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Pengertian Umum Sistem Manufaktur

D0394 Perancangan Sistem Manufaktur Pertemuan I - II

Definisi Manufaktur

Manufacturing Suatu kumpulan operasi dan aktifitas yang berkorelasi untuk menghasilkan produk, seperti perancangan produk, pemilihan bahan baku, perencanaan, pemrosesan, inspeksi, dan manajemen. Manufacturing process Aktifitas manufaktur merubah bentuk suatu produk dengan mesin-mesin seperti, milling, drilling dll. Assembly Kumpulan dari semua proses dengan mana bermacam komponen dan sub perakitan dibentuk bersamaan untuk membentuk rancangan rakitan atau produk secara geometris secara lengkap. Manufacturing System Suatu pengorganisasian beberapa proses manufaktur dan perakitan yang saling berinteraksi. Tujuannya adalah untuk menjembatani dengan diluar fungsi produksi berkenaan dengan mengoptimasikan produktifitas kinerja sistem.

Manufacturing Historical Perspective

English system (1800s) Memperkenalkan mesin-mesin yang digunakan secara umum yang dapat digunakan untuk produk yang bervariasi. American system (1850s) Menekankan pada presisi dan kemampuan untuk saling bertukar proses. Berubah dari best fit fokus kepada greatest clearance without loss of functionality. Scientific management (1900s) Prespecified worker motions - Moved the control totally into the hands of management. Process improvement (SPC) (1950s) Identical procedures produce different results on same machine at different times. Emphasized outliers instead of mean performance.

Manufacturing Historical Perspective

Numerical control (1970s) Combining the versatility of general purpose machines with the precision and control of special-purpose machines. Computer integrated manufacturing (1980s) Pervasive use of computers to design products, plan production, control operations, and perform various business-related functions. Agile Manufacturing / Mass Customization (1990s) Creation of highly flexible organizational structures that allow systems to produce highly customized product

Manufacturing System
Machines
Raw Material Finished Products

Characterized by:
Number of machines Number of part types Part routes through the system Processing times Machine setups Demand patterns Raw material/component availability Equipment layout/configuration Operator availability

Manufacturing System
Machines
Raw Material Finished Products

Interested in:
Lead time for products Cost of processing

Decisions include:
System configuration Scheduling methods

Manufacturing System Configurations


Job Shop
Process layout that groups functionally similar machines

Flow Line
Product layout that groups machines based on a products flow

Cellular Manufacturing System


Hybrid layout that groups similar parts and the corresponding processing machines Flexible Manufacturing System is an automated application

Project Shop
Product is fixed and people and equipment brought to it

Continuous Process

Manufacturing System Configurations


T T T T D D
G G G

T
M G

T
M G M D

M M M

Job Shop Configuration

Flow Line Configurations

Manufacturing System Configurations


Cell 1 Cell 2

Cell 4 Cell 3

Cellular Configuration

Product Volume vs. Product Variety


High
Continuous Flow Line / Transfer Line

Volume

Cellular / Flexible Mfg. Sys.

Low

Job Shop

Low
Variety

High

Manufacturing System Design


Manufacturing System Design

Resource Requirement

Resource Lay Out

Material Flow

Buffer Capacity

Manufacturing System Operation

Operation Decomposition
Planning
Deciding what to do

Scheduling
Deciding when to do what you planned

Execution
Carrying out the planned tasks according to the schedule

Hierarchical System Structure


Shop Workstation Equipment

Principles of Manufacturing Systems

Littles Law
WIP = Production Rate Throughput Time (L= W)

Matter is conserved Larger scope implies reduced reliability Objects decay Exponential growth in complexity

M components, N states ==> NM possible system states

Principles of Manufacturing Systems


Technology advances System components appear to behave randomly Limits of (Human) rationality Combining, simplifying, and eliminating save time, money, and energy

Manufacturing Systems Overview


Product Design Process Planning Production System Design Production Planning Operational Planning Shop Floor Control Execution

Product Design

Idea
Understanding and identifying customer needs Initial Design Feasibility study to determine initial

Idea Generation (Product Design)

Feasibility Study (Performance Specification)

functionality

Prototype Market Research


Market potential, economic analysis,

Preleminary Design (Prototype)

strategic assessment

Design Refinement
Functional specifications

Final Design (Final Design Specification)

Detailed Specifications
Detailed design considering functions,

Process Planning (Manufacturing Specication)

quality/reliability, manufacturing, etc.

Product Design (Cont.)

Functional analysis Customer specifications Product reliability Design for X Manufacture or Assembly Simplification, standardization, modularization Testing Repair Robustness to variations Concurrent engineering Consider how product will be manufactured (process and production planning) during design phase Reduce cost and time to market

Product Design (Cont.)

Computer-Aided Design
Use of computer graphics to assist in the creation, modification, and analysis of a design Common uses
Geometric modeling Automated drafting and documentation Engineering analysis Design analysis

CAD/CAM
Generation of manufacturing instructions directly from CAD design data

Product Life Cycle

Product (Consumer) Perspective


Inception Design Production Use
Maintenance and repair

Production System (Manufacturer) Perspective

Disposal Reuse, recycle, scrap


Sale

Design Ramp-up Maturity Decline

Time

Production System Life Cycle

Lifecycle
Inception Design Construction Startup Use Closure

Relationship to product lifecycle


Typically production system lifecycle is longer than an individual products lifecycle Production system will revert to earlier stages in its lifecycle when new products are introduced
Extent and cost depends on system flexibility