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Basic USIT Interpretation

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How good is the USIT?

Client: Do I a good cement job

Engineer:????
Cement placement - zone isolation Cement coverage - channels Cement compressive strength Cement to casing bond Cement to formation bond Gas filled micro-annulus Liquid filled micro-annulus Top of cement (TOC) Cement composition (gaseous, contaminated)

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How good is the USIT?

Engineer:
Cement placement - zone isolation Cement coverage - channels Cement compressive strength Cement to casing bond Cement to formation bond Gas filled micro-annulus Liquid filled micro-annulus Top of cement (TOC) Cement composition (gaseous, contaminated)

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USIT-CBL-VDL
Bond Index USIT Impedance Image
Gas Liquid Channels

CBL Bond Index


Very low Very low Medium

Interpretation

CBL & USIT agree

Free gas Free pipe Channels in good cement. Good cement Liquid microannulus. Fast formations.

USIT shows more cement

Cement Cement

High Low / medium

Formation / 2nd casing reflection.


Z slightly above ZTCM* CBL shows more cement Medium Mixed light / heavy cement.

Gas Z about same as ZTCM* Patches or streaks

Medium High / medium High / medium / low

Gas microannulus. Gaseous cement.

Light cement

* ZTCM = USIT Cement Impedance Threshold


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How good is the USI-CBL/VDL?

Engineer:
Cement placement - zone isolation Cement coverage - channels Cement compressive strength Cement to casing bond Cement to formation bond Gas filled micro-annulus Liquid filled micro-annulus Cement thickness Top of cement (TOC) Cement composition (gaseous, contaminated)

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USI Interpretation Examples


Formation reflections
Secondary signals

Special casings Casing rugosity Micro-annulus Casing shape

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USIT Job
Formation reflections:
The T3 processing is deliberately short to minimize contamination by reflections. Formation reflections are to be significant when:
1. The 3rd interface is smooth and provides a large impedance contrast with the cement (i.e., double string or

hard formation).
2. The annulus is thin or the process window is long. 3. The cement is of high density and well set. It will have high acoustic velocity and low attenuation.

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USIT Job, cont.


Galaxy Patterns:
They are formation/casing reflections that have characteristic pattern of interference fringes on the cement map.
Due to the constructive or destructive signal interference the apparent impedance is respectively reduced or increased resulting in fringes oriented parallel to the casing and centered on the narrowest part of the cement sheath.

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Galaxy patterns

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USIT Job, cont.


Special Casing Types

Alloyed steel casing:


In stainless and high alloy the acoustic velocity can vary up to +/- 5% causing
1. A small effect on measured cement impedance (0 - 0.5 Mrayl). 2. An error in casing thickness of up to +/- 5%.

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USIT Job, cont.


Special Casing Types, cont.

Fiberglass casing:
This casing cannot be evaluated by the USIT at this time. Why not?
Fiberglass has a much lower acoustic velocity and density than steel, so its acoustic impedance is much lower than steel and similar to neat cement. The casing cannot resonate and the T3 processing is not suitable for evaluating the thickness or cementation.

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USIT Job, cont.


Special Casing Types, cont.

Protective coatings:
They change the effective impedance in contact with the casing, preventing a cement impedance measurement, but a thickness measurement should be possible.

Special equipment:
Scratchers, centralizers, external casing packers, dump valves and collars affect the measurement.
The change in effective thickness means T3 parameters are out of range.

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USIT Job, cont.


Casing shape, rugosity etc., cont.

Rugosity:
Internal rugosity reduces the initial reflection, reducing the measured impedance causing gas effect. External rugosity damps the resonance and increases the measured impedance.

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Highly corroded casing

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USIT Job, cont.


Casing shape, rugosity etc., cont.

Cleanliness:
Deposits on the inner diameter will change the measured impedance.

Micro-annulus:
A small fluid-filled gap between casing and cement. This causes a reduction in measured impedance. Gas micro annulus is seen as Gas...

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Cement inside casing

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USIT Job, cont.


Casing shape, rugosity etc.

Shape:
Welded casing may cause the appearance of a vertical line on the amplitude and impedance maps, and, in extreme cases, on the radius and thickness maps.

Seamless:
Generally have thickness variations of around 10%, the inner diameter causing the variation in profile. Typical problems are eccentered bore and bore ovality causing a reduced measured impedance. Non parallel surface (inner and outer diameter) causes a reduction in resonant energy, and hence, an increased measured impedance.

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Casing shape effects

10

Track 5 Internal Radius Image and Track 7 Thickness Image show one joint of casing at 2600 feet in a newly completed well where the image patterns differ indicating that this joint was manufactured by a separate milling process.
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