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VSAT or Very Small Aperture Terminals are small, software-driven earth stations. It is used for the reliable transmission of data, video, or voice via satellite. It requires no staff or additional technology to operate it. It simply plugs into existing terminal equipment.

A VSAT earth terminal is characterized by a much smaller antenna, typically less than 2m in diameter. Consequently, the unit cost is appreciably lower than that of the hub. The VSAT has both lower antenna gain and lower transmit power than a hub, with the power normally generated by semiconductor devices of the type.

VSAT network is classified into three categories. The first network is mainly based on data communication, beside this, this network can also offer fax and little voice operation.

The second network is mainly based on voice communication, this network mainly offer transition and exchange for public and special network, while it can offer interactive data services The third network is mainly based on TV receiving, the receiving image and sound signal can be considered as the signal source of cable television, which is transmitted to user's home by cable distribution network.

Short for Small Aperture Terminal, an earthbound station used in satellite communications of data, voice and video signals, excluding broadcast television. A VSAT should consists of two parts



Device such as Personal Computer (PC)

A VSAT consists of two parts, a transceiver that is placed outdoors in direct line of sight to the satellite and a device that is placed indoors to interface the transceiver with the end user's communications device, such as a PC . The transceiver receives or sends a signal to a satellite transponder in the sky. The satellite sends and receives signals from a ground station computer that acts as a hub for the system.

Working of HUB station

Each end user is interconnected with the hub station via the satellite, forming a star topology. The hub controls the entire operation of the network . For one end user to communicate with another, each transmission has to first go to the hub station that then retransmits it via the satellite to the other end user's VSAT. VSAT can handle up to 56 Kbps.

Reliable Communications

Characteristics of VSAT systems

VSAT satellite communications provide virtually error-free digital data communications and better than 99.9% network reliability. Remote Communications No matter how remote or dispersed your operations are, VSAT provide a link to your headquarters. VSAT can provide remote diagnostics, remote monitoring, and data streaming services from remote or hazardous sites.

Time VSAT deployment takes no more than 4-6 weeks as compared to 4 to 6 months for leased lines. Network Management Network monitoring and control of the entire VSAT network is much simpler than a network of leased lines, involving multiple carriers at multiple locations. A much smaller number of elements needs to be monitored incase of a VSAT network and also the number of vendors and carriers involved in between any two user terminals in a VSAT network is typically one. Maintenance A single point contact for operation, maintenance, rapid fault isolation and trouble shooting makes things very simple for a client, using VSAT services


VSAT networks offer enormous expansion capabilities. VSAT can be rapidly installed to support the network expansion to any site, no matter however remote. Cost A comparison of costs between a VSAT network and a leased line network reveals that a VSAT network offers significant savings over a two to three years timeframe.

Front View VSAT Components

Outdoor Unit (ODU)


Indoor Unit (IDU)

Front View of VSAT IDU Front View of VSAT VSAT ODU Sub-Components VSAT Components





Mount Bracket

Front View

LCD Display, 1 line 16 characters

TRANSMIT: Each time burst sent inbound ON LINE: When 2-Way link established POWER: When power available

Push-button Forward Push-button Backward

RCVR LOCK: When L-Band receiver locks to carrier from hub

Introduction to Radar system

Functions of Radar

RADAR is a method of using electromagnetic waves to remotesense the position, velocity and identifying characteristics of targets.

History of Radar

Radar was developed for military purposes during W. W. II. The British and US Military used radar to locate ships and airplanes.

History of Radar

History of Radar

During the war, radar operators found annoying blips continually appearing on the radar screen. Scientists had not known that radar would be sensitive enough to detect precipitations. Today, radar is an essential tool for predicting and analyzing the weather.

Weather Radar

Weather Surveillanc e Radar, designed in 1957. It became the primary radar for the weather service for nearly 40 years.

Weather Radar
NSSL's first Doppler Weather Radar located in Norman, Oklahoma. 1970's research using this radar led to NWS NEXRAD WSR88D radar network.

The expensive radar equipment is protected by the sphere shaped cover. On the inside it looks similar to this:

Two Basic Radar Types

Pulse Transmission Continuous Wave

Pulse Diagram

Resting Time

Carrier Wave

Pulse Radar Components

Synchronizer Power Supply Display Unit Transmitter Duplexer ANT.


Antenna Control

Pulse Transmission

Pulse Repetition Time (PRT=1/PRF) Pulse Width (PW) Length or duration of a given pulse PRT is time from beginning of one pulse to the beginning of the next PRF is frequency at which consecutive pulses are transmitted. PW can determine the radars minimum range resolution. PRF can determine the radars maximum detection range.

Continuous Wave Radar

Employs continual RADAR transmission Relies on the DOPPLER EFFECT

Continuous Wave Radar Components

Transmitter CW RF Oscillator Antenna OUT






Pulse Vs. Continuous Wave

Pulse Echo Single Antenna Gives Range & Alt. Susceptible To Jamming Physical Range Determined By PW and PRF.
Continuous Wave Requires 2 Antennae No Range or Alt. Info High SNR More Difficult to Jam But Easily Deceived Amp can be tuned to look for expected frequencies

Classification by Primary Radar Mission

Search radars and modes

Surface search Air search Two-dimensional search radars Three-dimensional search radars

Tracking radars and modes Track-while-scan

AN/FPS-24 Search Radar

AN/SPS-49 Very Long Range Air Surveillance Radar

The AN/TPS-43 radar system, with a 200 mile range, was the only Air Force tactical ground based long range search and warning radar for nearly two decades. Most of

3-D Air Search Radar


Tracking Radar

Tracking radars dwell on individual targets and follow their motion in azimuth, elevation,range and Doppler. Most tracking radars can follow only a single target. A few radars can track multiple targets simultaneously. An electronically steered array antenna is used so that beam positions can be moved quickly from one target to another.

AN/APG-66 in the F-16