Anda di halaman 1dari 82

Unit 6 Part II Prelude to World War

Mr. Klein Spring 2013 Hillel Academy

The Rise of Dictators


Totalitarianism:

Theory of government in which a single party or leader controls the economic, social, and cultural lives of its people.

Only one political party is allowed to exist. Dictator is the leader of this party, and party helps run the country

No elections are held - Dictator does not allow people to choose who they want to run their country

One person - the Dictator holds all of the power in the country

Totalitarian Regime

Rely upon a strong and loyal army to maintain power

Education and the media (newspapers, radio, film etc) are strictly controlled by the Government

Persecution of anyone opposed to the Dictator

I. Lead up to War in EUROPE

Economic Hardship Increases Appeal For Dictators

In Germany, depression = increase in votes for Nazi Party.


Election date May 20, 1928 September 14, 1930 July 31, 1932 November 6, 1932 March 5, 1933 Votes in millions 0.81 6.41 13.75 11.74 17.28 Share 2.6% 18.3% 37.3% 33.1% 43.9%

Voting for Nazi party increased as unemployment rates rose

We already know of one dictator

Came to power in 1933 NOT the first totalitarian ruler leading up to WWII

First Totalitarian Regime: Italy


Italy is economic mess after WWI huge war debts
Fascist Party forms in 1919 Made up of dissatisfied veterans Appointed Prime Minister in 1922 after threatening to march on Rome

Creates dictatorship (suspend elections, outlaw other parties) to create order and efficiency Benito Mussolini (Il Duce)

Fascist Ideology
State over individual. Government does not own business, but uses power to control property owners. Citizens are expected to support the government. Everything serves the government: businesses, schools, the media.

War is GLORIOUS The Country is Nothing Without Conquest


Restore Glory of Roman Empire

First Conquest: Ethiopia


Mussolini invades in 1935 Italian colonies of Eritrea and Somalia being raided Mussolini believes Ethiopian govt responsible. Both Italy and Ethiopia in L.O.N.!! No response by L.O.N. Signifies the end of L.O.N. having any meaningful influence

Germany and Italy Join Forces


Sign Pact of Steel in 1936:
Germany and Italy form an axis around which all European states animated by the desire for peace may collaborate

Become known as Axis Powers


Later joined by Japan

Germany Re-arms
Began even before Hitler
Weimar govt begins secretly building military Felt conditions of Versailles unfair no one else disarmed

Hitler drastically expands effort to re-arm


Military production = relief from depression (jobs) Prepare for coming war to implement plans for German racial state

Germany Re-arms
1933 Army secretly expands to 300,000 Luftwaffe secretly builds 1,000 planes Builds tanks 1935 Germany goes public about rearming Conscripts army to 550,000 Luftwaffe to 2,400 planes NO ONE INTERVENES GB implicitly approves violations by making naval treaty allowing GER to have more ships than treaty allows

Early German Expansion


Germany reoccupies Rhineland in March 1936

Early German Expansion


Germany reoccupies Rhineland in March 1936 Germany annexes Austria in March 1938
Big gamble Why???

Direct Violations of Treaty of Versailles!!


Hitler is betting no European powers will oppose him to avoid another war his army not ready to fight Consistent with Ethnic Self-Determination

Hitler is CORRECT

Munich Conference (Sept 1938)


Germany next demands Sudetenland (area of CZ with large Germanic pop.)

Munich Conference (Sept 1938)


Germany next demands Sudetenland (area of CZ with large Germanic pop.) World leaders (GB, FR, IT and GER) meet in Munich
Neville Chamberlin GB Prime Minister douard Daladier FR Prime Minister Hitler Mussolini

Munich Conference

Mussolini, Hitler, Daladier (FR), Chamberlin (GB)

Munich Conference
Germany next demands Sudetenland (area of CZ with large Germanic pop.) World leaders (GB, FR, IT and GER) meet in Munich Who is missing??

NO REPRESENTATIVE FROM CZECHOSLOVAKIA!!

Munich Agreement
GB and FR agree to let Hitler have Sudetenland IF he agrees to stop expanding Called policy of Appeasement Hitler agrees

Appeasement is a complete failure


Hitler takes rest of CZ in March 1939

Reaction to Appeasement
Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war.
Winston Churchill Member of Parliament (future PM)

Germany Demands Polish Corridor


After taking CZ, Hitler demands annexation of Polish Corridor including city of Danzig

German Expansion Through 1939

Italian Expansion Through 1939

Germany Demands Polish Corridor


After taking CZ, Hitler demands annexation of Polish Corridor including city of Danzig

GB and FR make war guarantee to defend Poland if GER attacks


Hitler responds by entering Non-Aggression Pact with USSR to divide Poland
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact Guarantees Hitler NO 2 Front War (like WWI was) Odd alliance GER extremely Anti-Communist Hitler: USSR leaders are an International Guild of Criminals

Soviet Union
Stalin succeeds Lenin as leader of Soviet Union Ruthless leader in quest to industrialize USSR Starves rural population to feed cities Imprisons all political opponents
Joseph Stalin

Uneasy Allies

Uneasy Allies

Uneasy Allies

Germany Invades Poland


With no fear of USSR intervening, GER attacks POL on September 1,1939 Unleashes blitzkrieg
Lightning War Move fast and get behind enemy lines Use tanks, planes and motorized transports rather than marching troops in slowly AVOID TRENCH WARFARE!!!

GB and FR declare war on Sept 3, 1939

Germany Invades Poland

Germany Invades Poland

Germany Invades Poland

Germany Invades Poland

Germany Invades Poland

Poland Surrenders
Per Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, USSR invades Western Poland on September 17, 1939 Campaign ends October 6, 1939 (just over a month) GER and USSR divide up Poland

Poland Surrenders

Sitzkrieg
After Poland falls, Germans mobilize near French border

After WWI, France builds HUGE defensive fortifications along German Border
Called Maginot Line Large investment of money and resources meant to prevent GER attack

Nothing happens for 6 months


Phony War 23 GER Divisions occupy 114 GB and FR Divisions

Maginot Line

Ardennes Forest

Maginot Line

Maginot Line

Phony War Ends


After Winter, GER renews attacks April 9, 1940 GER attacks Denmark and Norway May 10, 1940 GER attacks Netherlands and Belgium on way to France
Maginot Line ineffective (attack through Ardennes) All three countries overwhelmed quickly Germany takes Paris on June 14, 1940 France then surrenders

Vichy France
After FR surrenders, country divided
North controlled by Germany South sovereign French land

Southern Govt known as Vichy govt


Not same French govt New constitution and new leaders

Collaborate with Nazis, but LARGE resistance movement exists (civil war) DISBANDED Once Allies liberate Paris in 1944

Battle of Britain
July 1940 - After taking FR GER begins aerial bombing of GB
Need to control skies to launch invasion of island Massive destruction to England via bombing

British RAF mounts strong opposition to Luftwaffe

Luftwaffe cannot win air superiority


Hitler abandons invasion of GBfor now.

Hitler Breaks Non-Aggression Pact


With invasion of GB on hold, Hitler looks East Launches Operation Barbarossa in June 1941
Invasion of USSR No fear of 2 fronts since Fortress Europa gained

Hitler Breaks Non-Aggression Pact


With invasion of GB on hold, Hitler looks East Launches Operation Barbarossa in June 1941
Invasion of USSR No fear of 2 fronts since Fortress Europa gained

Successful at first

Hitler Breaks Non-Aggression Pact


With invasion of GB on hold, Hitler looks East Launches Operation Barbarossa in June 1941
Invasion of USSR No fear of 2 fronts since Fortress Europa gained

Successful at first Held up by USSR just shy of Moscow


Winter sets in Nazis fail to take Stalingrad next summer BLOODY combat huge loss of troops by both

II. Lead up to War in Pacific

Modernization of Japan
1850s Japan begins to modernize
Ironic that US action begins this process Japan does not want to be dominated by Europe (like China and other East Asian nations).

Wants to become imperial


Creates modern (Western) military

US Isolationism

Japanese Military BEFORE 1850

Japanese Military in 1930s

Modernization of Japan
1850s Japan begins to modernize
Ironic that US action begins this process Japan does not want to be dominated by Europe (like China and other East Asian nations).

Creates modern (Western) military

Also modernizes ECONOMICALLY


Introduce Capitalism and begin Industrialization

Modernization Leads to Imperialism


Japan faces two challenges Both caused by limited size of islands:
1. Lack of natural resources for industry (especially fuel). 2. Lack of space for expanding population

Japan thus believes it NEEDS new lands

Wants to be IMPERIAL

Japanese Leadership
Japan technically ruled by Emperor Emperor Hirohito In reality, Japan largely controlled by the military in 1930s and 1940s

General Hideki Tojo


Prime Minister during WWII

Japan Expands
Sino-Japanese War (1885) Japan takes colony of Korea from China (coal, iron, location)

Russo-Japanese War (1905) Japan gains Southern Manchuria (open land, minerals) Invasion of Manchuria (1931) - Japan takes all of Manchuria
Violates Open Door Policy Condemned by LON But LON has no ability to stop them Second Sino-Japanese War (1937) Japan seizes Mongolia

Japan Expands

Japan Expands (Cont.)


Once FR and HOL defeated, Japan sees opportunity to expand more
Negotiate treaty with Vichy govt for French Indochina (Vietnam, Thailand, Burma) Move in to seize Dutch East Indies

US Objects: Imposes harsh economic sanctions


Stops US Oil Exports/ Freezes JP assets/ closes Panama Canal to JP Japan NEEDS this fuel for economy

III. US Isolationism

US Isolationism
US committed to staying out of war: European Problem Depression Fatigue from WWI Pass Neutrality Acts Neutrality Act of 1937 No loans to warring nations No war supplies sold cash and carry for two years for nonwar supplies

Roosevelt and Isolationism


Roosevelt disagrees with isolationism If all allies fall, we are alone to fight GER, IT, JP Cash and carry expanded in 1939 war supplies OK Destroyers for Bases Deal (Sept 1940)

Trade 50 old destroyers for 8 GB military bases


Frees up modern ships, men and resources for GB - Gives buffer to US

Small Moves to Prepare for War


In 1940, US begins to slowly prepare in case of war:
Authorize doubling size of Navy Increase production of weapons (tanks, guns, planes, etc.) Institute first peace-time draft

Great Arsenal of Democracy


Speech in Dec 1940 FDR declares the US will support GB while it still is possible to do so Must ramp up production of military supplies BUT REMEMBER Neutrality Laws still mean cash and carry. Govt begins to direct economy for war production

Lend Lease and Shoot on Sight


Lend Lease Act (March 1941) US can lend or lease materials to any country FDR deems vital to our own defense We deliver $54 billion of materials Have to escort with navy (Neutrality Patrols) Shoot on Sight Order (Sept 1941)

USS Greer (escorting supplies) fired upon by German sub


Roosevelt gives order that naval escorts may shoot German subs that threaten them or the supply ships

US enters the War!

Damage at Pearl Harbor


2,300 die 1,300 wounded

Pacific Fleet DECIMATED


18 ships sunk (5 battleships) many more damaged

75% of US planes destroyed or damaged


Japan loses only 25 airplanes BUT Aircraft Carriers NOT in Harbor