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Farmers Suicides in Vidarbha

By
Dr. Sangita Warade
Objectives
1. To study the socio- economic characteristics of
the farmers suicided in Vidarbha
2. To study the income and expenditure pattern of
the farmers suicided in Vidarbha
3. To identify the factors responsible for the
suicide of the farmers.
Different Reports on Farmer’s Suicides
Sr.
Report By
No
1 Welfare Subsystem for the Karnataka. Deshpande2002

2 Market Imperfections and Farmers’ Distress in Mohanty and Shroff


Maharashtra-Oct 2003. Gokhale Institue of Politics and Economics
Submitted to :- Agro-economic Research Centre,
3 Causes of Farmers Suicides in Maharashtra: Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Osmanabad
An Enquiry March-2005 Submitted to:- Mumbai High Court
4 Suicide of Farmers in Maharashtra Shrijit Mishra, Indira Gandhi Institute of
–Jan 2006 Development Research.
Submitted to:- Maharashtra Government.
5 Circumstances in which Farmers Committed H.R.Rajput
suicide in Buldhana district of Vidarbha Dr.PDKV, Akola
Region.-Feb –2006(Seminar Report)
6 A Study on the Distressed Marginal Farmers Savitri Jyotirao Samajikarya Mahavidyalaya ,
in the Suicide affected villages of Western Yavatmal
Vidarbha Zone -Feb-06
7 National Commission on Farmers- Fourth M.S. Swaminathan
Report
Causes and Recommendations of Different Reports

1. Welfare Subsystem for the Karnataka


Recommendations:
Creation of Farmers Welfare Fund and Security System for aged farmers and awareness of the
harmful effects of alcohol consumption etc.

2. Market Imperfections and Farmers’ Distress in Maharashtra


Causes:
The macro as well as the micro level analysis indicates that market imperfection in process of
causing loss of agricultural income for the farmers have created economic hardship for them.
Such hardship pushes the farmers to distressful conditions when crop fails owing to bad weather
or adverse agro-climatic conditions and consequenent indebtness to informal agencies .
Recommendations:
1.Creation of Awareness among the farmers about their duties, obligations and responsibilities
toward their family, community and society at large
2. Dissemination of the Insecticide Resistance Management (INM) strategies for Cotton.
3.Public and Private agencies must ensure the purity and distribution of seed to interior villages.
4.National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) must be encouraged.
5. Private Sector must be allowed to develop agricultural markets as it will improve market
infrastructure and reduce market imperfections
6. Cotton Federation should operate in competition with private traders regarding the cotton
prices and should avoid delay in payment. .
Causes and Recommendations of Different Reports
continue….

3. Causes of Farmers Suicides in Maharashtra: An Enquiry


Causes:
1.Heavy indebtedness
2.Mismatch of Cost of Cultivation and Minimum Support Prices
3. Overuse of Fertilizers and pesticides and use of Genetically Modified seeds(GM)
4. Increase in number of small farmers (land holdings problem)
5. Private moneylending
6.Rainfed Agriculture.
7. Lack to access the information
8. 80 % victims didn’t received any compensation from government
9. Absence of safety net
Major three:- Repeated crop failure, rising cost of cultivation and indebtness .
Recommendations:
1.Immediate recommendations are:- payment of 2.5 lakh to victim families, investigation of
circumstances, creation of safety net covering the assurance of minimum life support system for the
cultivator and their production system, provision of facility of e-network for getting information,
2. Long-term Solutions are :- Rehabilitation of the system, policies focusing farmers, policies to
support the marginal and small farmers, polices supporting crop cultivation and price support policies.
Minimum Support Prices should match up with cost of cultivation, creation of safety net for cultivators
and their families. Setting up commission for taking decisions on issues of Genetically Modified
Technology and its impact on agriculture. Commission for issue of irrigation schemes in terms of surface
and groundwater irrigation.
Causes and Recommendations of Different Reports
continue….

4. Suicide of Farmers in Maharashtra


Causes:
1. Indebtness
2. Higher Cost of Cultivation
3. Deterioration of economic status
4. Conflict with other family members
5. Crop failure.
6. Burden of marriages.
7. Addictions
8. Disputes with neighbours
9. Health problems
Recommendations:
Revitalize rural financial market, Regulation of private moneylenders, finance through Self
Help Groups. Crop Insurance, Water management, Land management, diversification, revive of
extension, improvement in input quality, organic farming, Integrated Pest Management should
be encouraged, Increase in Import Tariff, Price Stabilization, Reduction in use of pesticides,
Creation of Helplines, reduction in social expenditures
Causes and Recommendations of Different Reports
continue….

5. Circumstances in which Farmers Committed suicide in Buldhana district of Vidarbha Region


Causes:
Circumstances are interlinked and not a particular cause is responsible.

Recommendations:
1.Farmer should adopt recommended cropping pattern.
2. Conservation of water and rainwater harvesting need to be done.
3. Diversification is must
4.Reduction in use of Chemicals (insecticides and fertilizer)
5. Cooperative Farming is recommended.
6.Federation and monopoly cotton procurement scheme should give advance payment for
cotton cultivation.
7. Infrastructural development is need to be developed.
Causes and Recommendations of Different Reports
continue….

6. A Study on the Distressed Marginal Farmers in the Suicide affected villages of Western
Vidarbha Zone

Causes:
81 Reasons are given regarding to Lack of Land Management, Seed and sowing methods
problems, adverse economic condition, Lack of Resources management, Social problems, lack
of Human Resources Management, lack of Training and Incidental events.

Recommendations:
1.Arrangement of trainings and demonstrations at village level
2. Give solutions/demonstrations directly on the farm of the marginal farmers
3.Encourage the supplementary farm enterprises
4. Major emphasis was given on soil and water conservation, watershed development,
cropping pattern and diversification
Causes and Recommendations of Different Reports
continue….

7. National Commission on Farmers- Fourth Report

Recommendations:
Land Use, soil health enhancements, augmentation of area under
irrigation coupled with efficiency in water use, credit and insurance
reform, technology upgradation and dissemination, Market
development with supporting infrastructure, health and livelihood
security of farm population
Methodology

• Area of Study : Out of total 11 districts the


7district(Buldhana, Akola, Washim, Amravati, Yeotmal,
Wardha and Nagpur) of Vidarbha are selected for the study.
The Bhandara, Gondia, Chandrapur and Gadchiroli have
negligible cases of suicides and sample is not sufficient for
analysis. So these four district are not included in analysis
• Total Sample size:- 205 farmers suicide cases are
considered (Male = 199 and Female=6)
• Data Collection Period :2005-06
Actual Number of Farmers Suicide Cases

Sr. No Districts Numbers of Numbers of Farmer’s


Farmer’s Suicide considered by
Suicide till govt for genuine
sept 2006 reason
1 Buldhana 504 186

2 Akola 308 185

3 Washim 300 179

4 Amravati 570 231

5 Wardha 277 118

6 Yeotmal 815 400

Vidarbha 2774 1299

Source: www.vnss-mission.gov.in , 6 districts of state govt package


Growth in number of Farmers Suicide during last six year

Sr. No Annual period Actulal Farmers Considered Growth in


Suicide Farmers number of
Suicide actual
suicide cases
(6 districts) (6 districts) (percent)

1 1/1/2001 to 31/12/2001 49 29 100

2 1/1/2002 to 31/12/2002 105 72 214

3 1/1/2003 to 31/12/2003 143 89 291

4 1/1/2004 to 31/12/2004 441 249 900

5 1/1/2005 to 31/12/2005 429 273 879

6 1/1/2006 to 31/12/2006 1446 577 2957

1/1/2007 to 31/2/2007 159 10

Total Numbers of Farmers 2774 1299


Suicide
Growth in Farmers Suicides in Vidarbha
2000
Number of Suicides

1446
1500
1000
441 429
500
49 105 143 159
0
Yr. 2001 Yr. 2002 Yr. 2003 Yr. 2004 Yr. 2005 Yr. 2006 Upto
FebYr.
2007
Year
1) Age Group of the farmers suicided in Vidarbha
In the Vidarbha, the 51.71 percent suicided farmers were ranging between age group of 40 to 59 years,
while the 35.12 percent suicided farmers were ranging between age group of 20 to 39 years. Among the
districts, in Yeotmal, the 60.78 farmers were ranging between age of 40 to 59 years. The percentage
revealed that the maximum farmers were belonging to the age group when the person usually has
responsibility of family.

Age Group of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha

11.71 1.46

35.12
0-20 yrs
20-39 yrs
40-59 yrs
Above 60 yrs

51.71
1) Educational Status of the farmers suicided in Vidarbha
The highest percentage of the educational level of suicided farmers in Vidarbha was high school level i.e.
41.95 percent farmers were high school educated.. Among the districts, farmers in the Amravati were
mostly high school educated (58 percent).

Educational Status of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha

7.80 11.71

Illiterate
19.51 Prinmary School
Middle School
41.95 High School
Collage

19.02
3) A) Average Size of land holding of the farmers suicided in Vidarbha.
The average size of land holding is farms of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha was 2.68 ha per farm.
The average land holding per farm were highest in Washim i.e. 4.15 hectares. The number of farmers in havening
land between 1 to 1.99 and between 2 to 3.99 were highest i.e. 32.68 and 30.73 percent respectively.

Distribution of Farmers as per size of holding

3.41
16.59
16.59
0 to 0.99
1 to 1.99
2 to 3.99
4 to 9.99
32.68
30.73 above 10
Share of Irrigated land in total land of the farmers suicided in
Vidarbha

25.00 22.61
20.00
Percent

15.00 11.59
8.84 7.98
10.00 6.17
5.00 2.54 2.51
0.00
0.00

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District
3) B) Cropping Pattern of the farm of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha

Cropping Pattern of the farms of the suicided


farmers in Vidarbha
3.94
0.49
4.48
1.75
0.39 0.04
0.77 Cotton
2.39 Soybean
35.78 Tur
8.71 Kh. Jowar
Mung
Udid
Sunflower
8.11
Groundnut
Wheat
Gram
Safflower
Other Crop

33.16
Cropping Pattern of the farm of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha
1) Family size of the farmers suicided in Vidarbha
The family size of Vidarbha family indicates the number of female per family was 2.59 and number
of male was 3.15

Family size of farmers suicided in Vidarbha

7.00 6.25
6.04 6.05 5.74
6.00 5.63 5.48 5.40
5.33
5.00
Male
family size

4.00 3.18 3.38 3.26 3.45 3.25


2.91 2.87 3.00 3.15 Female
2.78 2.57 2.53 2.59 2.59
3.00 2.45
1.96 fimily size
2.00
1.00
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5) Fix Capital Investment of the farmers suicided in Vidarbha.
The per farm fix capital investment was Rs. 281350.03 in Vidaarbha. Out of this the value of land was Rs.
273360.00 and value of other assets was Rs. 7990.03. The value of other assets was very low and reveals the holding
of others assets than land is less, which make difficulties in operating farm practices.

Fixed Capital of the family of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha


450000.00 423300.00

400000.00 358020.00
350000.00
279480.00 277440.00 273360.00
300000.00 251940.00
Fix Capital

250000.00
182580.00
200000.00 141780.00
150000.00
100000.00
50000.00 6805.00 7345.71 10718.00 9130.43 3780.33 8854.77 8276.00 7990.03
0.00

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Value Of Land
District Value of other assets
6) Regular Expenditure of the families of the Farmers Suicided in Vidarbha.
The annual regular expenditure on grocery, bills, clothes, luxurious items was Rs. 20808.06 in
Vidarbha. The expenditure on grocery, clothes and education was Rs.10946.41(52.61 percent), 3718.28(17.87
percent) and 2664.19(12.80 percent) respectively.

Per annum regular expenditure of the family of the


suicided farmers in Vidarbha
25000.00 20808.06
20000.00
Expenditure

15000.00 10946.41
10000.00
5000.00 2664.19 3718.28 2026.45 857.23
595.49
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7) Last 10 years expenditure on major events/incidences of the families of the Farmers Suicided in Vidarbha
Per family the expenditure on major events like marriage, house construction, social ceremonies and illness
or the 10 years is considered other than regular expenditure. The estimates indicate that in Vidarbha region the major
expenditure was made on marriage during the last 10 years i.e. Rs. 43256.56(54.84 percent), it is followed by house
construction (Rs. 20553.30). The total expenditure during last 10 years was Rs. 78879.33. and per annum it comes Rs
7887.93. It indicate the saving of the each family should be at least Rs7887.93 to cover the expenditure on major events
the major events. The saving need to be highest in Akola (Rs 13725.45 )

Last 10 years expenditure on major events per annum expenditure =7887.93


90000.00
78879.33
80000.00
70000.00
60000.00
Expenditure

50000.00 43256.56
40000.00
30000.00 20553.30
20000.00
8126.52 5068.13
10000.00 1874.83
0.00
House Marriage Illness Social Other Total
construction Events/Incidence
ceromanies Expediture
8) Costs and Returns of different enterprises of the families of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha.
The net income from all enterprises was Rs. 3627.84 per annum . While the per annum regular
expenditure was Rs.20808.06 and expenditure on events was Rs.7887.93. (total Rs.28695.99). It indicates the
expenditure per annum is more by Rs. 25068.15 over the net income per annum.. If farmers uses recommended
expenditure i.e. Rs 37140 per family, the gap between income and expenditure will be Rs.33512.16.

Income and Expenditure of the family of the suicided


farmers in Vidarbha

30000
20808.06
20000
7887.93
10000
Expenditure

3627.84
Income and

-25068.15
0
-10000 Net Income Peryear regular Per year Gap between
family expenditure on Net Return and
-20000
expenditure Events Annual
-30000 expenditure
Particulars
Gap between recommended expenditure and present net income
of the family of the suicided farmers in Vidarbha

60000
37140
40000
Expenditure and

20000
Income

3627.84
0
Net Income Per annum Gap between Net Return
-20000
recommended and Annual expenditure
-40000 expenditue -33512.16
particular
9) Loan Status of the Farmers Suicided in Vidarbha.
Out of total loan cases, the 42.81 percent loan cases were from cooperative bank, 18.96 percent were
from relatives and 18.68 percent were from nationalized banks in Vidarbha. On average debt per head in Vidarbha is
Rs. 50730.25. The percentage of debted farmers in Vidarbha is 97.07. Among the districts, the debt per head was
highest in Akola i.e. Rs 65710.28, it is followed by Washim Rs.52483.17. Regular family expenditure like grocery,
bills, clothes etc as well as expenditure on events likes marriage, house construction, social ceremonies and illness is
significantly correlated with loan in Vidarbha.

Sources of the loan taken by the farmers suicided in Vidarbha


(Percent)

3.98
18.65
18.96
Nationalised Bank
Cooperative Bank
Private Moneylender
Relatives
15.60
Other

42.81
Debt per head of the suicided farmers family in Vidarbha (Rs.)

70000 65710.28

60000
50098.43 52483.1751685.13 51686.46 50730.25
50000 45961.11
37487.18
40000
Debt

Debt per head


30000
20000
10000
0

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District
10) Reasons of farmers suicide:
The 25 reasons forcing the farmers to commit
suicides are identified. Out of 25 reasons,
1)Deterioration of economic condition 58 %
2)Continuous crop failure 57 %
3)Improper and unstable price 53 %
4)Bank loan 48 %
5)High cost technology 41 %
6)Family expenditure. 35 %
7)Marriage expenditure 25 %
11) Measure suggested to stop the farmers suicides
The farmers suggested some measure to improve the
economic condition and to stop the suicides
3) Proper and stable price to their produce 93%
4) Exempted from loan 87%
5) Creation of irrigation infrastructure 49 %
6) Employment generation 42 %
7) Low cost of input chemicals. 42 %
Conclusion
• The indebted farmers were 97 percent.
• The net income from all recourses was negligible i.e.Rs 3627.84 per annum
per family
• The family expenditure was Rs.28695.99 per annum per family.
• The price received per quintal was not stable and not covering the cost of
cultivation.
Policy Implications
• The farmer may be exempted from loan.
• The efforts are needed to get proper and stable price for his produce .
• The basic infrastructure can be created to increase income from different
sources.
• Income from subsidiary enterprises can be increased for the upliftment of
the economic condition of farmers to cover the recommended expenditure
per family.
Returnwise Costs and Returns of different enterprises per family

Income Group 0 to 19999 20000 to 39999 40001 to 59999 60000 above

Sr. No District Costs Returns Costs Returns Costs Returns Costs Returns

1 Yeotmal 7265.77 12351.85 28250.00 26705.56 45000.00 40000.00 91500.00 80300.00

2 Bulbhana 8289.20 11715.25 25931.00 27314.00 44000.00 46620.00 70000.00 110100.00

3 Amravati 10265.24 13655.83 26430.00 28913.24 48000.00 47166.67 112250.00 113810.00

4 Washim 10380.00 11280.00 26550.00 27975.00 48175.00 46150.00 67000.00 86333.33

5 Nagpur 7260.71 10663.89 24225.00 26586.40 NA NA NA NA

6 Akola 8536.07 13420.00 28637.50 28861.36 49500.00 55800.00 66000.00 68370.00

7 Wardha 10290.91 12575.00 24400.00 29700.00 NA NA NA NA

Vidarbha 8898.27 12237.40 26346.21 28007.94 46935.00 47147.33 81350.00 91782.67


Sample Size 86(41.95) 79(38.54) 16(7.80) 24(11.71)