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CELL COMPARTMENTALIZATION

COMPARTMENTALISATION IN EUKARYOTIC CELLS


Cellular compartments in cell biology comprise all

of the closed parts within the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell, usually surrounded by a single or double lipid layer membrane.

Major compartments in eukaryotic cells are cytosol (gray), endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, nucleus, mitochondrion, endosome, lysosome, and peroxisome. These are isolated from rest of the cell by atleast one layer of membrane.

MAJOR CELLULAR COMPARTMENTS


The nuclear compartment comprising

the nucleus The intercisternal space Organelles The cytosol

LOCATION OF COMPARTMENTS

Characteristic distributions depend on interactions of the

organelles with the cytoskeleton and with one another. Golgi apparatus is located close to the nucleus, whereas the network of ER tubules extends from the nucleus throughout the entire cytosol. For protein synthesis, all the organs used for it are relatively near one another, the nucleolus makes the ribosomes which synthesize the proteins, the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) is near the nucleus as well. The Golgi body is also near the rough ER for packaging and redistributing.

FUNCTIONS
Isolation of important cell functions. Intracellular pH, different enzyme

systems, and other differences are isolated. This enables the cell to carry out different metabolic activities at the same time. Provides cell with functionally specialized aqueous spaces.

Continued.
Increases surface area. Compartmentalization allows

eukaryotic cells to perform otherwise incompatible chemical reactions simultaneously.

TOPOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANELLES

SPECIALISATION OF MEMBRANE FUNCTIONS


Development of thylakoid vesicles in proplastids. In the process of differentiating into chloroplasts,

specialized membrane patches form and pinch off from the inner membrane of the proplastid. The vesicles that pinch off form a new specialized compartment, the thylakoid, that harbors all of the chloroplast's photosynthetic machinery.

EVOLUTIONARY ORIGINS

DNA molecule is attached to an invagination of the

plasma membrane. Such an invagination could have rearranged to form an envelope around the DNA. This envelope is presumed to have eventually pinched off completely from the plasma membrane, producing a nuclear compartment surrounded by a double membrane. The nuclear compartment is topologically equivalent to the cytosol

MEMBRANE TRAFFICKING
Flow of membrane material between

endomembrane compartments and the plasmalemma Trafficking mainly by 3 mechanism - SIMPLE DIFFUSION
- FACILITATED DIFFUSION - ACTIVE TRANSPORT

SIMPLE DIFFUSION
Unassisted movement down the gradient Limited to small or nonpolar molecules. Ex:02 ,CO2 & lipids Exception: water molecules

FACILITATED DIFFUSION
Protein mediated movement down the

gradient Transport of large, polar molecules mediated by carrier proteins Ex: Na+ , K , Ca+2 , Cl- etc.

ACTIVE TRANSPORT
Protein-mediated movement Up the gradient May be powered by ATP hydrolysis, light

energy, electrochemical potential of an ion gradient Ex: ATP powered Na+/K+ pump.

VESICULAR TRANSPORT
RER to cis Golgi Modified in Golgi (glycosylation,

phosphorylation)
Sorted at trans Golgi network into
Lysosomal (endocytosis)
Regulated (exocytosis) constitutive (exocytosis)

Vesicle formation and transport


Capturing cargo molecules Vesicle coat

- clathrin - COPI - COPII Vesicle docking -Surface markers called SNAREs , attach with target molecule SNAREs and fusion of both membrane occurs.

EXOCYTOSIS
Cell releases intracellular molecules Molecules transportation by vesicles Vesicles fuses with plasma membrane 5 steps involved

EXOCYTOSIS STEPS
Vesicle trafficking Vesicle tethering Vesicle docking Vesicle priming Vesicle fusion

Final secretion by two process:


- Constitutive Secretion - continuous secretion - Regulated Secretion - secreted in response to a specific signal

ENDOCYTOSIS

Endocytosis is a process by

which cells absorb molecules (such as proteins) by engulfing them. It is used by all cells of the body because most substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane

Pathways for endocytic processes


Phagocytosis Pinocytosis Receptor-mediated endocytosis

Phagocytosis
Phagocytosis is the process of taking in particles such as

bacteria, parasites, dead host cells, and cellular and foreign debris by a cell. Phagocytosis occurs after the foreign body or a bacterial cell comes near a plasma membrane of the cell For example, it has bound to molecules called "receptors" that are on the surface of the phagocyte.

Cells that uses Phagocytosis


Several types of cells in the immune system engulf microorganisms via phagocytosis. Neutrophils. Neutrophils are abundant in the blood, quickly enter tissues, and phagocytize pathogens in acute inflammation. Macrophages. Macrophages are closely related to monocytes in the blood. These longer-lived cells predominate in chronic inflammation. They also release some important inflammatory paracrines. (See below.) Dendritic Cells. Phagocytosis in these cells is important for the elaboration of a specific immune response rather than for directly destroying the pathogens. B Lymphocytes. A small amount of phagocytosis in these cells is often necessary in order for them to develop into cells that release antibodies

Phagocytosis in

steps

Phagocytosis begins with the neutrophil or macrophage

flowing around the pathogen and engulfing it so that it winds up enclosed in a phagosome (phagocytic vesicle). The next step is the fusion of lysosomes with the phagosome. The result is called a phagolysosome. Killing of microbes within a phagolysosome. oxygen radicles in membrane of phagolysosome antimicrobial proteins in lysosomes Hydrogen ion transport The final step is release of molecules and unwanted molecules that comes insides the cell during ingestion

Pinocytosis
It is the process of engulfing the liquid food. It requires energy in the form of ATP It is primarily used for absorption of

Extracellular Fluids. In contrast to phagocytosis, generates very small vesicles. It is non- specific

Pinocytosis
In this, small particles are brought into the cell, forming an invagination, and then suspended within small vesicles (pinoc ytotic vesicles) that subsequently fuse with lysosomes to hydrolyze, or to break down, the particles

Receptor mediated endocytosis


Also called clathrin-dependent endocytosis, It is a process by which cells internalize molecules

(endocytosis) by the inward budding of plasma membrane vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being internalized. Mechanism-After the binding of a ligand to plasma membrane-spanning receptors, a signal is sent through the membrane, leading to membrane coating, and formation of a membrane invagination. The receptor and its ligand are then opsonized in clathrin-coated vesicles. Once opsonized, the clathrin-coated vesicle uncoats (a pre-requisite for the vesicle to fuse with other membranes) and individual vesicles fuse to form the early endosome

Function of RME
Used for the specific uptake of certain

substances required by the cell (examples include LDL(low density lipo-proteins via the LDL receptor or iron via transferrin). in the downregulation of transmembrane signal transduction. The activated receptor becomes internalised and is transported to late endosomes and lysosomes for degradation.

Transcytosis
Transcytosis occurs as membrane-bound carriers selectively transport materials between one part

of the cell and another in order to maintain unique environments on either side of the cell. Epithelial cells use transcytosis for immune defense, nutrient absorption, and plasma membrane biogenesis There are two types of transcytosis differing in mechanisms of vesicle formation and major proteins

Clathrin-Mediated Transcytosis
Clathrin, a protein located on both apical and basal surfaces of the epithelial cells, lines these vesicles. Clathrin-mediated transcytosis is a way for these cells to sort through the cargo of molecules entering the cell as one of the destinations of these vesicles is the Golgi. On the surface of the cell membrane, a pit forms from specific cell receptors that are coated by clathrin. The protein clathrins purpose is to stabilize the forming vesicle after the receptors have bound and begin to invaginate. Clathrin achieves this by forming a rigid matrix of an assembling of clathrin proteins, which can later disassemble after the vesicle has disassociated from the cell membrane. Vesicles attach to the endoplasmic reticulum before being "sorted" to either the apical or basal side of the cell.

Caveolae-Mediated Transcytosis
Endothelial cells, specialized epithelium that line blood vessels, utilize caveolaemediated transcytosis. Caveolae are pits in the apical and basal membranes of all endothelial cells, named for their small cave shape. The major structural component of caveolae, shown in Figure 1, is caveolin. These vesicles transport cargo, usually fluid, from the apical to basal or basal to apical surfaces of the cells. The caveolae can merge to create arrangements shown above (Figure 3), including a tunnel or channel, in order to move cargo to other side of cell