if necessary extend restrict access to barrier and intensified warning display Think and plan carefully detain exposed person in the barrier prepare further actions and emergency equipments inform person in charge attempt placing source into container Call for assistance


Emergency Procedure
Action to be taken (Radioactive source) : Radiation Protection Officer (RPO)
- if source in its container check shielding and fastener remove personnel in recovery team send film badge for assessment make full investigation


Emergency Procedure
Action to be taken (Radioactive source) : RPO (continued)
if source in its container check barrier to assess radiation exposure attempt to return source proceed actions when source in container


Emergency Procedure
Source not in use: - accident; container damaged
rescue personnel inform rescue team the present of radiation source survey incident location proceed appropriate actions


Emergency Procedure
Source not in use: - fire; radioisotope container
remove from the scene abandon, in worst case, inform fire fighting party proceed appropriate actions


Emergency Procedure
Source not in use: - stolen or missing
begin searching using detector inform Police, Supervisor & In-charged Person when not found if vehicle with a radioisotope missing, inform Police


Emergency Procedure
Source not in use: - lost during transportation
inform Police and Supervisor retrace route used if necessary carry out visual and instrumental searches


Emergency Procedure
Radiography Inspection Management Requirement
Employers responsibility to ensure each radiographer must possess a copy of emergency procedure Radiographer must be fully trained & equipped to take immediate action to prevent unnecessary panic.


Emergency Procedure
Radiography Inspection Employer
distribute copies of related document review/modify procedure provide emergency equipments supply contact information compiled emergency measure


Emergency Procedure
Radiography Inspection Radiographer
understand radiation protection criteria exercise good working practise execute proper procedures during accident update information on AELB regulation


Emergency Procedure
Maximum Permissible Times for Rescue Operation Involving Ir-192 and Co-60 sources
S o u rc e Ac tiv ity Ci 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 D o s e Ra te 1 m e te r (re m /h r) 0.48 O.96 2.40 4.80 9.60 24.00 48.00 1.32 2.64 6.60 13.20 26.40 66.00 132.00 Tim e a llo w e d in m in u te (s ) 120 60 25 12 6 2 1 46 23 9 4.6 2.3 0.9 0.4

Ir -192



Emergency Procedure
Emergency Equipment (Radioisotope) Emergency storage container (Lead Pot) Bags of lead shots Lead sheets Lead shielded semi-cylindrical tunnel Long tong (1 metre and 2 metre) Special survey meter with long handle Pliers, screwdriver, long-handled wire cutters Adjustable spanner or wrench, rope, hand lamp Equipment manual operation


Emergency Procedure

Ludlum Survey meter Model 77-3


Emergency Procedure

Typical tools used in emergency situation lead apron, lead shots bags, lead pot, long tong and guide tube collimator.


Emergency Procedure
Thats all