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W E L C O M E

T O

G R O U P 1 S

P R E S E N T A T I O N

Presented by :

VU THUY TRAN THI TH DANG THI THANH TRAN NGUYEN THI MAI TRAM

Table of contents
INTRODUCTION APPLIED LINGUISTICS Definitions Functions of Applied Linguistics Historical perspectives 1950s 1960s 1970s Psychological Reality Pedagogical and Analytical Grammars CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS Definition Kinds of contrastive analysis Versions of contrastive analysis CONCLUSION

Applied linguistics
Definitions

Applied linguistics is the applications of linguistics principles or theories to certain more or less practical matters. (Brown.1976b, Kaplan et al. 1981)

Applied linguistics
Definitions

Applied linguistics is the branch of Linguistics concerned with using linguistic theory to address real-world problems. It has been traditionally dominated by the fields of language education and second language acquisition, but some see it as encompassing all applications of linguistic theory. Both definitions are widely used.

Applied linguistics
Definitions

Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of study that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics are education, linguistics, psychology, anthropology, and sociology.

Applied linguistics
Definitions

Applied linguistics, the study of language related issues applied in every day life, notably language policies, planning, and education. Applied linguistics puts linguistic theories into practice in areas such as foreign language teaching, speech therapy, translation and speech pathology.

Applied linguistics
Functions Though the term "applied linguistics" has traditionally been associated with the scientific study of such areas as language teaching and learning, applied linguists do a variety of things. Some of the questions that applied linguists ask include:

-How can languages best be learnt and taught?


-What social factors affect language learning? -How can technology be used to contribute to the effectiveness of language teaching/learning? -What are the related problems associated with language disorders? How can these be prevented?

Historical perspectives
Applications of theory have formed the stepping stones of progress in foreign language teaching. In the past few decades of history, there are some interesting relationships between theoretical paradigms and language teaching methods and techniques.
It can be divided into 4 periods :

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES
Structural Grammar (1950s)

Transformational Grammar (1960s 1970s)

4 periods
Case Grammar Generative Semantic Theories ( From 1980s)

Analytical Grammar

Historical perspectives
In the 1950s With structural linguistics and behavioral psychology acting as theoretical paradigms for research and practice, language teachers were strongly influenced by theory and were able to make direct applications of theory in the classroom. A linguistic paradigm such as Charles C. Fries in The structure of English (1952) was applied to language teaching perfectly. Ex : There are 4 form-classes (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs) and 15 types of function words (articles, auxiliary verbs, negative markers(not), conjunctions, prepositions )

Structural Grammar

Historical perspectives
In the 1950s In the classroom, teachers had instant pattern-practice models for students to fill in:
GROUP CLASS GROUP GROUP CLASS GROUP CLASS CLASS

A
The

1
boys

G
do

C
not

2
do

A
their

1
works

4
promptly

Psychological theory claimed that language, like any other aspect of human behavior, was something that could be broken into component parts and practiced repeatedly by the learner. Thus arose the rather common technique known as pattern practice

Historical perspectives
In the 1960s and 1970s There was a revolution in linguistics theory. The advent of generative linguistics brought with it a new way of looking at language, and at the same time cognitive psychology turned the attention of those studying human behavior away from programs of mechanistic conditioning.

Ex: "The man will hit the ball,"

Transformational grammar (Noam Chomsky)

Historical perspectives
In the 1960s and 1970s

Transformational grammar at first promised to be as applicable and relevant to the classroom as structural grammar had been, but it was not to be. Transformational grammar did not provide the relevance that teachers were looking for. The frustration of the new grammar was illustrated in the following letter written by the mother of a thirdgrade child to his language teacher :

Appliedof Linguistics and Contrastive Analsis This is from the letter by the mother a third-grade child to his language teacher
Dear Mrs Klein, Erics homework will be late. I have gone through three dictionarys to fine, if nothing else, a definition for the word determiner sounds easy doesnt it?! I mean this is for third grade English. Well, no luck. So, I called my sister, shes in her second year of college- no luck. Then I called my brother-in-law who teaches English and courses at U.C.L.A. He has a masters degree and doctors degree! None of us know what a determiner is ! This doesnt make any sense at all. You are hearing from a mother who is loosing her marbles. Eric doesnt know what it is. John (he s in fifth) doesnt know. Michael (hes in sixth grade) says it has something to do with the word the but he isnt sure. I went to see my grandmother in the hospital this evening. She knows everything. Almost, but not determiner. My husband doesnt know, and by golly neither do it. ()

Historical perspectives
Psychological Reality Psychological Reality- the degree to which a theory accurately accounts for actual thought - is important criterion for language teachers. Grammatical structures are psychologically real if they describe directly relate to mental processing, storage, and recall. (*) The criterion of psychological reality considers that the semantic or cognitive component is the base of language, not syntactic component.

Eg:

Bill doesnt have a home. (01)


Bill has a home. (02)

Bill is a homeless. (03)

Historical perspectives
Psychological Reality A cognitive or semantic base is suggested by generative semantic theories of language. Case grammar falls into this category of grammatical description. Nilsen (1971) described some of the potential uses of case grammar in teaching English as a foreign language, showing that it can lead to structurally based lessons that are at the same time situational and meaningful.

Historical perspectives
Psychological Reality With a semantically or cognitively based grammar, such sentences as the following structurally diverse by some standards could be categorized as semantically similar: I saw a boy who had red hair. I saw a boy and he had red hair. I saw a red-headed boy. The boy I saw was a redhead. A redheaded boy was seen by me.

Historical perspectives
Pedagogical and Analytical Grammars A resolution to the difficulty of reconciling theory and practice can be found in the concept of pedagogical and analytical grammars. A pedagogical grammar is a grammatical description of a language specifically designed as an aid to teaching that language. A good model of a pedagogical grammar can be found in Robert Krohns English Sentence Structure (1971) , in which major grammatical categories are presented in simply stated rules and accompanied by exercises tailored for the learners. Most grammar textbooks used in foreign language classes are pedagogical grammars.

Historical perspectives
Pedagogical and Analytical Grammars An analytical grammar attempts to account formally and logically for the structure of a language without reference to pedagogy, sequencing, levels of difficulty, or ease of explanation. Few analytical grammars are suitable for pedagogy : -Fries Structure of English (1952) was an exception - Traditional grammars of Jespersen (1933) were not very helpful for the language student. - Transformational grammar was valuable to language teachers for its implications, not its applications. - Case grammar, generative semantic models are more relevant to language learning and language teaching. - Communicative grammars may be a good resolution to the dilemma of putting theory into practice.

Summary of Historical Perspectives

Contrastive analysis
Definition Contrastive analysis is an inductive investigative approach based on the distinctive elements in a language. (Glossary of Linguistic Terms,2004) Contrastive analysis is the systematic study of a pair of language with a view to identifying their structural differences and similarities. Historically, it has been used to establish language genealogies Wikipedia

Kinds of Contrastive Analysis Here are some kinds of contrastive analysis:

Contrastive analysis

Intralingual
-Analysis of contrastive phonemes E.g: contrastive phonemes /p/ & /b/ in English -Feature analysis of morphosyntactic categories E.g: forms of verbal as Subject, Object, complement -Analysis of morphemes having grammatical meaning E.g: morphemes making number, tense -Analysis of word order E.g: OSV, SVO -Componential analysis of lexemes E.g: Salary [+paid monthly] [+usually by cheque] Wage [+paid weekly] [+in cash] [+usually for manual or clerical work] -Analysis of lexical relations E.g: synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy

Kinds of Contrastive Analysis

Contrastive analysis

Here are some kinds of contrastive analysis:

Cross-linguistic
- Comparative analysis of contrastive phonemes between 2 languages E.g. /p/ in English vs. Vietnamese - Comparative analysis of morphosyntactic systems E.g. Adjectives in English vs. Vietnamese - Comparative analysis of lexical semantics E.g. causative verbs in English vs. Vietnamese - Analysis of translational equivalence: one idea in two languages. Analysing to see if there is an equivalence or a lost of lexical meaning - Study of interference in foreign language learning E.g. How OSV order in Vietnamese may influence transfers into English

Versions of Contrastive Analysis

Contrastive analysis

Procedures of contrastive analysis : 1. Description 2. Selection 3. Contrast 4. Prediction of error or of difficulty.

Versions of Contrastive Analysis

Contrastive analysis

This hypothesis has three versions, the strong version, the weak version and the moderate version. The strong version is the one which most of the supporters of this theory base their claims, although it was unrealistic and impracticable. However, the weak version does have possiblities for usefulness, although even this is suspect to some linguists. It does not imply the a priori prediction of certain fine degrees of difficultty.

Versions of Contrastive Analysis

Contrastive analysis

The strong version "It is possible to contrast the system of one language (the grammar, phonology and lexicon) with the system of a second language in order to predict the difficulties which a speaker of the second language will have in learning the first language, and to construct reading materials to help him/her learn that language." This theory makes a lot of demands of linguists. Main tenants of CAH (strong version): Main source of errors in L2 due to transfer of L1 habits Errors can be predicted by a contrastive analysis of the L1 and L2 The greater the difference between L1 and L2, the more errors that will occur

Versions of Contrastive Analysis Hierachy of difficulty : Prator (1967) suggested six levels :

Contrastive analysis

1. Level 0- Transfer : No difference or contrast is present between the two languages. e.g : I like music Ti thch m nhc 2. Level 1- Coalescence Two or more items in the native language become coalesced into essentially one item in the target language. e.g : NL: i (m), mc (o), mang giy, xc nc hoa TL: wear (a hat), wear (a shirt) 3. Level 2- Underdifferentiation An item in the native language is absent in the target language. e.g: TL: //, // , // NL: there are no //, // , //

Versions of Contrastive Analysis Hierarchy of difficulty :

Contrastive analysis

4. Level 3- Reinterpretation An item that exists in the native language is given a new shape or distribution. e.g. NL: a beautiful girl TL: mt c gi p 5. Level 4 over differentiation A new item entirely must be learned. e.g. TL: /dZ/ NL: there is no /dZ/ 6. Level 5 split One item in the native language becomes two or more in the target language. e.g. NL: hc TL: learn , study

Versions of Contrastive Analysis

Contrastive analysis

Problems with CAH: Errors occur that are not due to L1 Errors dont occur when they are predicted Problems operationalizing the contrastive analysishow do you measure difference and distance Paradigm shift from behaviorist to mentalist views in psychology and linguistics - Errors in child language part of rule formation and not part of childs linguistic environment - Limitation and reinforcement/correction dont seem to be important to language acquisition

Versions of Contrastive Analysis

Contrastive analysis

The weak version:


"The linguist uses the best linguistic knowledge available to him in order to account for the observed difficulties in second-language learning." This approach makes fewer demands of contrastive theory than the strong version. The starting point of this approach is provided by real evidence from such phenomena as faulty translation, learning difficulties and residual foreign accents.

Versions of Contrastive Analysis The moderate version:

Contrastive analysis

Oller and Ziahosseiny(1970) proposed a moderate form a compromise between the strong and weak versions - of the CAH on the basis of a rather intriguing study of spelling errors. -Interference can actually be greater when items to be learned are more similar to existing items than when items are entirely new and unrelated to existing items. -Greater differences do not always result in greater learning learning difficulty.

CONCLUSION