Anda di halaman 1dari 56

TATA UDARA: Sistem dan Komponen

Sistem Refrigerasi Kompresi Uap


shutoff valve

condenser solenoid valve suction line filter

access port

TXV
compressor liquid-line filter drier sight glass evaporator

Kompresor

Merupakan jantung dari sistem refrigerasi Digunakan untuk menaikkan tekanan dari uap refrigeran Juga berfungsi sebagai pompa untuk sirkulasi refrigeran ke sepanjang sistem pada suatu siklus yang kontinyu.

Kategori Kompresor

Positive displacement compressors Non-positive displacement compressors

Perbandingan kompresor

Kondenser

Digunakan untuk membuang panas Digunakan untuk mengembunkan refrigeran pada tekanan tinggi Jenis: air-cooled, water-cooled, evaporative

Air-cooled condenser
propeller fan

outdoor air condenser coil subcooler

Pengaruh subcooling
subcooling D pressure

C
DI AI

{
B
refrigeration effect

enthalpy

Centrifugal Fan Air-Cooled Condenser

condenser coil centrifugal fan

Evaporative Condenser
fan refrigerant vapor condenser coil

pump sump liquid refrigerant subcooler

Water-cooled Condenser
Uap refrigeran panas 95F
[35C]

Air pendingin

85F
[29C]

Cairan refrigeran, subcooled

subcooler

Cooling Tower
propeller fan spray

fill
Udara luar

sump 85F
[29C]

ke kondenser

dari kondenser

95F
[35C]

Pengontrolan kondenser

Kapasitas kondenser dipengaruhi oleh:


Beda temperatur antara refrigeran dan media pendingin Laju aliran media pendingin pada kondenser Laju aliran refrigeran pada kondenser

Kapasitas Kondenser
full load condenser heat rejection capacity full load pressure

part load

part load condenser heat rejection capacity

enthalpy

Pengontrolan Temperatur Kondensasi


Katup pengatur aliran

kondenser Pompa air kondenser

Variasi Laju Aliran Air

cooling tower

cooling tower

condenser diverting valve

variable-speed drive

bypass pipe

condenser

Variasi Temperatur Air Masuk


variablespeed drive

cooling tower

cooling tower

condenser diverting valve

bypass pipe

condenser

Cooling Tower Bypass

[4C]

40F

cooling tower
diverting valve 65F

bypass pipe
[13C]

55F

[18C]

condenser

Air-Cooled Condenser Control


damper

condenser airflow

fan A

fan B
fan A heat rejection capacity

Condenser Flooding Control


B C condenser

A liquid receiver

expansion valve evaporator

discharge line compressor

Evaporator

Berfungsi menguapkan refrigeran Digunakan menarik kalor dari lingkungan Jenis: finned-tube, shell-and-tube, shell-and-coil, plate

Finned-Tube Evaporator
liquid/vapor refrigerant

airflow

refrigerant vapor

Finned-Tube Evaporator
liquid/vapor refrigerant

airflow liquid distributor

suction header

refrigerant vapor

Finned-Tube Evaporator: Superheat


B A

B A
C

superheat

Shell-and-Tube Evaporator
chilled water supply chilled water return

baffles

refrigerant vapor liquid/vapor refrigerant tube bundle

Shell-and-Tube Evaporator

baffles

Pengontrolan Evaporator

Kapasitas evaporator dipengaruhi oleh:


Beda temperatur antara refrigeran dan udara atau air yang akan didinginkan Laju aliran udara atau air pada evaporator Laju aliran refrigeran pada evaporator

Finned-Tube Evaporator Control

expansion valve evaporator liquid refrigerant refrigerant vapor

Konfigurasi Evaporator
distributors

Konfigurasi Evaporator
80F

[27C]

55F

[13C]

[27C]

80F

30F

[-1.1C]

Konfigurasi Evaporator

Konfigurasi Evaporator

Konfigurasi Evaporator
70F
[21C]

[27C]

80F

55F

[13C]

Kontrol Shell-and-tube Evaporator


shell-and-tube evaporator

refrigerant vapor liquid refrigerant

expansion valve

Alat Ekspansi

D pressure expansion device

condenser

compressor

evaporator

enthalpy

Thermostatic Expansion Valve


thermostatic expansion valve (TXV) liquid refrigerant liquid/vapor mixture

evaporator

A refrigerant vapor

Kontrol TXV

liquid refrigerant liquid/vapor mixture A refrigerant vapor

Kontrol TXV

liquid refrigerant liquid/vapor mixture

Superheat
85 psia, 41F
[0.59 MPa, 5C]

TXV liquid refrigerant 290 psia, 109F


[2 MPa, 42.8C] 2000 kPa 20 bar(e)

A
superheated vapor

Superheat
85 psia, 41F
[0.59 MPa, 5C]

TXV

79 psia
[9.4C]

290 psia, 109F


[2 MPa, 42.8C]

49F

[0.54 MPa]

Cara kerja TXV


diaphragm

evaporator

spring remote bulb

suction line

external equalizer

distributor

Cara kerja TXV


valve diaphragm
[0.67 MPa]

97 psia

[94C]

49F

spring

79 psia suction line

[0.54 MPa]

79 psia

18 psi

[0.54 MPa]

[0.13 MPa]

valve pin

Cara kerja TXV


external equalizer TXV

remote bulb

Pengaturan Superheat

Superheat terlalu kecil:

Resiko kompresor rusak akibat adanya cairan refrigeran masuk kompresor

Superheat terlalu besar:

Efisiensi sistem turun Pembekuan koil Resiko kerusakan kompresor karena overheating

Asesori Sistem Refrigerasi


Solenoid valve Liquid-Line Filter Drier Moisture-Indicating Sight Glass Suction Line Filter Hot Gas Muffler Shutoff Valve Access Port

Solenoid Valve

Solenoid Valve
expansion valve finned-tube evaporator

solenoid valves

Solenoid Valve

liquid line condenser

discharge line

expansion valve evaporator suction line

compressor

solenoid valve

Filter Drier
liquid line

liquid-line filter drier

expansion valve

solenoid valve evaporator

Filter Drier
replaceable core type

core

sealed type

Sight Glass
liquid line

sight glass

expansion valve

Suction Line Filter

suction line filter

compressor

suction line

Suction Line Filter


replaceable core type

sealed type

Hot Gas Muffler


discharge line

reciprocating compressor

hot gas muffler shell

perforated tube

Shutoff Valve
shutoff valve liquid line condenser

shutoff valve

liquid-line filter drier


evaporator compressor

shutoff valves

Access Port

condenser
liquid line access port evaporator

compressor suction line access ports