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Perilaku Konsumen Semester Ganjil 2010/2011 Program S1

Proses Pembelajaran Konsumen (Consumer Learning)

Consumer Learning
Crest (50 thn yang lalu) first introduced product toothpaste with fluoride kemudian dilanjutkan dengan pasta gigi dengan berbagai varian Upaya marketing : menjadikan Crest sbg superior produk brand loyalty Konsumen selalu mengasosiakan produkproduk yang berasal dari merek yang sama merupakan produk yang superior pula

Consumer Learning
Adalah sangat penting bagi marketer Marketer harus memberi pembelajaran kepada konsumen : dimana konsumen dapat membeli produk tsb, bagaimana mereka mempergunakan produk tsb, dan dilain pihak marketer juga harus belajar kenapa pula konsumen tidak mau mempergunakan produk tsb ?

Consumer Learning
Bagaimana kita (marketer) dapat mempengaruhi dan memelihara konsumen agar mau membeli (loyal),.. kenapa konsumen lebih menyukai produk tsb dibandingkan dengan produk pesaing,dll ? Bagaimana kita (marketer) berstrategi untuk dapat menggapai konsumen baik secara langsung (adv ) dan secara tidak langsung (packaging,price, distribution,etc)?

Importance of Learning
Marketers must teach consumers:
where to buy how to use how to maintain how to dispose of products

Theories of Consumer Learning


Tidak ada teori yang universal tentang teori pembelajaran konsumen Namun ada ada 2 teori yang berkaitan dengan proses pembelajaran konsumen yaitu : 1. Behavioral Theories 2. Cognitive Theories

Learning Theories
Behavioral Theories:
Theories based on the premise that learning takes place as the result of observable responses to external stimuli. Also known as stimulus response theory. (Pembelajaran diperoleh berdasarkan perilaku yang terlihat, sbg akibat dari terpaan /stimuli)

Cognitive Theories:
A theory of learning based on mental information processing, often in response to problem solving. (Pembelajaran diperoleh dari proses mental)

Consumer Learning (marketing prespective)

A process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior.

Ada beberapa kritik thd konsep ini, yaitu...a/l :

1. Pembelajaran konsumen merupakan sebuah proses,oleh karena itu dimungkinkan adanya perubahan disebabkan adanya knowledge yang baru pula (karena membaca, diskusi, observasi, pemikiran, dll) atau berdasarkan pengalaman yang dialami konsumen

Lanjutan :
2. Baik knowledge maupun experience baru tsb menghasilkan sebuah feedback bagi konsumen tsb dan memberikan future behavioral yang baru pula pada situasi yang mirip 3. Experience dalam pembelajaran tidak berarti bahwa semua pembelajaran melalui pertimbangan yang matang

Learning Processes
Intentional:
learning acquired as a result of a careful search for information

Incidental:
learning acquired by accident or without much effort Misal : konsumen membeli produk dikarenakan familiar brand name, namun dihari lain membeli dikarenakan adanya adv...

: Dari proses yang simple dikarenakan respon yang reflek saja, sampai dengan yang konsep lebih abstrak & merupakan problem solving...........

Elements of Learning Theories


Motivation (based on needs & goals) Cues : the stimuli that give direction Response : how they behave (reaction) Reinforcement : a specific response will
occur in the future as the result of particular cues or stimuli

Reinforcement

A positive or negative outcome that influences the likelihood that a specific behavior will be repeated in the future in response to a particular cue or stimulus.

1. Behavioral Learning Theories


Disebut juga sebagai stimulus-response theories Behavioral theory tidak terlalu banyak membahas tentang input dan outcomes dari proses pembelajaran,mereka lebih memfokuskan pada stimuli-stimuli yang diperoleh konsumen dari lingkungannya

Behavioral Learning Theories


1) Classical Conditioning 2) Instrumental Conditioning 3) Modeling or Observational Learning

1) Classical Conditioning
(Pavlovian Theory)

A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone.

Classical Conditioning
Teori ini mengasumsikan bahwa semua organisms (manusia/binatang) adalah entiti yang pasif dan dapat diajar melalui repetition (conditioning) sehingga suatu saat menjadi perilaku yang otomatik.

Conditioning : Certain condition through repetition (automatic) Pavlov : stimulus 1 (repeated) stimulus 2
conditioned stimulus : unconditioned stimulus:

Pavlovian Model of Classical Conditioning


Unconditioned Stimulus Meat paste Unconditioned Response Salivation Conditioned Stimulus Bell

AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS

Conditioned Stimulus Bell

Conditioned Response Salivation

Analogous Model of Classical Conditioning


Unconditioned Stimulus Dinner aroma Unconditioned Response Salivation Conditioned Stimulus 6 oclock news

AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS

Conditioned Stimulus 6 oclock news

Conditioned Response Salivation

Consumer behavior ;
Terkait dengan brand name/brand symbol sebagai unconditoned stimulus Neutrogena Conditoned stimuli : muncul pada produk baru dari merek tsb, sehingga konsumen mau mencoba produk tsb (conditioned response) sebab mereka percaya pada brand symbol tsb

Cognitive Associative Learning


(contemporary behavioral scientistNEO PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONG)

Classical conditioning is viewed as the learning of associations among events that allows the organism to anticipate and represent its environment. From this viewpoint, classical conditioning is not reflexive action, but rather the acquisition of new knowledge

Cognitive Associative Learning


Asosiasi antara conditioned stimulus (bell) dengan unconditioned stimulus (meat) mempengaruhi harapan (dog)

mempengaruhi perilakunya (salivation : mengeluarkan liur)

Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning untuk memahami perilaku konsumen


Repetition (advertising wearout/over learning
adv: change messages)

Stimulus Generalization (namun ada


kemungkinan konsumen tidak mampu membedakan stimulus yang berbeda hanya sedikit dgn pesaingcase :produk imitasi bisa sukses dipasar)

Stimulus Discrimination
(positioning strategy : selection specific stimulus unique stimulus)

Stimulus Discrimination

The ability to select a specific stimulus from among similar stimuli because of perceived differences.
Positioning

Differentiation

2) Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning

A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process, with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.

Stimulus Generalization and Marketing


Product Line, Form and Category Extensions Family Branding Licensing Generalizing Usage Situations

A Model of Instrumental Conditioning


Try Brand A
Try Brand B Try Brand C

Unrewarded Legs too tight


Unrewarded Tight in seat Unrewarded Baggy in seat

Stimulus Situation
(Need goodlooking jeans)

Try Brand D
Repeat Behavior

Reward Perfect fit

Instrumental Conditioning
Consumers learn by means of trial and error process in which some purchase behaviors result in more favorable outcomes (rewards) than other purchase behaviors. A favorable experience is instrumental in teaching the individual to repeat a specific behavior.

Startegic Application Instrumental Conditioning (terkait


dengan pemahaman perilaku konsumen)

Customer Satisfaction (Reinforcement)


Selain adanya pembelajaran dari pemakaian produk, tapi bisa juga disebabkan oleh pembelajaran dari lingkungan (transaksi/service/add offer)

Massed versus Distributed Learning


Advertiser menggunakan massed schedule untuk memperoleh dampak segera, namun apabila ingin longterm repeat buying maka dipergunakan distributed schedule

Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement: Unpleasant or Positive outcomes negative outcomes that strengthen the that serve to likelihood of a encourage a specific specific response behavior Exp: Ad showing Exp: Ad showing beautiful hair as a wrinkled skin as reinforcement to buy reinforcement to buy shampoo skin cream

Positive Reinforcement:

3) Observational Learning

A process by which individuals observe the behavior of others, and consequences of such behavior. Also known as modeling or vicarious learning.

Consumers Learn by Modeling

2. Cognitive Learning Theory


Not all learning cause repeated (classical conditioning) & trial
(instrumental conditioning)

Learning as the result of consumer thinking & problem solving


(Cognitive learning theory :based on mental activity)

Cognitive Learning Theory

Holds that the kind of learning most characteristic of human beings is problem solving, which enables individuals to gain some control over their environment.

Information Processing

A cognitive theory of human learning patterned after computer information processing that focuses on how information is stored in human memory and how it is retrieved.

Berkaitan dengan kemampuan kognitif konsumen maupun kompleksitas informasi yang diolah Bagaimana consumers store, retain & retrieve information : o Sensory store o Short term store o Longterm store

Sensory store : tidak semua sense diterima


secara utuh informasi akan terfragmentasiapabila informasi tidak segera diproses, dia akan cepat hilang sehingga tugas marketer adalah mampu membuat produk terimpresi lebih lama di konsumen (2 detik dalam benak konsumen)

Short term Store : adalah tahap dimana


informasi tg produk benar-benar menjadi memory dalam benak konsumen (2-10 detik dalam benak konsumen)informasi harus segera diproses & ditransfer (kemampuan otak hanya bisa menerima 45 item produk saja)

Long term Store : informasi dapat bertahan


lama di benak konsumen

Information Processing and Memory Stores


Working Memory (Shortterm Store)

Sensory Input

Sensory Store

Rehearsal

Encoding

Longterm Store Retrieval

Forgotten; lost

Forgotten; lost

Forgotten; unavailable

Models of Cognitive Learning

Promotional Tricompetent Model Model


Sequential Stages of Processing

DecisionMaking Model

Innovation Adoption Model

Innovation Decision Process

Attention
Interest Desire Action

Cognitive
Affective Conative

Awareness Knowledge

Awareness
Knowledge

Interest Evaluation Evaluation Persuasion Purchase Trial Decision Postpurchase Adoption Confirmation Evaluation

3. Involvement Theory
Research : hemispheral lateralization/split brain theory o Left hemisphere : reading, speaking & attributional information processing (verbal information) rational, active & realistic o Right hemisphere : non verbal, timeless, pictorial & holistic information emotional, impulsive & intuitive

Involvement Theory

A theory of consumer learning which postulates that consumers engage in a range of information processing activity from extensive to limited problem solving, depending on the relevance of the purchase.

Figure 7.14

Split Brain Theory


Right/ Left Brain Hemispheres specialize in certain functions