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Food Sensory Analysis

Fernando Prez Muoz June 2011

Agenda
Day 1
Introduction to sensory Color and appearance Experiencing Jelly Beans Sensory testing basics

Day 3
The five tastes What is flavor? Rediscovering Flavor

Day 4
Rating tests Food texture Student experiments

Day 2
Triangle testing Student experiments

Introduction to sensory Color and appearance Experiencing Jelly Beans Sensory testing basics

DAY 1

Introduction to Sensory

What does this tell you?


Feel?
Taste? Aroma?

Look?
Sound?

What does this tell you?


Man or Woman? Age? Social Status?

Type of Car?
Cost?

Introduction to Sensory
What is Sensory Evaluation?
IFT Food Sensory Division
Sensory evaluation is the scientific discipline used to

evoke, measure, analyze, and interpret reactions to the


characteristics of food and materials as they are perceived by the senses of sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing.

Introduction to Sensory
If Sensory evaluation utilizes the five senses
What are the testing instruments? Will measurements be qualitative or quantitative? What could be some of the problems? Is it possible to fix those problems? Can those instruments be calibrated?

Introduction to Sensory

COLOR AND APPEARANCE

Color and Appearance


Light Source

What is needed to perceive the world through your eyes?

Object

Sight

What Characteristics can be Perceived Through Your Eyes?


Stimulus
Color Transparency Shape Size Surface texture Porosity Surface wetness

Interpretation
Flavor Hardness Wetness Sponginess Cohesiveness

What is Light?
Electromagnetic waves (380 to 760 nm)

What is Light?
RGB: Primary colors

What are Black and white?

What is Light?
Transmission, reflection and absorption

Light

transmission
Reflection

Absorption
Re-emission

Re-emission

Object Properties
Physical state: solid, liquid, gas Size Surface roughness (gloss) Color (pigments)

Object Properties
Pigments
Primary pigments: CYM

Eyesight
Eyes receive the stimulus Information sent to the brain Brain interprets data
Based on past experience and associations

Reaction occurs

Factors Affecting Eyesight


Iris Light control Lens - Focus Retina
Cones (gray levels) Rods (color)
Less sensitive Capability lost at low light levels

Past Experience

Factors Affecting Eyesight


Carry-Over
The visual impression of the object remains for a few seconds after the stimulus has been removed

Factors Affecting Eyesight


Color Implications
Our mind has established links between colors and their meaning Such links are used when interpreting the data received Might lead to the wrong conclusion

Factors Affecting Eyesight


Color Implications
What color comes to mind when you hear the word chocolate?

Factors Affecting Eyesight


Expectations
This is similar to the color expectation The brain establishes links to speed up data analysis Such links or shortcuts might lead to wrong interpretations

Factors Affecting Eyesight


Cultural Expectations
More brain shortcuts These are dependent on the culture or environment in which the person grew up

Factors Affecting Eyesight


Metamerism
Different interpretation of the same stimulus under different circunstances

Introduction to Sensory Color and appearance

EXPERIENCING JELLY BEANS

Demo #1 What Color are Them?


You will be presented with Jelly Bean samples. When instructed, uncover and observe the samples one at a time Use the score sheet to write the observed color of the samples

Demo #1 What Color are Them?

What happened!!!

Introduction to Sensory Color and appearance Experiencing Jelly Beans

SENSORY TESTING BASICS

Basic Concepts
Data types Qualitative
Blue, red, yellow Round, square, oval Apple, melon, peach Yes, no Same, different

Quantitative
Integers: 1, 2, 3, 4 Decimals: 3.5, 8.2 Fractions: , , Ordinal: 1st, 2nd, 3rd Multiples: double, triple

Basic Concepts
Test types Difference tests
Compare 2 treatments to determine if they are different

Descriptive test
Describe the attributes of importance in a product and their respective intensities

Attribute tests
Compare 2 or more treatments to determine difference in the intensity of a specific attribute

Consumer test
Determine preference or acceptance of a product by consumers

Basic Concepts
Testing protocol
Identify treatments Prepare experimenter sheet and panelist score card Train panelists Conduct experiment and gather data Analyze data Report results

Basic Concepts
Test Controls
Environment
Location, light, time of day, etc

Sample
Size, shape, matrix, presentation order, etc

Panelists
Smoking, health status, chewing gum, etc

Basic Concepts
Data analysis
Statistics makes it a science based field

Instrumental analysis
Useful to establish relationships between panel data and instrumental data

Thresholds and limits

Basic Concepts
Panel vs. Instruments

Questions?
Day 1 ends here

Triangle testing Student experiments

DAY 2

Review from Yesterday


Sensory is a science that uses peoples senses to measure food properties If proper care (controls) are taken, data can be analyzed statistically to make decisions Instruments can also be used to measure properties
but sensitivity can differ

Review from Yesterday


Test types Difference tests
Compare 2 treatments to determine if they are different

Descriptive test
Describe the attributes of importance in a product and their respective intensities

Attribute tests
Compare 2 or more treatments to determine difference in the intensity of a specific attribute

Consumer test
Determine preference or acceptance of a product by consumers

TRIANGLE TESTING

Difference Tests
Objective
Determine overall difference between two treatments

Test types
Triangle Two-of-Five Duo-Trio Same or Different A Not A Different from control

No indication of the magnitude or direction of the difference Simplest tests

Triangle Testing
Application
Effect of change in process, ingredient, supplier, etc. Compare competitor products Select panelists

Triangle Testing

Test procedure
Prepare enough samples of both treatments
Controls over samples

Look Closely

Are they obviously different?

Triangle Testing
Test procedure
Prepare enough samples of both treatments
Controls over samples

Present samples to panelists


Random presentation
AAB, ABA, BAA, BBA, BAB, ABB

Coded samples
Three digit random number

Triangle Testing
Test procedure
Experimenter cheat sheet

Triangle Testing
Score Card

Triangle Testing

Lets Practice

Data Analysis
Data analysis based on the binomial distribution
Two possible outcomes: right or wrong

Count the number of correct answers Perform statistical analysis


With equations (can be set in a worksheet) Using tables (easier)

Data Analysis
Critical number of responses in a triangle test.

Meilgaard, M.C., B.T. Carr and G.V. Civille. 2006. Sensory Evaluation Techniques. Fourth Edition. CRC Press

Triangle Testing

STUDENT EXPERIMENTS

Exercise 1: Triangle Testing


Select your project
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cheddar vs. Colby Pepsi vs. Coke Pepn vs. Holsum Hormel vs. Armour Suiza Premium vs. Tropicana

Prepare and execute triangle test Analyze data

Exercise 1: Triangle Testing


Project presentations and discussion
Test objective
Test type Number of panelists Controls Number of correct responses

Conclusions

Final Comments

Questions?
Day 2 ends here

The five tastes What is flavor? Thresholds and prejudices

DAY 3

Review of Concepts
Sensory is a science that uses peoples senses to measure food properties If proper care (controls) are taken, data can be analyzed statistically to make decisions Instruments can also be used to measure properties
but sensitivity can differ

Review of Concepts
Test types Difference tests
Triangle test

Triangle test Compare two treatments

Three samples
Two equal, one odd

Attribute tests Descriptive test Consumer test

Count correct responses Use table to analyze data

THE FIVE TASTES

The Five Tastes

Umami

The Five Tastes


Taste buds are the tongue receptors
They regenerate constantly

Taste sensitivity is lost with age


Kids are specially sensitive to sweets As we age, sensitivity decreases
Specially for sweet and salty Thus, we can enjoy bitter and sour foods
Or increase seasoning/sugar content

The Five Tastes


Taste detection depends on concentration of chemical stimulant
Bitter Sour Umami Salty Sweet but there are interactions between the tastes that affect the perceived intensity of each other.

The Five Tastes


There is also a time-intensity relationship characteristic of chemical stimulants
Food modifiers (e.g., gelatin, maltodextrin, MSG) can be used to alter it

The Five Tastes


Stereochemistry
There must be a match between the chemical and taste receptor Receptors saturate
Perception lost due to saturation Saturation avoided by cleaning frequently
Water Soda crackers (unsalted)

The Five Tastes


Perception affected by
Temperature Viscosity Consumption rate Contact duration Area of contact Chemical state of saliva Presence of other stimulant chemicals

The five tastes

WHAT IS FLAVOR?

What is Flavor?
Flavor is the integrated perception resulting from stimulating
Taste buds Olfactory receptor Trigeminal nerve in the palate, throat and cheeks

Smell - Nose Receptors


Aromas are the result from the interaction of volatile chemicals with nose receptors
Not all volatiles can be perceived by humans, but in order to smell it, it has to be volatile

Aromas are affected by


Structural modifications Heat volatilization

Smell - Nose Receptors


Nose receptors
Saturate Adapt (get use to the aroma) Are emotional Are highly sensitive (better than any instrument) Discriminate about 10,000 different volatiles
But can identify around 200

Trigeminal Nerve

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trigeminal Also called trigeminal nerve. Either one of the five pairs of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the muscles of mastication, and of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from the head and face to the brain.

Trigeminal Nerve
Responsible for sensations from irritant chemicals
Carbonation Burning Cooling Warm/Hot Pungency Astringency

Trigeminal Nerve
Trigeminal sensations are difficult to separate from the taste/aroma perceptions
These are expected in certain products
Implications to sensory panels and consumer acceptance of products

Perception of taste/aroma can be affected by trigeminal factors Can affect time-intensity perception curves of taste/aroma compounds

The five tastes What is flavor?

REDISCOVERING FLAVOR

Rediscovering Flavor

Score Card
Scale #1 Not sweet Extremely sweet

Scale #2

Not sweet

Extremely sweet

Scale #3

Not sweet

Extremely sweet

Scale #4

Not Acid

Extremely Acid

Exercise 2: Relating Perception to Instrumental Data

VS.

Exercise 2: Relating Perception to Instrumental Data


Pick your product
Orange juice Apple juice Tomato Ketchup Grape jelly Vanilla yogurt

Conduct test Analyze data and prepare graphs

Exercise 2: Relating Perception to Instrumental Data


Product tested

Brand rating
Graphs
Sweetness Acidity

Summary
Flavor = Taste + Aroma + Trigeminal Sensations
Combination of three senses

Taste Sweet, Salty, Sour, Bitter, Umami Aroma Volatile compounds Trigeminal factors affect acceptance

Questions?
Day 3 ends here

Rating tests Food texture Student experiments

DAY 4

Review of Concepts
Sensory is a science that uses peoples senses to measure food properties If proper care (controls) are taken, data can be analyzed statistically to make decisions Instruments can also be used to measure properties
but sensitivity can differ

Review of Concepts
Test types Difference tests
Triangle test

Triangle test Compare two treatments

Three samples
Two equal, one odd

Attribute tests Descriptive test Consumer test

Count correct responses Use table to analyze data

Review of Concepts
Flavor
Interaction between taste, aroma and trigeminal nerve sensations It can be useful to establish relationships between sensory and instrumental data

RATING TESTS

Attribute Difference Test


Determine degree of difference between two or more treatments on a specific attribute
Training might be required to ensure panelists understand the attribute to be evaluated Training is required if more than one attribute will be evaluated

Attribute Difference Test


Test types:
Directional difference

Paired ranking
Simple ranking Rating

Rating Tests
Determine the intensity of an attribute on several treatments at the same time
Three or more treatments

No less than 10 panelists


Trained to identify attribute

Data collected on scales


Line Category

Scales
Line Scale
Scale #1 Not sweet Extremely sweet

Category Scale

Data Analysis
Prepare data table Analyze using ANOVA
In Excel, use ANOVA two factors without replication
Panelist 1 2 3 4 17 18 19 20 A 2 0 0 3 2 2 0 6 B 3 1 2 4 4 3 1 4 C 1 0 0 2 3 3 0 3 D 5 2 2 5 3 4 0 4 E 3 2 0 5 1 3 2 3

Data Analysis
F > F crit, reject No difference
ANOVA
Source of Variation Rows Error Total SS 128.51 57.56 102.84 288.91 df 19 4 76 99 MS 6.764 14.390 1.353 F 4.998 10.634 P-value 0.000 0.000 F crit 1.725 2.492

<- Panelists

Columns <- Treatments

P-value < , reject No difference

No difference on the Rows (panelist) is not desired. This can be corrected by training or replication of the experiment.

Data Analysis
If ANOVA yields a reject no difference verdict
At least one treatment is significantly different

Rating tests

FOOD TEXTURE

Food Texture
Food texture refers to the way we perceive food through the senses of touch Provide info such as hardness, cohesiveness, sponginess, gumminess, adhesiveness, firmness, etc.

Food Texture
Texture Profile Analysis

Food Texture

Food Texture
Attribute Firmness Description Slope to maximum force of first cycle

Hardness 1
Cohesiveness Adhesiveness Sponginess

Maximum force of first cycle


Ratio of Area 2 to Area 1 Minimum force (negative) of first cycle Ratio of Hardness 2 to Hardness 1

Rating tests Food texture

STUDENT EXPERIMENTS

DEMO 5: Texture Profile Analysis

Exercise 3: Rating Test on Texture


Select your project
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Firmness of chocolate ganage Softness of scrambled eggs Cohesiveness of cookies Adhesiveness of rice crisps treats Sponginess of cup cakes

Prepare and execute rating test Analyze data

Exercise 3: Rating Test on Texture

Test Objective Treatments Panel results Instrumental data Conclusion

Final Words
Sensory is a science that uses peoples senses to measure food properties Measuring food properties can be misleading if proper controls are ignored Not just eat your food, enjoy it!
There is much more to it than just nourishment Let the inner kid out to play (with food) !!!

Questions?
Workshop ends here