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Chapter 2 Situational Influences

Situations influence consumer behaviour

four main types of situations can be categorised according to five main dimensions implications for marketing strategy

Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour 4e by Neal, Quester, Hawkins

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Topics
The types of situational influence The nature of situational influence

Dimensions of situation

Physical Social Time (temporal) Task Antecedent

Situational influences and marketing strategy

Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour 4e by Neal, Quester, Hawkins

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Types of Situation
Communication situation

Where? Alone or with others? Surrounding noise? Where? Alone or with others? In a hurry? With guests or alone? For pleasure or for work? Before the next purchase? Trade-ins? Or after the purchase, e.g. packaging

Purchase situation

Usage situation

Disposal situation

Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour 4e by Neal, Quester, Hawkins

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Consumer Behaviour is
ProductPersonSituation Specific

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The Role of Situation in Consumer Behaviour

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Five Dimensions of Situational Influence


Physical surroundings Social surroundings

Temporal perspectives
Task definition Antecedent states

Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour 4e by Neal, Quester, Hawkins

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Examples of Physical Surroundings


Store location Interior decor

Music
Smell / aromas Temperature (air-conditioning or heating)

Amount of choice provided

(by product category or across the categories)

Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour 4e by Neal, Quester, Hawkins

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Typology of Service Environments

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The Impact of Background Music on Restaurant Patrons

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Impact of Physical Density on Shopper Perceptions

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Examples of Social Surroundings


Types of customers in the store Queues and crowding

Whether the consumer is likely to be known by

others/recognised Whether there are high-profile people/celebrities shopping at that store Whether the product will be consumed privately or in the presence of others

Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour 4e by Neal, Quester, Hawkins

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The Impact of Social Situations on Desired Dessert Attributes

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Examples of Temporal Influences


Whether the product is seasonal Whether the product is urgently required

(snack between lectures) Time available for shopping limited/excess (the product may be just an excuse for shopping) How long the previous product lasted or was expected to last

Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour 4e by Neal, Quester, Hawkins

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Examples of Task Influences


Is the product utilitarian or used as a status

symbol? Is it a gift or for oneself? Must the product be long-lasting/tough? (e.g. an everyday watch) or decorative? (e.g. a dress watch) Is the product intended for several uses? (e.g. a family computer for study and internet access)
Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour 4e by Neal, Quester, Hawkins

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Buying Factors in Gift-Giving Purchase Situations

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Examples of Antecedent States


Moods

Feeling sad triggers buying sweets or going to a funny movie Feeling rejected triggers buying games software Cant eat ice cream because teeth hurt Cant buy a book because left the credit card at home Buy more groceries because hungry before shopping

Momentary conditions

Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour 4e by Neal, Quester, Hawkins

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Ritual Situations
A ritual situation can be described as a set of

interrelated behaviours that occur in a structured format, that have symbolic meaning and that occur in response to socially-defined occasions Important to marketers as they define consumption, e.g. anniversaries, seasonal gifts Traditions and rituals being continued and developed, e.g. Valentine's Day

Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour 4e by Neal, Quester, Hawkins

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Situational Influences and Marketing Strategy


Developing a situational influence matrix Positioning the product based on situation

Segmenting the market based on usage situation


alone in combination with other segmentation variable person/situation segmentation

Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour 4e by Neal, Quester, Hawkins

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The Situational Influence Matrix

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Usage Situations and Product Positioning

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Next Lecture
Chapter 3: Problem Recognition

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