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VISCO ELASTICITY 1.

INTRODUCTION
2.VARIOUS TESTS a. CREEP b. STRESS RUPTURE c. STRESS RELAXATION

3. DESIGN AGAINST CREEP

1. INTRODUCTION:
The time dependent material behavior is often referred to as viscoelasticity.

TWO TYPES: 1.Linear 2.nonlinear viscoelasticity:

In general, for stress , the creep compliance D(t) can be given as the ratio of strain to stress at a certain time. D(t) = e(t) / This property is often characterized as linear viscoelasticity. The strain range in which a specimen is linear viscoelastic can be determined by a creep test. A transition from linear to nonlinear viscoelasticity is shown in Figure 9.

2.VISCOELASTICITY: DETERMINATION TESTS 1. CREEP TEST : -Constant stress- strain variationlarge test period (2000-10,000h)

2. STRESS RUPTURE TEST: -High range constant loads


- Short term(<1000h)

3. STRESS RELAXATION TEST


-Fixed strain - strss decreasing

1. CREEP
It is a time- dependent deformation under a tensile load.
Generally occurs at high temperature (thermal creep), but can also happen at room temperature in certain materials (e.g. lead or glass), albeit much slower. As a result, the material undergoes a time dependent increase in length, which could CAUSE failure while in service.

Components, sub to creep Gas turbine blades, furnaces, pressure vessels engine for example creep of a turbine blade will cause the blade to contact the casing, resulting in the failureof the blade

TYPICAL CREEP TEST

The creep curve

A typical creep curve shows three distinct stages with different creep rates. After an initial rapid elongation o, the creep rate decrease with time until reaching the steady state.

1) Primary creep provides- decreasing creep rate.


2) Secondary creep -gives the representing constant creep rate. 3) Tertiary creep yields a rapid creep rate till failure.

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND STRESS ON CREEP RATE:

T1<T2<T3<T4 1<2<3<4

Recovery of Strain after Unloading

After unloading, some of the strain is recovered, but an appreciable plastic strain has become permanent.

DESIGN AGAINST CREEP CREEP RESISTANCE FACTORS: Strategy I: Employ materials of high melting temperatures. High melting point alloys normally has high creep resistance.

Ex- metallic materials- stainless steels,


Refractory metals- tungsten, Molybdenim, tantalum..

Super alloys- Cobalt alloys, Niclel alloys, Iron alloys.. alloyong elements(Tn, Mo, Ta)

Strategy II: Obstruct the motion of dislocations. Creep life could be extended by obstructing the motion of dislocations. This could be done in a number of ways: -Solid solution additions: to eliminate vacancies (major effect) - Second Phase Particles: The effect of second phase particles can pin the dislocations and in so doing reduce the rate of creep. (major effect)

Strategy III: Obstruct diffusional flow.


Diffusional flow can be retarded by: Increase the grain size-Use of single crystal material

Case Study I: Turbine Blade The efficiency of gas turbines increases as the operation temperature increases. Today engines operate at temperatures as high as 1400oC. The temperature of the turbine blades reach 850oC. The alloy from which the blades are made must meet very tough requirements: -Resistance to creep -Resistance to high-temperature oxidation. -High strength and toughness -Thermal fatigue resistance -Thermal stability -Low density Modern blades are made out of very sophisticated Ni-superalloys which are prepared by investment casting.

Effect of solid solution and second phase particles

Effect of grain size

2.STRESS RUPTURE TESTS


Determines the time necessary for material to result in failure under a overload. Useful in materials selection where dimensional tolerances are acceptable, but rupture cannot be tolerated. Generally performed at elevated temperatures. Smooth, notched, flat specimens or samples of any combination can be tested

Creep vs. Stress Rupture Test

3. Stress relaxation ( constant strain)


Stress relaxation is defined as a gradual decrease in stress with time under a constant deformation or strain

Stress relaxation test can be used for some practical applications. For example, low stress relaxation is desired for threaded bottle closures.

The stress data obtained from stress relaxation test can be used to calculate transient modulus for plastics design by simply dividing the stress at a particular time by the applied strain.

CONCLUSION
Understanding of Viscoelasticity and various tests creep resistance factors, grain size, solid solutions.. have been analysed Cerep analysis applied to turbine blade to increase the life.