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Summary Sheet

Session Number : 2 Date : 13.03.2007 Subject Expert :

Dr. M.C. Nataraja


Professor Department of Civil Engineering,

S.J. College of Engineering,


Mysore 570 006. Phone:0821-2343521, 9880447742 E-mail: nataraja96@yahoo.com

Detailing of Steel in Footings


Learning Outcomes:
After this students will be able to do the detailing of different types of isolated footings through drawing and bar bending schedule.

Detailing of Steel in Footings


Footings
The function of a footing or a foundation is to transmit the
load form the structure to the underlying soil.

The choice of suitable type of footing depends on the depth at


which the bearing strata lies, the soil condition and the type of superstructure.

Types of footing
Following are the different types of footing used for concrete structure Isolated footing Combined footings

Strap footing
Mat or raft foundation Pile foundation

Isolated footings
Isolated footings are provided under each column and may

be square, rectangular, or circular in plan. Footing may be


flat or tapered.

Combined footings
PROPERTY LINE

COMBINED FOOTING

COMBINED FOOTING

RECTANGULAR AND TRAPEZOIDAL TYPES

Combined footings
Combined footings are provided to support two or more column loads. These may be continuous with rectangular or trapezoidal in plan as shown. Combined footings become necessary under the following circumstances:

when the isolated footings overlap.


when the exterior column is close to the property line with the result symmetrical isolated footing can not be

provided.

Strap footing
Strap footing is one of the types of combined types of combined. It consists of an isolated footing of two columns connected by a beam called strap beam. The strap beam does not remain in contact with the soil and thus does not transfer any load to the soil. This is provided when one of the columns is on the property line.
PROPERTY LINE

STRAP BEAM STRAP FOOTING

Mat foundation The is provided when the soil is having very low bearing capacity and or when columns loads are heavy, the required footing area becomes very large and uneconomical.

MAT FOUNDATION

Detailing
Size of footing Depth at footing Depth of footing edge Nominal and effective cover d/2 BM2 BM1

OWS

Development length
Minimum and maximum steel Spacing of bars and stirrups TWS d

PLAN

Detailing of steel in rectangular footing as per IS:456-2000


Reinforcement Long and short direction In short direction larger steel area is needed in the central portion and is given by

A 2 st , central band (L/ B) 1 A st , total , short direction


Reminder of the steel in end bands Development length= Ldt= f s . s
4

Ldt = 47s for M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel

bd

PROBLEM
An isolated footing is to be provided for a column of section 400 mm x 400 mm. The following details re given: Height of the column =3m Main reinforcement in column = 4 Nos. 16 mm diameter. Transverse reinforcement = 6 mm at 220 mm c/c Plan size of footing = 2.7 m x 2.7 m Depth of footing at column face = 500 mm Depth of footing at edge = 150 mm

Depth of foundation = 1000 mm

Isolated footing Contd..


Footing reinforcement = a mesh of 20 mm diameter steel at 250 mm c/c.

Grade of concrete= M20


Grade of steel = Fe415 Draw to a suitable scale the following: Plan Sectional Elevation Prepare bar bending schedule 20 Marks

Solution:
Development length in tension = 47 = 47 x 16= 752 mm Depth at junction = 500 mm

Leg length available for column bars = Ldt 500 = 252 mm < 300 mm.
Provide 300 mm minimum. Development length of 20 mm bars in footing = 47 x 20 = 940 mm This is provided by the horizontal projection of bars. Bars need not be bent at ends in to the depth of footing.

Number of bars in footing = 11 Numbers at 200 mm c/c with a side cover of 100 mm. Width of footing= 10 x 250 + 100 x 2 =2700 mm Follow all specification of SP 34 and prepare the drawing

Square footing
400
CROSS SECTION 400 4- #16

3000 mm

GROUND LEVEL 4- #16 #6@220

27 00

DEPTH OF FOUNDATION 500 mm Ldt L dc

#20@250

27 00

150 min. 75 Ldt 75 SECTIONAL ELEVATION 300 min. LEVELLING COURSE PL AN

Rectangular footing
400

300
CROSS SECTION

GROUND LEVEL DEPTH OF FOUNDATION 500 mm 6- #20 #8@200

#16@200
Ldt L dc

75 75 Ldt 75

300 min. LEVELLING COURSE PLAN

SECTIONAL ELEVATION

PLAN

Rectangular footing
300

CROSS SECTION 320 0

GROUND LEVEL DEPTH OF FOUNDATION 500 mm Ldt 75 75 Ldt 75 SECTIONAL ELEVATION L dc 6- #20 #8@200 #16@200

220 0

300 min. LEVELLING COURSE EB CB= 2200 PLAN EB

Column steel detailing


48tr

75

> 75

Column steel detailing


> 48tr
48tr > 48tr > 75

> 75

> 75

> 75

Column steel detailing


> 48tr

tr

48tr

75

Detailing with dowel bars


Pu/bD < 0.45fck A1/A2
A1=bxD

2Df 2:1

Df

A2= [b+4Df] x [D+4Df}

Detailing with dowel bars


DEPTH OF FOUNDATION 500 mm

LAP

Dowel bars or starter bars


#16@200

Ldt
75 75 75

L dc
300 min.

Ldt
SECTIONAL ELEVATION

LEVELLING COURSE

Bar bending schedule


For exercise problem For footing only
Length in m/piece

Member Mark

No. of bars

Diameter in mm

Total length in m
#20

Bar details

Remarks

Footing

A B

11 11

20 20

2.55 2.55

28.05 28.05 56.10 2.45 137.45

#20@250 #20@250

Total length in m/diameter Weight in kg/m Total weight in kg/diameter

Estimation of quantity of concrete


Volume of concrete = L x B x D L= length in m B=Breadth in m D=Thickness in m Apply for rectangular and trapezoidal part Weight of concrete, kg = Volume x density