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SIMPANG BERSINYAL BERDASARKAN MKJI

KELOMPOK I

SIMPANG BERSINYAL MENURUT MKJI


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

FUNGSI / MANFAAT SIMPANG BERSINYAL


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA

untuk menghindari kemacetan simpang akibat adanya konflik arus lalu-lintas, sehingga terjamin bahwa suatu kapasitas tertentu dapat dipertahankan, bahkan selama kondisi lalulintas jam puncak; untuk memberi kesempatan kepada kendaraan dan/atau pejalan kaki dari jalan simpang (kecil) untuk /memotong jalan utama; untuk mengurangi jumlah kecelakaan Ialulintas akibat tabrakan antara kendaraankendaraan dari arah yang bertentangan
Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

PERSYARATAN SIMPANG BERSINYAL

1.

2. 3.

Arus lalu lintas pada simpang lebih besar dibandingkan dengan Arus pada Jalan pendekat DS > 0,85 Cycle time > 40 detik

Pada saat arus lalu lintas sudah mulai meninggi lampu lalu lintas sudah harus dipasang Ukuran meningginya arus lalu lintas kendaraan yaitu dari waktu tunggu rata-rata kendaraan pada saat melintasi simpang Jika waktu tunggu rata-rata tanpa sinyal sudah lebih besar dari waktu tunggu rata-rata dengan sinyal perlu dipasang sinyal Waktu tunggu pada simpang tanpa sinyal dipengaruhi oleh:
Arus lalu lintas pada masing-masing arah Waktu antara kedatangan kendaraan dari masing-masing arah Keberanian pengemudi untuk menerima waktu antara yang tersedia guna menyeberangi jalan
Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

CONTOH SIMPANG BERSINYAL T intersection


DIVERGING MERGING CROSSING

DI

ME

Crossing = 3 Merging = 3 Diverging = 3

Total = 9
Total = 32
Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Istilah dalam perencanaan simpang bersinyal


Waktu siklus (cycle time) waktu satu periode lampu lalu lintas, misalnya pada saat suatu arus di ruas jalan A mulai hijau, hingga pada ruas jalan tersebut mulai hijau lagi Fase (phase) suatu rangkaian dari kondisi yang diberlakukan untuk suatu arus atau beberapa arus, yang mendapatkan identifikasi lampu lalu lintas yang sama

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Jari-jari tikungan berkisar antara 6 s/d 9 meter Hindari jari-jari terlalu kecil kendala manuver bagi bus & truk Fasilitas penyeberang jalan (zebra cross) 2,5 s/d 5 meter sejarak 2 meter didepan garis henti Panjang pelebaran harus lebih besar dari probabilitas panjang antrian terbesar

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Jalur khusus bus berakhir pada awal panjang antrian terbesar Jika arus lalulintas belok kanan cukup besar, perlu dibuatkan jalur khusus belok kanan dilengkapi dengan rambu dan marka yang sesuai

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Arus Lalu Lintas Jenuh Dasar Arus lalu lintas jenuh arus lalu lintas maksimum yang dapat melewati persimpangan dengan lampu lalu lintas
Menurut MKJI (1997), arus lalu lintas jenuh dasar tipe pendekat P (terlindung) dapat dihitung sbb:
0 = 600 S0 = arus lalu lintas jenuh dasar (smp/jam) We = lebar jalan (m)

Menurut Widodo (1997) dan Munawar (2003), nilai arus jenuh yang ada di lapangan ternyata lebih besar dari nilai tersebut sebesar 1,3 kali, sehingga rumus di atas dikoreksi menjadi:
0 = 780

Arus lalu lintas jenuh dasar tersebut, masih harus dikoreksi lagi dengan: CS, SF, G, P, RT/LT

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Arus Lalu Lintas Jenuh Dasar Menurut MKJI (1997), arus lalu lintas jenuh dasar tipe pendekat O (terlawan) dapat ditentukan dari Gambar C-3:2 (untuk pendekatan tanpa lajur belok-kanan terpisah) dan dari Gambar C-3:3 (untuk pendekat dengan lajur belok kanan terpisah) sehagai fungsi dari We, QRT dan QRTO' Jika gerakan belok kanan lebih besar dari 250 smp/jam, fase sinyal terlindung harus dipertimbangkan, artinya rencana fase sinyal harus diganti. Cara pendekatan misalnya peninjauan kembali waktu sinyal suatu simpang

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Arus Tipe O (terlawan) dan Tipe P (terlindung)

Type 0 arus berangkat terlawan Keberangkatan dengan konflik antara gerak belok kanan dan gerak lurus/belok kiri dari bagian pendekat dengan lampu hijau pada fase yang sama Type P arus berangkat terlindung Keberangkatan tanpa konflik antara gerak belok kanan dan gerak lurus dari bagian pendekat dengan lampu hijau pada fase yang sama

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Contoh pengaturan waktu antar hijau dan lampu hijau, kuning dan merah
Fase 1

Fase 2

A. Waktu antar hijau = 4 det

Fase 1

Fase 2

B. Waktu antar hijau = 6 det

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Waktu siklus yang disarankan


Tipe pengaturan Waktu siklus yang layak (det)

Pengaturan dua-fase Pengaturan tiga-fase Pengaturan empat-fase

40 - 80 50 100 80 - 130

Nilai-nilai yang lebih rendah dipakai untuk simpang dengan lebar jalan <10 m, nilai yang lebih tinggi untuk jalan yang lebih lebar Waktu siklus lebih rendah dari nilai yang disarankan, akan menyebabkan kesulitan bagi para pejalan kaki untuk menyeberang jalan Waktu siklus yang melebihi 130 detik harus dihindari kecuali pada kasus sangat khusus (simpang sangat besar), karena hal ini sering kali menyebabkan kerugian dalam kapasitas keseluruhan
Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Waktu antar hijau Penentuan waktu antar hijau diambil dari perbedaan antara akhir waktu hijau suatu fase dengan awal waktu hijau pada fase berikutnya Waktu antar hijau dimaksudkan agar pada saat fase berikutnya mulai hijau, maka arus lalu lintas yang bergerak pada fase tersebut semuanya sudah bersih dari persimpangan Lama waktu antar hijau tergantung pada kecepatan minimum kendaraan paling lambat guna melintasi persimpangan tersebut

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Pada analisa yang dilakukan bagi keperluan perancangan, waktu antar hijau berikut (kuning + merah semua) dapat dianggap sebagai nilai normal
Ukuran Simpang Lebar jalan rata-rata Nilai normal waktu antar-hijau

Kecil Sedang Besar

6-9m 10 - 14 m > 15 m

4 detik / fase 5 detik / fase 6 detik / fase

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Waktu kuning Lampu kuning (sesudah lampu hijau) dimaksudkan agar kendaraan yang akan menyeberang, memperhitungkan jika pada waktu sampai ke garis henti persimpangan diperkira kan lampu masih kuning maka kendaraan akan mempercepat kendaraannya, dan sebaliknya Waktu kuning biasanya diambil 3 detik

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

RENCANA FASE SINYAL


Sinyal 2 Fase:
Simpang US & BT Fase 1 : US Fase 2 : BT

Sinyal 3 Fase:
Fase 1 : US Fase 2 : US Fase 3 : BT

terlawan

terlindung

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

SIMPANG 4 LENGAN DUA FASE


Skema
U U U

S
Simpang 4 Lengan Bersinyal

S
Fase 1 : U - S

S
Fase 2 : B - T

Simpang US & BT

Fase 1 : US

Fase 2 : BT

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

U
T

S
Simpang 4 Lengan Bersinyal

S
Fase 1 : U - S

S
Fase 2 : B - T

Simpang US & BT

Fase 1 : US

Fase 2 : BT

S
Interval Antar Hijau US --> BT Interval Antar Hijau BT --> US Interval Antar Hijau US --> BT

Interval Kuning Interval Hijau Merah Semua US --> BT Interval Hijau Interval Kuning Merah Semua BT --> US Interval Hijau

Interval Kuning Merah Semua US --> BT

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

WAKTU SIKLUS

Waktu hijau efektif, dihitung berdasarkan: Pada waktu lampu kuning (sesudah lampu hijau), maka arus lalu lintas masih akan terus menyeberang jalan Walaupun demikian, pada saat lampu kuning, arus lalu lintas yang lewat tidak sebanyak pada saat lampu masih hijau sebagian pengemudi ada yang ragu-ragu, akan terus atau berhenti Pada saat awal lampu hijau, pengemudi masih perlu waktu untuk bereaksi untuk mulai menyeberang jalan

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Waktu hijau efektif Besar waktu hijau efektif adalah:

Waktu hijau efektif = waktu hijau + koreksi (a) koreksi (b) koreksi (c)
koreksi (a) waktu tambahan, karena pada saat lampu kuning, kendaraan masih melewati garis stop Menurut MKJI (1997) koreksi (a) dianggap sama dengan koreksi (b) + koreksi (c), sehingga waktu hijau efektif = waktu hijau sebenarnya

koreksi (b) dan (c) disebut waktu hilang (lost time) umumnya ditentukan 1 detik
Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Penentuan Waktu Sinyal Penentuan waktu sinyal untuk keadaan dengan kendali waktu tetap dilakukan berdasarkan metoda Webster (1966) untuk meminimumkan tundaan total pada suatu simpang. Pertama-tama ditentukan waktu siklus (c), selanjutnya waktu hijau (gi) pada masing-masing fase ( i ) 1,5 + 5 = 1 c LTI FR IFR FRcrit = waktu siklus sinyal (detik) = jumlah waktu hilang per siklus (detik) = Arus dibagi dengan arus jenuh (Q/S) = Nilai FR tertinggi dari semua pendekat yang berangkat pada suatu fase sinyal = Rasio arus simpang = jumlah FRcrit dari semua fase pada siklus tersebut
Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Waktu Hijau Penentuan waktu hijau untuk tiap fase dijelaskan dengan rumus berikut ini: = /

gi c LTI FR IFR
FRcrit

= waktu hijau dalam fase i (detik) = waktu siklus sinyal (detik) = jumlah waktu hilang per siklus (detik) = Arus dibagi dengan arus jenuh (Q/S) = Nilai FR tertinggi dari semua pendekat yang berangkat pada suatu fase sinyal = Rasio arus simpang = jumlah FRcrit dari semua fase pada siklus tersebut
Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Derajat Kejenuhan = / DS Q C = derajat kejenuhan = arus lalu lintas (smp/jam) = kapasitas (smp/jam)

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

KAPASITAS SIMPANG BERSINYAL

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Kapasitas Simpang Bersinyal


g CS c
Variabel C g c S S0 FCS FSF FG FP FRT

S S0 FCS FSF FG FP FRT FLT


Deskripsi kapasitas kaki simpang (smp/jam) waktu hijau efektif (detik) waktu siklus (detik) arus jenuh kaki simpang (smp/jam) arus jenuh dasar kaki simpang (smp/jam) faktor pengaruh ukuran kota faktor pengaruh hambatan samping Merupakan Fungsi dari:

FLT

faktor pengaruh gradien memanjang faktor pengaruh jarak parkir faktor pengaruh proporsi belok kanan; hanya berlaku pada arus P, tanpa median dan jalan dua lajur-dua arah faktor pengaruh proporsi arus belok kiri; proporsi arus belok kiri hanya berlaku pada arus P tanpa belok kiri (1 - 0.16LT) langsung

P & O: We; O: Qrt, Qrto jumlah penduduk jenis lingkungan, kelas hambatan samping, KTM/KM gradien Lp,WA, g proporsi arus belok kanan (1 + 0.26RT)

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Kapasitas Simpang Bersinyal

Untuk keadaan protected: S0 600We


Untuk keadaan opposed lihat halaman 2-51, 2-52 1,5 LTI 5 c 1 FRcrit i
i

LTI IGi

IGi 4 6 det SM K
LTI = lost time intersection IGi = intergreen antar fase
SM = waktu semua merah K = waktu kuning

c disarankan: 40-80 detik (2 fase) 50-100 detik (3 fase) 80-130 detik (4 fase) FRcriti g i (c LTI ) FRcriti
i

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Nilai Konversi Smp

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Nilai Default Intergreen

Ukuran persimpangan Kecil Sedang Besar

Rata-rata lebar approach 3-6m 6-9m >9m

Nilai default intergreen 5 detik/fase 6 detik/fase 7 detik/fase

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Gambar Sketsa Penentuan CT

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Gambar Penentuan Lebar Efektif

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Arus Jenuh Dasar Untuk Tipe Approach P

10000 9000 8000

Base satu ration flow So (p cu /hr)

7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

So = 600 x We

Efective width (m)

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Penentuan Tipe Approach

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Faktor pengaruh ukuran kota, FCS


Ukuran kota Jumlah penduduk (juta) Faktor pengaruh ukuran kota, FCS Sangat kecil < 0,1 0.82 Kecil 0,1 0,5 0.88 Sedang 0,5 1,0 0.94 Besar 1,0 3,0 1.00 Sangat besar > 3,0 1.05

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Faktor Pengaruh Hambatan Samping, FSF


Lingkungan Jalan Hambatan Samping
Tinggi Tinggi Sedang

Rasio Jumlah Kendaraan Tidak Bermotor terhadap Jumlah Kendaraan Bermotor Jenis Fase 0,00 Opposed Protected Opposed Protected 0,93 0,93 0,94 0,94 0,05 0,88 0,91 0,89 0,92 0,10 0,84 0,88 0,85 0,89 0,15 0,79 0,87 0,80 0,88 0,20 0,74 0,85 0,75 0,86 0,25 0,70 0,81 0,71 0,82

Komersial

Sedang

Rendah
Rendah Tinggi Tinggi Sedang

Opposed
Protected Opposed Protected Opposed Protected Opposed Protected Opposed Protected

0,95
0,95 0,96 0,96 0,97 0,97 0,98 0,98 1,00 1,00

0,90
0,93 0,91 0,94 0,92 0,95 0,93 0,96 0,95 0,98

0,86
0,90 0,91 0,94 0,92 0,95 0,93 0,96 0,90 0,95

0,81
0,89 0,81 0,89 0,82 0,90 0,83 0,91 0,85 0,93

0,76
0,87 0,78 0,86 0,79 0,87 0,80 0,88 0,80 0,90

0,72
0,83 0,72 0,84 0,73 0,85 0,74 0,86 0,75 0,88

Perumahan

Sedang Rendah Rendah

Akses Terbatas

Tinggi/ Sedang/ Rendah Tinggi/ Sedang/ Rendah

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Faktor Koreksi Gradien FG

Faktor Pengaruh Gradien, Fg

Turun (%)

Naik(%) (%) Naik

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Faktor Koreksi Parkir FP

Faktor Pengaruh Jarak Parkir, FP

Jarak Parkir Kendaraan terhadap Garis Henti, Lp (m)

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Faktor Koreksi Belok Kanan FRT


1.3 1.25

Frt = 1.0 + (Prt x 0.26)

Corre ction factor, Frt

1.2 1.15 1.1 1.05 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Ratio of right turns Prt

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Faktor Koreksi Belok Kiri FLT

1 0.98 0.96

Corre ction factor, Flt

0.94 0.92 0.9 0.88 0.86 0.84 0.82 0.8 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Flt = 1.0 - (Plt x 0.16)

Ratio of left turns, Plt

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Penentuan Waktu Siklus

360 330 300

Cycle time (second)

270 240 21 0 1 80 1 50 1 20 90 60 30 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

LT = 20 LT = 15 LT = 10 LT = 5

0.7

0.8

0.9

Intersection flow ratio IFR

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Ukuran Kinerja Simpang Bersinyal: Derajat Kejenuhan & Antrian

Qc DS Sg Smp yang digunakan untuk Q adalah: LV (KR) = 1, HV (KB) = 1,3, SM(MC) = 0,2 (protected), 0,4 opposed NQ NQ1 NQ2 NQ1 = jumlah kendaraan dalam smp yang tersisa dari fase hijau sebelumnya (lihat rumus dan grafik pada halaman 2-64) NQ2 = jumlah kendaraan dalam smp yang datang selama fase merah g 1 Q c NQ2 c g 1 DS 3600 Signalized c Intersection Safety Strategies

Jumlah Antrian Kendaraan


20 18 16

Remaining PCU NQ1

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Degree of saturation DS

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Penghitungan Jumlah Antrian smp max, NQmax

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Proporsi Kendaraan Terhenti, PSV

Proportio n of stop vehicle Psv

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

NQ/c

Green ratio GR = g/r

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Penentuan Nilai Aj Dalam Formula Tundaan

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Penentuan Nilai Bj

Bj
Degree of saturatio n DS 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.006 0.025 0.064 0.133 0.250 0.450 0.817 1.600 4.050 0.007 0.028 0.070 0.142 0.265 0.477 0.889 1.730 4.600 0.008 0.031 0.075 0.152 0.282 0.506 0.928 1.870 5.280 0.010 0.034 0.081 0.162 0.299 0.536 0.987 2.030 6.180 0.011 0.038 0.088 0.173 0.317 0.569 1.050 2.210 7.380 0.013 0.042 0.094 0.184 0.336 0.604 1.130 2.410 9.030 0.015 0.046 0.101 0.196 0.356 0.641 1.200 2.640 11.50 0.017 0.050 0.109 0.208 0.378 0.680 1.290 2.910 15.70 0.020 0.054 0.116 0.222 0.400 0.723 1.380 3.230 24.00 0.022 0.059 0.125 0.235 0.425 0.768 1.490 3.600 49.00 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Tingkat Pelayanan
Tundaan (det/smp) Tk. Pelayanan A B C D E F
<5 5.1-15 15.1-15 25.1-40 40.1-60 > 60

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Ukuran Kinerja Simpang Bersinyal: Antrian Untuk keperluan perancangan dibutuhkan Nqmax yang merupakan fungsi dari NQ dan POL (halaman 2-66)
20 NQmax QL WENTRY NQ NS 0,9 3600 stop/smp Qc

N SV QNS stop/jam
Untuk level simpang NSTOT
N SV QTOT

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Ukuran Kinerja Simpang Bersinyal: Tundaan


D DT DG

DT = rataan tundaan lalu-lintas (detik/smp), lihat halaman 2-68 DG = rataan tundaan geometrik (detik/smp)

DG 6 T (1 SV ) 4 SV
Untuk level simpang:

DI

QD QTOT

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Perbaikan Kinerja Simpang Bersinyal


Bila c sangat besar dan DS > 0,85, maka kinerja simpang menjadi kurang baik. Bentuk upaya perbaikan harus terkait dengan sebab rendahnya kinerja simpang.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Pelebaran lengan pendekat Kapasitas tergantung pada arus jenuh yang melewati garis henti (lebar lengan pendekat). Melebarkan lengan pendekat meningkatkan kapasitas persimpangan. Panjang dari pelebaran lengan pendekat juga sangat penting untuk diperhatikan.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Menaikkan waktu siklus semakin lama waktu siklus semakin besar kapasitas persimpangan semakin tinggi antrian dan tundaan yang terjadi Menurut MKJI 1997 [p.2-60] kisaran waktu siklus adalah 40 s/d 130 detik Pada kondisi tertentu terpaksa digunakan waktu siklus > 130 detik.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Perubahan pola fase Perlu dilakukan simulasi untuk mendapatkan pola fase yang paling efisien. Semakin sedikit fase semakin tinggi kapasitas persimpangan semakin besar kemungkinan konflik yang dapat terjadi. Umumnya jumlah fase yang digunakan berkisar antara 2 s/d 4. Siklus dengan 2 fase umumnya dilengkapi dengan early cut-off atau late-start. persimpangan Raya Darmo Polisi Istimewa

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Meminimalkan waktu antar-hijau Waktu antar-hijau diperlukan untuk menjamin keamanan kendaraan yang melewati simpang pada saat detik akhir hijau, agar tidak tertabrak kendaraan yang mendapatkan fase hijau berikutnya. Meminimalkan waktu hijau mendekatkan garis henti dengan pusat persimpangan.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Larangan belok kanan Meningkatkan kapasitas akibat pengurangan fase. Namun harus dilakukan manajemen lalulintas untuk melayani kendaraan yang hendak belok kanan dengan menyediakan U-turn atau Re-routing.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Strategy Categories
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Traffic control and operational improvements Geometric improvements Improve sight distance Improve driver awareness Improve driver compliance Improve access management Improve safety through other infrastructure treatments

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Explanation of Time, Cost, and Effectiveness


Time Frame
Short: a few months up to 1 year Medium: 1 to 2 years Long: More than 2 years

Effectiveness
Proven: Strategies that have been used in one or more locations and properly designed evaluations have been conducted that show it to be effective. Tried: Strategies that have been implemented in a number of locations and may even be accepted as standards, but for which valid evaluations have not been conducted. Experimental: Strategies that have been suggested and that at least one agency has considered sufficiently promising to try on a small scale in at least one location.

Cost
Low Moderate Moderate-High High Relative cost to other strategies discussed

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Employ Multiphase Signal Operation


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA
Signalized intersections with a high frequency of angle crashes involving left turning and opposing through vehicles. A properly timed protected leftturn phase can also help reduce rear-end and sideswipe crashes between left-turning vehicles and the through vehicles behind them.

Key to success
The overall length of the turn lane is a key element in the design of the lane. A lane that does not provide enough deceleration length and storage space for left-turning traffic could cause the turn queue to back up into the adjacent through lane. This can contribute to rear-end and sideswipe crashes and increase delay for through vehicles.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness:Proven, Tried

Optimize Clearance Intervals


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA A2
Signalized intersections with a high frequency of crashes related to change interval lengths that are possibly too short. These crashes include angle crashes between vehicles continuing through the intersection after one phase has ended and the vehicles entering the intersection on the following phase. Rear-end crashes may also be a symptom of short change intervals.

Key to success
Yellow intervals should be long enough for motorists traveling at the prevailing speed to enter the intersection before the light turns red, if too close to stop comfortably. All-red intervals should not be so long as to encourage disrespect in drivers for the intervalthereby contributing to red-light running and even more severe crashesor so short as to violate driver expectancy regarding the length of the interval, resulting in abrupt stops and possible rear-end crashes.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness: Proven

Restrict or Eliminate Turning Maneuvers (Including Right Turns on Red)


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA A3
Signalized intersections with a high frequency of crashes related to turning maneuvers. For right turn on red (RTOR), the target of this strategy is right-turning vehicles that are involved in rearend or angle crashes with cross-street vehicles approaching from the left or vehicles turning left from the opposing approach, and crashes involving pedestrians.

Key to success
One key to success is providing for safe and adequate alternative locations to make the turn in close proximity to the intersection where the prohibition is placed. A careful traffic engineering study should be made to ensure that the safety and operational problems calling for the prohibition are not merely relocated.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness:Tried

Employ Signal Coordination


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA A4
Signalized intersections with a high frequency of crashes involving major street left-turning and minor street right-turning vehicles where adequate safe gaps in opposing traffic are not available. Major road rear-end crashes associated with speed changes can also be reduced by retiming signals to promote platooning.

Key to success
Signals up to a mile of each other should be coordinated. The grouping of the signals to be coordinated is a very important aspect of design of a progressive system. Factors that should be considered include geographic boundaries, volume/capacity ratios, and characteristics of traffic flow. Coordination across jurisdictional boundaries is strongly encouraged.

This photo shows two closely-spaced intersections that are not coordinated. Poor coordination results in unnecessary stops, more delay, and possibly higher crash rates.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness:Proven

Employ Emergency Vehicle Preemption


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA A5
Signalized intersections where normal traffic operations impede emergency vehicles and where traffic conditions create a potential for conflicts between emergency and nonemergency vehicles.

Key to success
One key to success is ensuring that the preemption system works when needed by providing clear sight lines between emergency vehicles and detectors. Also, it is important to ensure that vehicles from a variety of jurisdictions will be able to participate in the signal preemption program. The focus of the treatment should be on fire and emergency medical services because they often follow standard routes. Another key to success is the coordination of implementation across jurisdictions, including compatibility of equipment and technology, as well as operational policies.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness: Proven

MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA A6

Improve Operation of Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities at Signalized Intersections


Signalized intersections with high frequencies of pedestrian and/or bicycle crashes. Also on routes serving schools or other generators of pedestrian and bicycle traffic.

Key to success
The key to success for this strategy is to get the appropriate agencies to look at pedestrian and bicycle facilities from a more systematic point of view. That is, rather than making improvements where problems occur, anticipate the needs of pedestrians and bicyclists during the design of other intersection improvements. Incorporate appropriate improvements in the design before problems occur. Involve groups representing pedestrians and bicyclists in the early stages of a programs development.

Example of using a no right-turn sign in conjunction with a leading pedestrian phase.

Example of a pedestrian countdown signal.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness:Proven, Tried

Remove Unwarranted Signal


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA A7
Signalized intersections where the traffic volumes and safety record do not warrant a traffic signal.

Key to success
Keys to success include determining the appropriate traffic control to be used after the removal of the signal and removing any sight distance restrictions through the intersection. Pedestrian and bicycle movements through the intersection should be considered when determining traffic control, geometric changes, and signing improvements that will be made when the signal is removed. Keeping the public informed about the traffic control removal study will also lead to the success of this strategy.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness:Proven

Provide/Improve Left-Turn Channelization


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA B1
Signalized intersections where crashes related to left-turn movements are an issue.

Key to success
Keys to success in implementing left-turn lanes include the appropriate design of all elements (length, width, taper). Another key to success with left-turn lanes is to incorporate other strategies such as protected-only phasing.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness:Tried/Proven

Provide/Improve Right-Turn Channelization


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA B2
Signalized intersections with a high frequency of rear-end collisions resulting from conflicts between: (1) vehicles turning right and following vehicles; and (2) vehicles turning right and through vehicles coming from the left on the cross street.

Key to success
Properly designing the right-turn lane is paramount. Visibility of channelizing islands is also very important. Islands can be difficult for drivers to see, especially at night and in inclement weather. Raised islands have proven more effective than flush-painted islands at reducing nighttime collisions.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness: Proven

Improve Geometry of Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA B3
Signalized intersections with high frequencies of pedestrian and/or bicycle crashes and on routes serving schools or other generators of pedestrian and bicycle traffic.

Key to success
A key to successful pedestrian and bicycle facilities is careful planning. The network of facilities should be well connected to meet the needs of the community. Landscaped medians should not obstruct visibility between pedestrians and bicyclists and approaching motorists or include objects representing a collision hazard to vehicles that may run onto the median.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness: Proven, Tried

Revise Geometry of Complex Intersections


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA B4
Signalized intersections with high levels of crashes on a leg where other low-cost strategies have not been successful or are not considered appropriate.

Key to success
The key to success for a project of this type is conducting an adequate system traffic study to ensure that the safety and other operational problems are not merely transferred from the intersection being treated to other locations.

In this photo, the photographers vehicle is in the through lane. Note it is aligned with the opposing left turn lane requiring a shift to the right when going through the intersection.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness:Proven, Tried

Construct Special Solutions


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA B5
Signalized intersections with high frequencies of crashes that are not reduced through other lower-cost solutions.

Key to success
Major construction projects have a greater chance of success when all key stakeholders including owners of nearby businesses, transit agencies, neighborhood/resident groups, and other primary users of the intersection get involved.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Tried

Clear Sight Triangles


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA C1
Signalized intersections where there is a high frequency of crashes between vehicles turning right on red from one street and through vehicles on the other street or crashes involving left turning traffic where landscaped medians are present.

Key to success
A key to success for this strategy is effective diagnosis of whether a specific crash pattern observed at an intersection is, in fact, related to restricted sight distance. Currently this is a judgment made by an experienced safety analyst.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness: Tried

Redesign Intersection Approaches


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA C2
Signalized intersections with safety problems related to sight distance that cannot be addressed with less expensive methods.

Key to success
There are significant right-of-way and property access issues involved in this strategy, and public information campaigns are vital to the success of the intersection improvements.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness: Proven

Improve Visibility of Intersections on Approach(es)


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA D1
Signalized intersections with a high frequency of crashes attributed to drivers being unaware of the presence of the intersection.

Key to success
A key to success with this strategy is to select a combination of signing and delineation techniques appropriate to specific conditions. This engineering assessment should, where possible, be accompanied by a human-factors assessment of signing and delineation needs.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness: Tried

Improve Visibility of Signals and Signs at Intersections


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA D2
Signalized intersections with a high frequency of right-angle and rear-end crashes occurring because drivers are unable to see traffic signals and signs sufficiently in advance to safely negotiate the intersection being approached.

Key to success
Visibility and clarity of the signal should be improved without creating additional confusion for drivers. Additional signing to warn drivers should not clutter the intersection and should not present confusing or conflicting messages to drivers.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness: Tried

Provide Public Information and Education


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA E1
Signalized intersections with a high frequency of crashes related to drivers either being unaware of (or refusing to obey) traffic laws and regulations that impact traffic safety (especially red-light running, speeding, and not yielding to pedestrians).

Key to success
Keys to success include identifying and reaching as much of the intended audience as possible, providing information in non-technical terms, and providing personnel to answer questions. It is important to motivate people to drive, bike, or walk safely. People may have a false sense of security and may not see the need to drive more safely or follow traffic regulations in all circumstances. Using public information specialists and establishing good relationships with the media is important.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness: Tried

Provide Targeted Conventional Enforcement of Traffic Laws


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA E2
Signalized intersections with a high frequency of crashes related to drivers either being unaware of (or refusing to obey) traffic laws and regulations that impact traffic safety.

Key to success
It is important to correctly identify intersections that would benefit from enforcement. Care should be taken to first ensure that the existing signals are operating properly, are visible, and meet Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices requirements, as well as that timing plans including clearance intervalsare appropriate. Analysis of crash statistics can help with this process, as can spot speed or conflict studies. In some cases, public input or observations by law enforcement personnel may suggest that a location should be targeted for enforcement.

Telltale lights assist police officers by allowing them to sit downstream of the traffic signal and know when the red indication is displayed.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness: Tried

Implement Automated Enforcement of Red-Light Running (Cameras)


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA E3
Signalized intersections with a high frequency of right-angle and rear-end crashes attributed to drivers who intentionally disobey red signal indications.

Key to success
Acceptance by local stakeholdersincluding officials, the public, and local law enforcement is key to successful red-light running programs. A public information campaign explaining the program, the need for it, how the cameras work, and the potential benefits are key to successful implementation. Signs informing the public that automated enforcement is being used are frequently used. Successful red-light camera programs have generally begun as safety improvement programs. Programs that are perceived as revenue generators are generally not well accepted.

These photos show the front and rear of a typical red light camera installation.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness:Proven

Implement Automated Enforcement of Approach Speeds (Cameras)


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA E4
Signalized intersections with a high frequency of crashes attributed to drivers who intentionally disobey posted approach speed limits.

Key to success
A key to the success of this strategy is planning the enforcement and prioritizing the intersections that need it. Such intersections should have a combination of high-speed violation rates and related crash patterns. In some cases, public input or observations by law enforcement personnel may suggest that a location should be targeted with enforcement. It is important that both the highway agency and the local law enforcement agencies be involved jointly in planning and operating the program. Another critical key to the success of an automated enforcement program is public awareness and acceptance.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness:Tried

Control Speed on Approaches


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA E5
Signalized intersections with a high frequency of crashes attributed to drivers who intentionally disobey posted approach speed limits.

Key to success
A key to the success of this strategy is careful planning and determination of the type of traffic calming measure viable for the specific intersection approach. Such intersections should have a combination of high speedviolation rates and related crash patterns.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness:

Experimental

MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA F1

Restrict Access to Properties Using Driveway Closures or Turn Restrictions


Signalized intersections with high crash frequencies related to driveways adjacent to the intersection. Generally, driveways within 250 feet of the intersection are the greatest concern.

Key to success
Agencies should work with owners of adjacent properties to assure them that some restriction of access to their properties will improve safety and will not affect their ability (or, in the case of a retail business, their customers ability) to reach their properties. Where practical, these strategies should be implemented as part of a comprehensive corridor access management Cost: plan.

Time Frame: Effectiveness:

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Tried

Restrict Cross-Median Access Near Intersections


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA F2
Approaches to signalized intersections with a high frequency of crashes involving drivers making turns across medians.

Key to success
Provision of alternative locations for turning maneuvers is key. Care should be taken to prevent the safety problems related to the median opening from being transferred to another location. Land owners and affected persons should be involved early in the process. Demonstrating a linkage to the safety of their customers and the operational efficiency of the street is important. Successful access management techniques rely on physical barriers to restrict movements. Reliance on signing and pavement markings only requires strong enforcement to be effective, which in many cases will not be feasible.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness: Tried

Improve Drainage in Intersection and on Approaches


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA G1
Signalized intersections with a high frequency of crashes that are related to poor drainage. Such crashes involve vehicles that hydroplane and, hence, are not able to stop when required.

Key to success
A key to success for this strategy is involving hydrologic and hydraulic specialists during the initial phases to ensure that proper considerations are given to drainage aspects. Notification of proposed projects should be communicated to other agencies and the public. Any permits and regulations needed by the project should be identified as soon as possible so there are no delays due to legal processes. The success of this strategy will be significantly aided when provision is made for regular condition surveys of existing structures and hydraulic performance to evaluate the functionality of the improvements.

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness:Tried

Provide Skid Resistance in Intersection and on Approaches


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA G2

DIMANA DIGUNAKAN
Signalized intersection approaches where skidding is determined to be a problem, especially in wet conditions.

Key to success
Monitoring the skid resistance of pavement requires incremental checks of pavement conditions. Evaluation must identify ruts and the occurrence of polishing. Recent research has suggested that the surface should be restored between 5 and 10 years in order to retain surface friction, but the life span is affected by site characteristics, such as traffic volume.

The surface friction of this intersection is being improved.

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness: Tried

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Coordinate Closely Spaced Signals Near at-Grade Railroad Crossings


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA G3

DIMANA DIGUNAKAN
Signalized intersections in close proximity to atgrade railroad crossings with a high frequency of crashes. This situation presents a significant potential for vehicle-train crashes, but vehiclevehicle crashes could also occur if drivers try to speed through an intersection to avoid waiting in a queue near the railroad crossing.

Key to success
A key to success is the compatibility of the traffic signal and railroad active warning devices in order to safely control vehicle, train, bicycle, and pedestrian movements. Vehicles must be provided with adequate green time to clear the railroad tracks when a train is approaching. This means that potential queue lengths during congested periods must be considered and train detection systems provided on the railroad tracks far enough upstream of the crossing for the signal preemption to clear all vehicles. A gate is an integral part of the active warning system.

The use of a pre-signal is depicted in this photograph.

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness:


Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Tried

Relocate Signal Hardware out of Clear Zone


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA G4
Signalized intersections where signal hardware is located within the clear zone or is a sight obstruction (particularly on high-speed approaches).

Key to success
The new location of the signal hardware should not present a greater safety hazard than the previous location by creating a sight distance obstruction.

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness:

Tried

Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

Restrict or Eliminate Parking on Intersection Approaches


MANUAL KAPASITAS JALAN INDONESIA G5

DIMANA DIGUNAKAN
Signalized intersections with permitted parking on the approaches that may present a safety hazard either by blocking sight distance or due to parking maneuvers.

Key to success
Parking regulation signs need to be posted conspicuously. Consistent and rigorous enforcement of these regulations is necessary as well. Working with owners of adjacent properties to communicate the reasons for prohibiting parking is also essential to achieving success.

Cost: Time Frame: Effectiveness: Proven


Signalized Intersection Safety Strategies

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