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Keseimbangan Arus Jaringan Transportasi

Oleh : Mira Rahayu

Kesimbangan Pasar Ekonomi


Teori ekonomi dasar mengenai keseimbangan pasar berlaku untuk situasi dimana harga suatu komoditi yang dibeli dan dijual ditentukan sedemikian rupa sehingga, kuantitas total yang diproduksi sama dengan kuantitas total yang dibeli.
Biaya Pemakai

Fungsi Volume biaya pemakai

Fungsi Permintaan

Volume

Perluasan guna mencakup tingkat pelayanan


Pendekatan dalam mempertimbangkan variasi tingkat pelayanan; 1. Menghubungkan kuantitas transportasi yang diminta dengan sebuah ukuran biaya total. Pendekatan ini digunakan untuk menganalisis arus kendaraan pada jalan 2. Menghubungkan permintaan jasa transportasi dengan karakrteristik dan harga yang ditawarkan untuk pelayanan

Keseimbangan Jaringan Transportasi (1)


Permintaan akan transportasi akan diketahui melalui kuantitas permintaan diantara dua daerah yang di sebut zona. Konsep Jaringan Transportasi : 1. Jalan tunggal 2. 2 jalan yg menghubungkan 2 titik 3. 2 rute alternatif di antara dua zona lalu lintas

Keseimbangan Jaringan Transportasi (2)


Arus keseimbangan yang memperlakukan harga, volume dan tingkat pelayanan sebagai variabel penentu
Harga Keseimbangan (pada 1 , y1, q1)

Tingkat pelayanan (bernilai negatif misalnya waktu perjalanan) Tingkat pelayanan (bernilai negatif, misalnya waktu perjalanan) Fungsi penawaran dan fungsi tingkat pelayanan volume) Fungsi permintaan

Kuantitas atau volume

Type jaringan transportasi

Traffic Assignment (1)


Jaringan transportasi kontemporer secara intensive digunakan tidak diacuhkan dalam beberapa hal, terutama pada sistem transportasi perkotaan. Ada 2 Konsep penting berhubungan dengan sistem transportasi jalan raya: 1. The transport demand antara 1 tempat dengan tempat lain harus diketahui, setidaknya diperkirakan. Sebagai contoh , the gravity model memberikan satu metodologi untuk mengestimasi potential flows antara satu lokasi dengan lokasi lain jika set of attributes diketahui, seperti jarak respective dan emission serta attraction variables. 2. The transport supply between tempat juga harus diketahui. Hal ini melibatkan establishing a set of paths atara tempat yang generating and attracting movements. Termasuk juga geometric definition dari jaringan transportasi dengan the graph theory.

Traffic Assignment (2)

Example new mexico flow maps of urban area

2. Traffic and its Properties


Traffic merupakan sejumlah unit yang berhubungan pada satu periode wakktu. (kendaraan, penumpang, beban , tons of freight, etc). Pada dasarnya karakteristik dari aliran jaringan transportasi ada 2 yaitu: 1. Uninterrupted traffic. Traffic yang diatur oleh interakasi antara kendaraan and dan interaksi kendaraan deengan infrastruktur . Contoh yang paling umum adalah highway. 2. Interrupted traffic. Traffic yang diatur oleh faktr ekternal, contohnya traffic signal, yang biasanya menimbulkan antrian. Pada kondisi Under interrupted flow, interaksi antara kendraan dan kendaraan dgn infrastruktur menjadi tidak sigifikan. Contoh yang umum adalah lampu lalu lintas dan tanda tanda jalan .

Aknowledge
Pembatasan lalu lintas dapat direncanakan secara efektif agar dapat mengatur atau mengontrol tingkat arus lalu lintas pada suatu daerah secara keseluruhan. Metoda ini diharapkan dapat mengakibatkan para pemakai jalan akan memberikan respons terhadap suatu kondisi tertentu yang timbul karena penerapan kebijaksanaan pembatasan lalu lintas yang diberlakukan seperti: a. Pemilikan moda transportasi lain; b. Merubah waktu perjalanan; c. Pemilihan rute yang lain; d. Perubahan tujuan perjalanan atau; e. Tidak melakukan perjalanan sama sekali.

Pada kondisi macet, setiap penambahan jumlah kendaraan dalam arus lalu lintas akan menambah jumlah waktu yang diperlukan dan juga biaya yang dibebankan pada setiap kendaraan yang berada dalam arus lalu lintas tersebut. Hal ini dapat di jelaskan pada gambar 2.1 berikut ini yang menggambarkan hubungan antara arus lalu lintas dengan waktu perjalanan:

Jika suatu daerah perkotaan mempunyai problem kemacetan maka masyarakat sering mengusulkan untuk membatasi akses kendaraan pribadi ke daerah tersebut dengan menggunakan pembatasan fisik, yaitu: a. Mengurangi jumlah jalan akses ke daerah tersebut, seperti jalan satu arah atau penutupan jalan. b. Mengurangi waktu hijau lampu pengatur lalu lintas sepanjang jalan-jalan menuju daerah tersebut. c. Mencadangkan beberapa jalan akses menjadi jalan untuk angkutan umum atau tempat parkir.

Pelaksanaan pengaturan parkir telah seiring dilakukan sejak tahun enam puluhan, meliputi: a. Pembatasan tempat parkir di tepi jalan (on street parking). b. Merencanakan fasilitas tempat parkir di luar daerah tersebut seperti park and ride. c. Pengaturan biaya parkir. d. Denda yang tinggi terhadap pelanggar parkir.

PEDOMAN TEKNIS PRINSIP DASAR PEMBATASAN LALU LINTAS KENDARAAN PRIBADI


Tiga sistem pembayaran yang berbeda dapat diterapkan untuk biaya masuk yaitu: a) Supplementary License (sistem tanda izin) adalah suatu tanda izin yang memperbolehkan penggunaan kendaraan di dalam suatu daerah tertentu dan diperlihatkan di kaca jendela pada waktu pemeriksaan. Tanda izin dapat dibeli dalam jumlah banyak dan dapat dikembalikan jika tanda izin tersebut tidak digunakan. Daerah perkotaan bagi menjadi beberapa zona dengan biaya yang berbeda-beda ataupun dengan suatu harga yang sama untuk seluruh daerah tersebut. b) Sistem Biaya Tol, banyak digunakan pada jalan bebas hambatan, jembatan dan terowongan. Akan tetapi, di dalam suatu daerah perkotaan metoda ini diperkirakan tidak cocok karena menimbulkan biaya lain pada waktu pengumpulan biaya tol tersebut. c) Sistem Tanda Masuk adalah suatu tanda masuk yang memperbolehkan suatu kendaraan masuk ke daerah tertentu melalui pintu-pintu masuk yang terbatas jumlahnya pada periode waktu tertentu (pada jam sibuk pagi hari).

Arus Pergerakan penumpang dan bagasi

Air Traffic
Air Traffic Control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and in the air. A controller's primary task is to separate certain aircraft to prevent them from coming too close to each other horizontally and vertically. Secondary tasks include ensuring orderly and expeditious traffic flow and providing advisories, such as weather information and navigation directions (vectors).

a) In many countries, ATC services are provided throughout the majority of airspace, and its services are available to all users (private, military, and commercial). b) When controllers are responsible for separating some or all aircraft, such airspace is called "controlled airspace" in contrast to "uncontrolled airspace." Depending on the type of flight and the class of airspace, ATC may issue instructions that pilots are required to follow, or merely advisories to assist pilots operating in the airspace. In all cases, however, the pilot has final responsibility for the safety of the flight, and may deviate from ATC instructions in an emergency. c) Air traffic control services can be divided into two major subspecialties, terminal control and en-route control.

Air Traffic Control


Ground Control Ground Control (sometimes known as Ground Movement Control) is responsible for the airport "movement" areas, or areas not released to the airlines or other users. This generally includes all taxiways, holding areas, and some transitional aprons or intersections where aircraft arrive having vacated the runway and departure gates. Local Control Local Control (most often referred to as the generic "Tower" control, although Tower control can also refer to a combination of the local, ground and clearance delivery positions) is responsible for the active runway surfaces. Local control clears aircraft for take off or landing and ensures the runway is clear for these aircraft. To accomplish this, local control controllers are normally given 2 to 5 nautical miles (4 to 9 km) of airspace around the airport, allowing them to give the clearances necessary for airport safety. If the local controller detects any unsafe condition, a landing aircraft will be told to "go around" and will be resequenced into the landing pattern by the terminal area controller.

4-way stop intersections


1. Whichever vehicle stops first has priority. 2. If two vehicles stop at the same time, priority is given to the vehicle on the right. 3. If three vehicles stop at the same time, priority is given to the two vehicles going in the same direction. 4. If four vehicles stop, drivers usually use gestures and other communication to establish right-of-way. In some areas, the custom is for the north-south or the more-trafficked road to have priority, although this is rare.

Pedestrian crossings
Pedestrians must often cross from one side of a road to the other, and in doing so may come into the way of vehicles traveling on the road. In many places pedestrians are entirely left to look after themselves, that is, they must observe the road and cross when they can see that no traffic will threaten them. Busier cities usually paint "pedestrian crossings", which are strips of the road where pedestrians are expected to cross. The Pedestrian crossings without traffic signals are also common. In this case, the traffic law usually states that the pedestrian has the right of way when crossing, and that vehicles must stop when a pedestrian uses the crossing. Countries and driving cultures vary greatly as to the extent to which this is respected.

Intelligent Transportation Systems Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is a system of hardware, software and operators that allow better monitoring and control of traffic in order to optimize traffic flow. As the number of vehicle lane miles traveled per year continues to increase dramatically, and as the number of vehicle lane miles constructed per year has not been keeping pace, this has led to ever-increasing traffic congestion. As a cost-effective solution toward optimizing traffic, ITS presents a number of technologies to reduce congestion by monitoring traffic flows through the use of sensors and live cameras, and in turn rerouting traffic as needed through the use of variable message boards (VMS), highway advisory radio (HAR) and other systems. Additionally, the roadway network has been increasingly fitted with additional communications and control infrastructure to allow traffic operations personnel to monitor weather conditions, for dispatching maintenance crews to perform snow or ice removal, as well as intelligent systems such as automated bridge de-icing systems which help to prevent accidents.

Classification
The U.S. Department of Transportation uses the following scale, based on lane occupancy, to classify traffic congestion: 35% or higher: Stop and Go 22% - 35%: Heavy 15% - 22%: Moderate 0-15%: Wide Open

Water Traffic Rules


1. Speed All vessels must travel at a safe speed at all times. 2. Visibility Other vessels slow down on busy waterways and when near moored or anchored vessels, working vessels showing special signals and large vessels which have difficulties in manoeuvring.Navigation hazards slow down in shallow areas, or in unfamiliar waterways. Water depth can vary and change frequently. Not all hazards may be marked or lit, and signs, buoys, marks or lights may have shifted or been vandalised. 3. Wind, waves and currents may adversely affect the manoeuvrability of a vessel. 4. Manoeuvrability of the vessel Stopping and turning ability depends on the speed travelled, wind and current and the boats design (such as hull shape, engine and propeller type and number.)

Avoiding Collisions All masters (drivers) must be aware of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. A summary of these rules is given in this section. Lookout A good lookout must be kept by sight and hearing. The master must be fully aware of the boating environment, especially in bad weather, restricted visibility or darkness. Dont forget to look all around even behind you. Dont confuse the lookout duties of the master with those of the observer when the boat is towing a person on skis, tubes, etc. The master is responsible at all times for keeping a lookout for dangers.

Giving Way The master must continuously assess the risk of collision with other vessels and power vessels must give way to: sailing vessels vessels approaching head on (by altering course to starboard) vessels approaching from the right (starboard) hand side (ie, crossing) vessels displaying the special lights and signals shown in this chapter large vessels restricted in their manoeuvrability any vessel being overtaken and vessels engaged in fishing activities and showing appropriate signals.

Sound Signals

Special sound signals exist for vessels to indicate their manoeuvring intentions when they are in sight of one another. 1 short blast ... I am altering course to starboard (the right). 2 short blasts ... I am altering course to port (the left). 3 short blasts ... I am operating engines astern (stopping/slowing). 5 short blasts ... I am unsure of your intentions and I doubt whether you are taking sufficient action to avoid collision.

Power Gives Way to Sail


A power driven vessel must give way to a sailing vessel unless the sailing vessel is in the process of overtaking it.

Power Driven Vessels Meeting Head on


When two power driven vessels are meeting head on, each must alter course to starboard (to the right) and pass at a safe distance.

Power Driven Vessels Crossing


In crossing situations, give way to the right

Vessels Overtaking

Distance Off (Vessels Other Than PWC) When travelling at a speed of 10 knots or more you must keep well away from people and objects in the water. There are minimum distances you must keep from obstacles. If you cannot keep these distances you must slow down to under 10 knots. The closer you get, the slower you must go.

Sailing Vessels and Sailboards


When two sailing vessels have wind on different sides, the vessel with wind on the port side gives way.

When both craft have wind on the same side, the vessel which is to windward shall keep out of the way of the vessel which is to leeward.