Anda di halaman 1dari 88

NUTRISI

Pada Bayi dan Anak


Oleh: Dian Ramawati, M. Kep., Ns.
Jurusan Keperawatan Universitas Jenderal Soedirman Purwokerto

Tujuan Pembelajaran
Mahasiswa mengetahui pengertian nutrisi untuk bayi dan anak Mahasiswa mengetahui macam-macam nutrisi untuk bayi dan anak Mahasiswa mampu memahami perubahan kebutuhan nutrisi dari usia bayi sampai dengan usia remaja Mahasiswa memahami cara menghitung kebutuhan nutrisi pada bayi dan anak Mahasiswa memahami strategi pemenuhan kebutuhan nutrisi pada bayi dan anak sesuai dengan tahapan tumbuh kembang, jenis kelamin, dan usia.

Mengapa nutrisi sangat penting?


Memenuhi kebutuhan energi untuk aktivitas sehari-hari Mempertahan seluruh fungsi organ tubuh Penting untuk pertumbuhan dan perkembangan Manfaat terapeutik : pencegahan dan penyembuhan penyakit

Nutrisi Pada Bayi


Pertumbuhan yang cepat pada otak dan sistem tubuh (1 tahun pertama): Peningkatan BB 200% Peningkatan panjang tubuh 55% Peningkatan lingkar kepala 40% Berat otak bertambah 2 kali lipat

Nutrisi Bayi Baru Lahir


ASI sampai dengan bayi berusia 6 bulan (rekomendasi internasional), dapat diberikan 10 -12 kali/hari Susu formula, dapat diberikan sampai dengan 480 ml/hari Kebutuhan kalori neonatus: 108 kcal/kgBB/hari

Manfaat ASI untuk Bayi


Imunitas alami (>100 komponen). Menurunkan angka kejadian infeksi telinga, gastroenteritis, penyakit pernafasan dan bakteremia. Mudah didapatkan dan siap digunakan. Mengurangi resiko pemberian makan yang berlebihan Meningkatkan kedekatan ibu dan bayi.

Tahapan kandungan gizi ASI


Kolostrum : 2-4 hari, berwarna kekuningan, kaya akan protein, vitamin, dan Ig A. ASI transisi : sd. 2 minggu kelahiran, banyak mengandung lemak dan kaya kalori. ASI matur : mengandung 90% air Kandungan ASI : lemak, protein, vitamin

Standar Emas Makanan Bayi


Inisiasi Menyusui Dini (IMD) : 1 jam setelah kelahiran Pemberian ASI eksklusif sd bayi 6 bulan Pemberian MP-ASI lokal (buatan rumah tangga) selama 90 hari berturut-turut Mempertahankan pemberian ASI sd. Anak berusia 2 tahun

Kandungan Gizi dalam MP-ASI


Bayi 6-12 bulan : 250 kalori, 6-8 gram protein Anak usia 12-24 bulan : 450 kalori, 12-15 gram protein Kebutuhan gizi bayi usia 6-12 bulan : 650 kal dan 16 gram protein Kebutuhan gizi anak usia 12-24 bulan : 850 kal dan 20 gram protein

Kandungan Gizi ASI


ASI usia bayi 6-12 bln : 400 kal dan 10 gram protein ASI usia 12-24 bln : 350 kal dan 8 gram protein

(Pedoman umum pemberian MP-ASI lokal tahun 2006, Depkes RI)

Manfaat Pemberian ASI untuk Ibu


Memperlambat proses ovulasi (kehamilan) Membantu menurunkan berat badan setelah melahirkan Mencegah perdarahan post partum Menurunkan resiko terjadinya kanker payudara

Monitoring Pemberian ASI


Kenaikan BB bayi lebih stabil dan konsisten Keb nutrisi total : 80-100 ml ASI/KgBB Kapasitas lambung bayi 90 ml Waktu pemberian ASI setiap 2-3 jam Setiap pemberian 10-20 menit/setiap sisi payudara Bayi puas menyusu : hisapan melambat atau tertidur

Susu Formula untuk Bayi


3 bentuk:
Siap diminum paling mahal, tidak membutuhkan air . Konsentrate Dicampur dengan air (50-50). Bubuk Dicampur denan air sesuai aturan.

Komposisi Susu Formula


Kandungan kalori: 20 calories/oz (0.67 calories/cc). Kandungan Protein: rasio of protein nabati dengan kasein 60:40 atau sama dengan ASI. Lemak: paling banyak tersedia ~50% kalori dari lemak jenuh dan asam lemak tak jenuh. Karbohidrat: laktosa, mineral (Ca, Zn, Mg). Mikronutrient: vitamin and mineral yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan ASI.

Susu Formula Khusus


Kedelai: untuk vegetarian, defisiensi laktose, galactosemia. Tanpa Laktose: bahan dasar susu sapi Protein hydrolysate: untuk bayi yang mengalami alergi atau tidak dapat mencerna protein Bayi prematur: terdiri dari protein nabati, susu sapi dan protein serta calcium yang tinggi, 2050%.

CACFP Meal Pattern Requirements for Infants


Birth through 3 months Breakfast
4-6 fl. oz. Formula1 or Breast milk2,3

4 through 7 months
4-8 fl. oz. Formula1 or Breast milk2,3 0-3 Tbsp. Infant cereal1,4

8 through11 months
6-8 fl. oz. Formula1 or Breast milk2,3 and 2-4 Tbsp. Infant cereal1 and 1-4 Tbsp. Fruit or Vegetable or both 6-8 fl. oz. Formula1 or Breast milk2,3 and 2-4 Tbsp. Infant cereal1; and/or 1-4 Tbsp. Meat, Fish, Poultry, Egg Yolk, Cooked Dry Beans or peas; or -2oz. Cheese; or 1-4 oz (volume) Cottage Cheese, or 1-4 oz (weight) Cheese Food, or Cheese spread; and 1-4 Tbsp. Fruit or Vegetable or both 2-4 fl. oz. Formula1 or Breast milk2,3 or 100% Fruit Juice5; and 0-1/2 Bread4,6 or 0-2 Crackers4,6

Lunch or Supper

4-6 fl. oz. Formula1 or Breast milk2,3

4-8 fl. oz. Formula1 or Breast milk2,3 0-3 Tbsp. Infant cereal1,4 0-3 Tbsp. Fruit or Vegetable or both4

Supplement (Snack)
1 2 It

4-6 fl. oz. Formula1 or Breast milk2,3

4-6 fl. oz. Formula1 or Breast milk2,3

Infant formula and dry infant cereal must be iron-fortified. is recommended that breast milk be served in place of formula from birth through 11 months. 3 For some breastfed infants who regularly consume less than the minimum amount of breast milk per feeding, a serving of less than the minimum amount of breast milk may be offered, with additional breast milk offered if the infant is still hungry. 4 A serving of this component is required when the infant is developmentally ready to accept it. 5 Fruit juice must be full-strength. 6 Bread and bread alternates must be made from whole-grain or enriched meal or flour.

Kebutuhan Nutrisi Bayi


Vitamin D : 200 IU per hari (2 bln pertama) ASI : setiap 2-3 jam diberikan Finger foods : usia 6-7 bulan Jus buah : 180 ml/hari Cereal : usia 4-6 bulan Susu formula : maks. 960 ml/hari Buah dan sayur : 6-8 bulan Daging, ikan, ayam : usia 8-10 bulan Telur dan keju : 12 bulan

Pemberian makan pada bayi


4-6 bln rasa baru. Berikan bubur susu dengan zat besi. 6-7 bln duduk dengan bantuan. Berikan sayuran dan buah. 8-9 bln kemampuan motorik halus. Berikan makanan camilan dengan protein. 10-12 bln berdiri, belajar mengambil makanan Berikan makanan lunak, ajari makan sendiri.

12-18 bln peningkatan kemandirian. Stop susu dg botol, gunakan sendok dan gelas 18 bln -2 th pertumbuhan melambat, mjd kurang tertarik dg makanan Ajari anak makan sendiri. 2-3 th asupan bervariasi, mulai memilih makanan.

Developmental Skills
Birth through 5 months:
Suck/swallow reflex Tongue thrust reflex Rooting reflex Gag reflex Poor control of head, neck, trunk SERVE LIQUIDS ONLY
Breastmilk Infant formula with iron

Developmental Skills, continued


4 months through 7 months:
Tongue thrust and rooting reflexes begin
to disappear Gag reflex diminishes Can transfer food from front to back of tongue to swallow Begin to see an up-and-down munching movement of the jaw ADD SEMISOLID FOODS Sits with support Infant cereal with iron Has good head control
Strained vegetables* Strained fruit*
Progress to thicker texture and add in meats*

*may be started later in the age range

Developmental Skills, continued


8 months through 11 months:
Moves food from side-to side in mouth
Begins to curve lips around rim of cup Begins to chew in rotary pattern (diagonal movement of the jaw as food is moved to the side or center of the ADD MODIFIED TABLE FOODS mouth)

Mashed or diced soft fruit or soft-cooked vegetables Strained meat/poultry or mashed egg yolk Mashed cooked beans or peas Cottage cheese, yogurt, or cheese strips Crackers or pieces of soft bread Breastmilk, iron-fortified formula or fruit juice in a cup

Eating and Food Behaviors of Infants


Caregivers and Parents:
Provide the right foods to promote good health. Decide what to serve and when to introduce new foods. Determine the kinds and types of food and textures to introduce. Offer older infants appropriate finger foods when they can enjoy and manage them. Tips: Feed infants the foods you want them to love when they get older. Provide a variety of nutritious foods. Make mealtime relaxed and enjoyable.

Feeding the Baby for the First Year


Babies Age: Birth through 3 months 4 months through 7 months When Babies Can:
Only suck and swallow

Serve: LIQUIDS ONLY


Breastmilk Infant formula with iron

Draw in upper or lower lip as spoon is removed from mouth Move tongue up and down Sit up with support Swallow semisolid foods without choking Open the mouth when they see food Drink form a cup with help, with spilling Move tongue from side to side Begin spoon feeding themselves with a spoon Begin to chew and have some teeth Begin to hold food and use their fingers to feed themselves Drink from a cup with help, with less spilling

ADD SEMISOLID FOODS


Infant cereal with iron Strained vegetables* Strained fruit*
*may be started later in the age range

8 months through 11 months

ADD MODIFIED TABLE FOODS


Mashed or diced soft fruit Mashed or soft cooked vegetables Strained meat/poultry or mashed egg yolk Mashed cooked beans or peas Cottage cheese, yogurt, or cheese strips Crackers or pieces of soft bread Breastmilk, iron-fortified formula or fruit juice in a cup

Food Safety and Infant Feeding


Infants are particularly sensitive to food borne disease. Their immature digestive system cannot fight bacteria as well as adults.
Common symptoms of food borne

illness (nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea) can be deadly for the infant.
To keep it safe, remember the following

Infant Food Safety tips . . .

Infant Food Safety Tips:


Wash hands before preparing or feeding foods. Use clean utensils. Transfer baby food to a dish dont serve baby from the jar and discard leftovers from the dish. Refrigerate leftover food in the jar label with the date and discard 2 days after opening.

Infant Food Safety Tips, continued:


Check that the safety button tin the lid of a baby food jar is down and pops when opened. Discard formula or breastmilk left in a bottle after feeding. Avoid honey for the first year.

Breast Fed Babies in Childcare


Breastfeeding is the best source of food for a babys first year of life.
Supporting a breastfeeding mother helps to sustain the duration of breastfeeding. Safe and sanitary handling is important for breastmilk as well as formula, so . . .

Handle it with care!

Nutrisi Pada Anak (1-6 tahun)


1-2 th: rata-rata tumbuh 12 cm, BB naik 3.5 kg. Pertumbuhan melambat pada usia 4 tahun. 6-8 cm/th 2-4 kg/th Perkembangan otak bertambah 3 kali lipat pada usia 6 tahun.

CACFP Meal Pattern


Breakfast
Ages 1-2
cup cup cup

Components
Milk Milk, fluid Vegetables and Fruits Vegetable(s) and/or fruit(s) or Full strength fruit or vegetable juice or an equivalent quantity of any combination of the above Grains/Breads Bread or Cornbread, biscuits, rolls, muffins, etc., or Cold dry cereal or Cooked cereal or Cooked pasta or noodle products or Cooked cereal grains or an equivalent quantity of any combination of grains/breads

Ages 3-5
3/4 cup cup cup

Ages 6-12
1 cup cup cup

slice serving cup or 1/3 oz cup cup cup

slice serving 1/3 cup or oz cup cup cup

1 slice 1 serving 3/4 cup or 1oz. cup cup cup

CACFP Meal Pattern:


Components
Milk Milk, fluid Vegetables and Fruits Vegetable(s) and/or fruit(s), 2 or more Grains/Breads Bread or Cornbread, biscuits, rolls, muffins, etc., or Cooked pasta or noodle products or Cooked cereal grains or an equivalent quantity of any combination of breads/grains Meat and Meat Alternates Lean meat, poultry, or fish or Cheese or Eggs or Cooked dry beans or peas or Peanut butter or soy nut butter or Other nut or seed butters or Peanuts or soy nuts or tree nuts or seeds* or Yogurt, plain, or sweetened and flavored or an equivalent quantity of any combination of the above meat and meat alternates

Lunch and Supper


Ages 1-2
cup

Ages 3-5
3/4 cup

Ages 6-12
1 cup

cup total
slice serving cup cup

cup total
slice serving cup cup

cup total
1 slice 1 serving cup cup

1 oz 1 oz 1 egg cup 2 tbsp. oz = 50% 4 oz

1 oz 1 oz 1 egg 3/8 cup 3 tbsp. oz = 50% 6 oz

2 oz 2 oz 1 egg cup 4 tbsp. 1 oz = 50% 8 oz

CACFP Meal Pattern:


Components (Choose any 2 components)
Milk Milk, fluid Vegetables and Fruits Vegetable(s) and/or fruit(s), or Full-strength fruit or vegetable juice or and equivalent quantity of any combination of the above Grains/Breads Bread or Cornbread, biscuits, rolls, muffins, etc., or Cold dry cereal or Cooked cereal or Cooked pasta or noodle products or an equivalent quantity of any combination of grains/breads

Snack
Ages 3-5
cup cup cup

Ages 1-2
cup cup cup

Ages 6-12
1 cup cup cup

slice serving cup or 1/3 oz cup cup

slice serving 1/3 cup or oz cup cup

1 slice 1 serving cup or 1 oz cup cup

Meat and Meat Alternates Lean meat, poultry, or fish or Cheese or Eggs or Cooked dry beans or peas or Peanut butter or soy nut butter or Other nut or seed butters or Peanuts or soy nuts or tree nuts or seeds* or Yogurt, plain, or sweetened and flavored or an equivalent quantity of any combination of the above meat and meat alternates

oz oz egg 1/8 cup 1 tbsp.

oz oz egg 1/8 cup 1 tbsp.

1 oz 1 oz 1 egg cup 2 tbsp.

oz 2 oz or cup

oz 2 oz or cup

1 oz 4 oz or cup

Developing Healthy Habits


Offer a variety of healthy foods and snacks. Encourage fruit and vegetable intake. No junk food snacking. Limit intake of juices ( 4 oz per day). Increase intake of water (no soda). Encourage low fat dairy products (3-4 servings/ day). Make fun physical activity a habit. Limit TV to no more than 1 to 2 hours per day. Track growth and development carefully. Be a good role model.

Developmental Skills
ONE-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN They may grow less quickly than during infancy. They may eat less, but they tend to eat frequently throughout the day. They get better at feeding themselves, although spills should still be expected. They drink from a cup with help.

How Children Grow and Develop


At 1 year old
Teething occurs Playing consists of imitating others One-year-olds use and understand the words me, mine, and no They recognize their names They can make two to three word sentences

Developmental Skills, continued .....


Two-year olds can: Fold napkins Scrub fruits and vegetables Wipe tables Snap fresh beans Tear lettuce and salad greens Break bread for stuffing

How Children Grow and Develop


At 2 years old
Two-year-olds have a high energy level They develop skills including walking, running, and eye-hand coordination They are curious and want to do things for themselves 2-year-olds still use sucking, mouthing, and tasting to explore Children can speak in two to five word sentences

Developmental Skills, continued


Three-year olds can: Pour liquids into a batter Mix muffin batter Shake a milk drink Spread peanut butter on bread Crack hard cooked eggs

Eating and Food Behaviors of Toddlers


Caregivers and Parents:
Know that appetite ups and downs are normal and usually relate to growth. Allow children to stop eating when they indicate they are full Know that now is the time when food preferences are being firmly established. Realize that children are usually willing to try new foods. Tips: Dont serve large amounts of juice. Offer sweet and sugary foods only rarely.

Feeding Responsibility: Caregivers & Parents


Select and buy foods, including new foods Choose meal and snack times Prepare & present the food attractively Expect a standard of behavior at the table Make mealtime pleasant Set a good example

Feeding Responsibility: Child


Decides what foods they will eat Determines how much they will eat Chooses whether or not they will eat

Transitional Feeding/Eating
How do you handle the transition between infant and toddler on the CACFP meal pattern?

Serving Meals Family-Style


Introducing Family-Style Meals
Provide a table and play dinnerware so the children can practice. Show the children the proper way to set the table. Practice proper table etiquette; emphasize using please and thank you.

Keep food safety in mind (if the cup falls on the floor, it must be washed).

Family Style Meals


Remember these tips:
Children enjoy helping with "grown up" activities. Let them assist with each of the four components of family-style meals as it will boost their self-esteem. The four components are: Table setting Self-serve Food preparation

Cleanup
Begin with something simple like table setting. Then allow children to help with a small snack, and always encourage them to clean up after themselves.

Family Style Meals


Food Safety Nutrition

Child Development

FOOD SAFETY
Handwashing Keep Foods Safe to Eat Hot Foods HOT/Cold Foods COLD

Introducing New Foods

Introducing New Foods


Think about timing Be positive Keep trying
Tip:
Did you know that children may need to encounter a new food 12 times before they actually eat it?

Family Style Meals

Child Development

How Children Grow and Develop


Between 3 and 5 years of age
Preschoolers enjoy art, pretend and music and dramatic play. Children begin to use a fork or spoon well. As they get older, sharing toys and belongings becomes easier. Attention spans continue to grow with the childs age.

Eating and Food Behaviors of Preschoolers


Tips:

Caregivers and Parents:


Realize that erratic eating habits are normal. Provide healthy meals and snacks in order to build a strong foundation for a lifetime of good eating habits.

Preschoolers enjoy learning abut food.


With proper supervision, they can help prepare simple meals and snacks. Books, videos, storytelling and discussion groups are excellent ways to teach good nutrition! Allow input on what is served.

A Closer Look at Eating Habits


Eating Habits are formed in early childhood.
Good eating habits do not just happen, they must be learned.

Childcare Providers Support Positive Eating Habits by:


Successful introduction of new foods. Encouraging favorable attitudes toward food. Encouraging good eating habits.

Encouraging Favorable Food Attitudes and Good Eating Habits


Be sensitive to childrens needs. Help children feel ready to eat. Get children interested and involved. Make eating a pleasure. Foster positive feelings.
Check out the Mealtime Memo on Feeding Toddlers

Food Matching Game Activity

Nutrients are Needed for Growth and Development


Nutrition is the process by which our bodies take in and use food. The best way to ensure good nutrition is to choose a variety of foods.

Check out the Mealtime Memo on Nutrition & Cognitive Development!

Nutrients Needed for Growth and Development


Carbohydrates
Supply energy 4 kcal per gram (90 kcal/KgBB or 1800 cal/day) Provide fiber if whole grain Made up of 2 types
Complex Simple

Proteins
Supply 4 kcal per gram (13-19 g/day) Build and repair body tissue Help antibodies fight infection

Nutrients Needed for Growth and Development


Fats
Supply 9 kcal per gram (< 30% daily intake) Carry fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K Provide a feeling of fullness since fats take longer to digest Tips About Fat

Serve reduced- or low-fat milk to preschoolers, ages 2 and older. Do not restrict all fats in childrens diets.

Nutrients Needed for Growth and Development


Vitamins
Needed by body in small amounts Help release energy from nutrients

Minerals
Needed in small amounts Help in making strong bones and teeth & healthy red blood cells

Water (100 ml/KgBB/day) Essential for life Is part of every living cell Helps maintain body temperature Is the medium for metabolism Transports nutrients and body substances Acts as a lubricant

What is a Portion Size?

Nutrient Contributions from MyPyramid


Protein, Iron, Phosphorous, and Zinc

Complex Carbohydrates, Fiber, Iron, Thiamin, and Niacin

Calcium, Protein, some B-vitamins, and Vitamins A&D

Fiber, Potassium, and Vitamins A&C

Fiber, Potassium, and Vitamins A&C

Empty Calories

Keeping a Daily Record of Meals


TIP Be sure to record menu components in your log each day!

Nutrition Education
Why?
To get children involved in activities with food and eating. To encourage them to try new food.
To help them establish a lifetime of good eating behavior.
Check out the Mealtime Memo on Preventing Obesity Part I!

Nutrition Education
How?
Plan activities that match childrens abilities and interests (developmentally appropriate). Build on what a child already knows.

When?
Plan simple activities before trying harder ones.

The Parent Factor


Establish regular communication with parents on activities, progress, and how they can
Take a look at the Mealtime Memo on Preventing Obesity Part II!

support healthy eating concepts at


home.

Child Development
DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE! For all Ages and Stages

Child Development
Children make decisions Children socialize Learn to listen to internal cues Practice daily living skills

Family Style Meals

Nutrition

Nutrition
Must follow the meal pattern Must put all foods on the table Children can try new foods Children learn to enjoy a variety of foods

Skills for Serving Self

SKILLS FOR SERVING SELF


Hold and physically pass bowls or pitchers Make sure someone receives them. Judge space for bowls or pitchers. Efficiently use serving utensils.

SKILLS FOR SERVING SELF


Teachers direct table conversations and model behavior. Children wait their turn. Children balance serving containers

Children spoon food from a serving dish without using fingers.

Adolescent Growth Spurt


Physiological growth stage (Tanner staging) rather than chronological age, is the best indicator for establishing requirements or evaluating intake. Females: 11-14 years: Grow 8.4 - 9.0 cm/year. Girls deposit more total body fat. Males: 13-16 years: Grow 9.5 - 10.3 cm/year. Boys deposit more muscle mass. Boys tend to gain more weight at a faster rate and skeletal growth continues longer than girls.

Obesity in Childhood and Adolescents


>20% of children/adolescents are overweight. Increased by 50-100% over last 20-30 years: More sedentary lifestyle and behavior (TV/video games). Prevalence increasing more rapidly among AfricanAmericans. Obese children and adolescents become obese adults. Recent reports indicate 8-45% of newly diagnosed pediatric pts with diabetes are diagnosed with type 2.

Obesity: Health Consequences


Cardiovascular disease risk Type 2 diabetes (epidemic) Hypertension Orthopedic Sleep apnea Gall bladder disease/steatohepatitis Psychosocial problems

Pediatric Obesity Etiology and Treatment


Etiology: Genetic predisposition: 80% risk if both parents obese Environment Dietary intake Physical activity / sedentary activity Treatment: Multidisciplinary and comprehensive Formal behavior modification Family-based

Eating Disorders in Adolescents


An estimated 20% of teens engage in some type of abnormal eating. 5% of high schools girls have been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Adolescents are frequent users of OTC diet pills. Multiple factors contribute: thin ideal , family pressure, exhibiting body control.

Disease Prevention Developing Healthy Eating Habits


Discourage dieting and obsession with weight. Pack healthy lunch at least twice a week. Limit fast food eating out. Encourage a balanced diet. 5 servings of fruits/vegetables a day. Encourage low fat dairy products (3-4 / day). Prepare meals that kids and teens enjoy. Encourage teens to learn to cook healthy food. Teach kids and teens label reading. Be a role model.

TABEL Z-SCORE
Tabel Z-Score untuk status gizi anak Indonesia

(WHO, 2005)
Tabel Z-Score berdasarkan buku bagan MTBS 2008.

What Is BMI?
Body mass index (BMI) = weight (kg)/height (m)2
BMI is an effective screening tool; it is not a diagnostic tool For children, BMI is age and gender specific, so BMI-for-age is the measure used

For Children, BMI Changes with Age


BMI

BMI

Boys: 2 to 20 years

Example: 95th Percentile

Age 2 yrs 4 yrs 9 yrs 13 yrs

BMI 19.3 17.8 21.0 25.1

BMI

BMI

BMI-for-Age Cut offs


> 95th percentile Overweight

85th to < 95th percentile


< 5th percentile

Risk of overweight

Underweight

Calculating BMI with the Metric System


Formula: weight (kg)/[height (m)]2 Calculation: [weight (kg)/ height (cm)/ height (cm)] x 10,000
Example: A childs weight=16.9 kg and height=105.4 cm

BMI = [16.9 kg / 105.4 cm / 105.4 cm] x 10,000 = 15.2

Disease Prevention Developing Healthy Eating Habits


Discourage dieting and obsession with weight. Pack healthy lunch at least twice a week. Limit fast food eating out. Encourage a balanced diet. 5 servings of fruits/vegetables a day. Encourage low fat dairy products (3-4 / day). Prepare meals that kids and teens enjoy. Encourage teens to learn to cook healthy food. Teach kids and teens label reading. Be a role model.

Nutritional Concerns in Childhood and Adolescents


Malnutrition and poverty. Growth spurt-onset of menses for girlschanges in body size/image. Food fads, vitamins, athletes. Eating disorders: anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Overweight and obesity. Hyperlipidemia and heart disease. Bone mineralization and osteoporosis.

Thank You! Any Questions?