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ENVIRONMENTAL

STUDIES
CE-102 Civil Engineering Department
Lectures: 2/week ; 28 total ; 2 credits
ETE : 50%
MTE + CW : 50%
MTE : 35
CW : 15 (Assignments +
Regularity in class)
Soft copy of lectures
S. No. Name of Books/Authors/Publisher Year of Publ.
1 Environmental Science, 9
th
Edition, by Daniel D.
Chiras, Jones & Barlett India Pvt. Ltd.
2012
2 Introduction to Environmental Engineering, M.L.
Davis and D.A. Cornwell, McGraw Hill, New York 3/e
1998
3 Introduction to Environmental Engineering and
Science, G.M. Masters, Prentice Hall of India, New
Delhi. 2/e
1998
4 Environmental Engineering, H.S. Peavy, D.R. Rowe
and G. Tchobanoglous, McGraw Hill, New York
1986
Suggested Books
What is Ecology?
Study of interactions among organisms and
between organisms and their
environment.
Ernst Haeckel coined term Ecology in
1866

Greek word oikos means house


Levels of Organization
Ecologists study
organisms ranging from
the various levels of
organization:
Species/individuals
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biome
Biosphere
Species
Group of similar organisms that can breed and
produce fertile offspring
group of organisms, all of the same species, which
interbreed and live in the same area.
Population
Community
an assemblage of different populations that live
together
Ecosystem
Collection of organisms that live in a place with the
nonliving environment
Biome
Group of ecosystems with the same climate and
dominant communities
Tropical rain forest
Tropical dry forest
Tropical savanna
Temperate woodland
and shrubland
Desert
Temperate grassland
Boreal forest
(Taiga)
Northwestern
coniferous forest
Temperate forest
Mountains and
ice caps
Tundra
Organization Hierarchy
Ecosystem
Biotic Component
Abiotic Component
Living Plant & Animals
Air, Water, Mineral &
Soil
Energy: Sunlight
COMPONENTS
Characteristics of ecosystems


All ecosystems have a constant source of
energy ( sun)
Cycles to reuse raw materials
Water, nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus cycles



An ecosystem comprises of the biotic or
living ( viz. plants and animals)
and the abiotic or non-living components
( viz. air, water, minerals, soil)
Terrestrial ecosystems: forests, deserts,
jungles
Aquatic ecosystems: streams, lakes,
marshes
The Daintree Rainforest
in Queensland, Australia.

A coral reef near the Hawaiian
islands is an example of a
complex marine ecosystem.
Arctic tundra on Wrangel Island, Russia.
OPERATION OF ECOSYSTEM


Reception of radiant energy of Sun.



Synthesis of organic materials from inorganic by producers. (Primary
Production)



Consumption of producers by consumers. (Secondary Productivity)




After the death of producers and consumers complex organic compounds
are degraded and finally, converted into such forms (Humics) as are suitable
for neutralization by producers.


Energy flow in ecosystems
Photosynthesis

6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O + energy C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2

Respiration
Stored energy is released in the reverse reaction

C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O + energy

Released energy is available to drive other reactions, e.g. cell
metabolism and growth
I. C. engines/combustion processes same reaction
Difference: temperature
Energy flow through an ecosystem
Energy flows through
an ecosystem in ONE
direction,
Sun

Autotrophs

Heterotrophs
Synthetic fertilizers: N, P, K
Energy Transfer
Solar Energy
Stored Chemical Energy
Kcal/m2.
min
Feeding relationships
Food Chain steps of
organisms transferring
energy by eating & being
eaten
Food Web network of
all the food chains in
an ecosystem
Food chain
It is the process of eating and being eaten up.

Vegetation,
Algae, etc
Herbivores
Carnivores
Others
Carnivores
1
producers
1 consumers
2 consumers
+ Water + Nutrients
Food Energy
transfer at each
level
40
4.0 0.4 0.04
Photosynthesis
Solar Energy 4000
kcal/m2.d
Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs
Autotrophs make
their own food so
they are called
PRODUCERS

Heterotrophs get
their food from
another source so
they are called
CONSUMERS

Main forms of energy for autotrophs
Sunlight
The main source of
energy for life on earth
Photosynthesis

Chemical
Some organisms such as
bacteria, rely on the
energy stored in
inorganic compounds
Chemosynthesis
(honey, opium)
Types of Consumers
Herbivores- only eat plants Carnivores - only eat meat Omnivores
Eat plants and meat
Detritivores and
Decomposers
Feed on plant and animal
remains
wildebeest
Decomposers /detritivores
Polythene/plastics: no decomposition; banning of Plastics by States
Choking of sewer lines; agriculture sector: moisture, nitrogen fixation
Spills of crude in oceans
Vultures vanished from India, Pakistan (DDT or cow/buffalos)
Food Web
The interconnected food
chains form a food web
Ecological pyramids
Energy Pyramid
Biomass Pyramid
Pyramid of Numbers
Trophic Level each step in a food chain or food
web

Trophic levels
Why are nutrients important ?
95% of our body is made of

1) OXYGEN
2) CARBON
3) HYDROGEN
4) NITROGEN
Every living organism
needs nutrients to
build tissues and carry
out essential life
functions.

S and Ca etc. are synthesized by
organisms
Sugar should not be eaten ?
Trans fat ?
Availability of nutrients
If a nutrient is in short supply, it will limit
organisms growth. It is called a limiting nutrient
and is in accordance of Leibigs Law
When a limiting nutrient is dumped into a lake
or pond, an algal bloom occurs and this can
disrupt the ecosystem
Matter movement through an ecosystem
Unlike the one way flow of
energy, matter is recycled
within & between
ecosystems

Nutrients are passed
between organisms & the
environment through
biogeochemical cycles

Biogeochemical Cycles
Bio life
Geo Earth
Chemo chemical


1. WATER CYCLE

2. NUTRIENT CYCLES
a) CARBON CYCLE
b) NITROGEN CYCLE
c) PHOSPHORUS CYCLE



Material Cycle
Abiotic component (N, C, water) are finite.
Retained within the ecosystem called
reservoir pool.
As energy moves in food chain, materials
also move, and after death the decomposers
mineralize them.
These materials move in a cyclic way:
Biogeochemical cycles
WATER CYCLE
Water Cycle
Carbon Cycle
Inputs of new CO
2
comes naturally from
minerals and anthropogenically from the
combustion of fossil fuels
Plants are responsible for most of the CO
2
that
is converted to organic carbon
Carbon is lost to deep ocean zone via the
solubility
Carbon cycles within the biosphere by
photosynthesis and respiration
Carbon Cycle
Burning of Fossil
Fuels
Subsurface
Biological
Activity
CARBON CYCLE
4 PROCESSES MOVE CARBON
THROUGH ITS CYCLE:
1) Biological
2) Geochemical
3) Mixed biochemical
4) Human Activity
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2
30 m=1m coal seam
Carbonate rocks
Tooth paste

Nitrogen Cycle
Atmosphere provides an abundant reservoir
of N
2
N
2
is converted to biologically available forms
naturally by nitrogen-fixing organisms and
anthropogenically by combustion
Nitrogen cycles between NO
3
-
, NO
2
-
,NH
3
, and
organic N by different organism
N
2
is returned to atmosphere by
denitrification under anoxic conditions

NITROGEN CYCLE
Nitrogen-containing nutrients in the
biosphere include:
1) Ammonia (NH3)
2) Nitrate (NO3-)
3) Nitrite (NO2-)
ORGANISMS NEED NITROGEN TO
MAKE AMINO ACIDS FOR
BUILDING PROTEINS!!!
N
2

in Atmosphere
NH
3


N0
3-
&

N02-
N
2

in Atmosphere
NH
3


N0
3-
&

N02-
Haber process: 1918
Nobel Prize
Nitrogen
Cycle
Human Activities
Nitrogen
cycle
PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
PHOSPHORUS FORMS PART OF IMPORTANT LIFE-SUSTAINING
MOLECULES (ex. DNA & RNA)
Cold drinks; pH: 3
phosphoric acid
Phosphatic
fertilizers
Phosphorus Cycle

Fertilizers
Phosphate
Rocks
Stability & Diversity
Stable Ecosystem: Withstand external stress such as
pollution, construction: Tropical rain forest,
Biodiversity. Or variation of life at all levels of
biological organization







Little Diverse Ecosystem: Disappearance of
group of organisms from food web severely
disrupt the ecosystem.
Lake & River ecosystems are stable but due
to pollution and lower DO level only lower
species can survive.

Lake Eutrophication: Disrupted
Ecosystem
High Nutrients in Runoff:
Excess Algal Growth
Limit sunlight penetration
High Dissolved Oxygen Variation: Very low DO in Night
Fish Kills
Algal Toxins: Shellfish Poisoning, Odors etc.,
Case Study: Ecology Kashipur
Species Common Name Habit
Relative Abundance
Grassland Woodland Plantation Agriculture
Shorea robusta Sal Tree + ++ +
Dalbergia sissoo Sheesham Tree + ++ +
Poplar Tree + +++ +++ ++
Eucalyptus Eucalyptus Tree + +++ ++
Mangifera indica. Mango Tree + + +++ +
Sembal/Semal Tree + ++ +
Polyalthia Longifolia
Serpentina
Ashoka Tree + ++ +
Eugenia Jambolana Jamun Tree + +++ +
Morul Alba Shehtoot Tree + + +
Ficus Religiosa Peepal Tree + ++ +
Azadirachta Indica Neem Tree + ++ +
Acacia Nilotica Babul Tree ++ ++ +
Dendrocalamus Strictus Bamboo Tree ++ ++ +
Terminalia Arjuna Arjun Tree ++ +++ +
Disturbance of River Ecosystem:
Impact of Tehri Dam
Impact Assessment & Prediction
(Qualitative)
Likely change in the (i) water chemistry, especially
with respect to dissolved oxygen and (ii) turbidity of
water.
Likely impact on biodiversity, i.e., flora and fauna of
the area.
Likely obstruction of movements of migrating fish
species during breeding season.
Likely impact of water accumulation on the
upstream side of the dam, which causes inundation
of land including forest-land.
Likely problem of water-logging and salinity of the
land in the command area.
Mitigating Measures: Environmental
Management Plan-I
Compensatory Afforestation
Area of 4586.07 ha. in Lalitpur and Jhansi District & . 2716.40 ha. of
degraded forest-land of Khanpur forest range in Haridwar District.
Catchment Area Treatment
The main objective of CAT works was to check soil erosion and resultant
siltation in the reservoir. Afforestation, soil conservation, treatment of
agriculture land, farm forestry, horticulture etc..
Command Area Development
In order to mitigate the likely problem of water-logging and salinity, the
network of field channels and drains were developed..
Flora
In CAT works, the species as recommended by Botanical Survey of India
(BSI), based on their flora study of the area, have been planted. A Botanical
Garden in an area of 14.28 ha. has also been established and plantation of
special species coming under submergence has been completed, so as to
preserve important flora of the region.
Fauna
Action plan for possible mitigation of Mahseer fish was framed.
The periphery of the reservoir have been suitably planted by bushes, shrubs
and trees for the rehabilitation of Aves (Birds), and also attract other groups
of animals. The bushes, shrubs and undergrowth have therefore been
provided as ideal shelter to snakes and lizards also.



Mitigating Measures: Environmental
Management Plan-II
Water Quality Maintenance
The water quality modeling concluded that no specific measures are
required and there would be no adverse effect on the water quality due
to impoundment.
Water quality monitoring on Tehri Reservoir, both upstream and
downstream is being carried out at 5 monitoring stations. The water
quality study also concluded that Dissolved Oxygen (D.O.) and
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) in whole of reservoir are expected to
remain within permissible limits desired for drinking water resources.
Another mathematical model study on water circulation concluded that
water in reservoir remains under dynamic circulation throughout the
year and does not remain stagnant.
Green Belt
A green Belt have been planned to be created along the rim of the
reservoir between 850 m above MSL and 1050 m above MSL. The
idea for developing the green belt is to check soil erosion and resultant
siltation of the reservoir; to protect and regenerate the vegetation in the
rim area; to increase the natural beauty of the landscape.
An ecological model is a mathematical expression that can be used to describe or
predict ecological processes such as population density, community species richness,
productivity, or distributions of organisms
Ecological Succession
Well Balanced Ecosystem change over time.
Lake Shallow Lake (deposition of Silt)
Marsh Meadow (grassland) Hardwood
Forest.
Takes place long period of time and could not
studied in one human lifespan.
Can be affected by human activities such as
pollution.

ACCUMULATION OF
POLLUTANTS
SUN
CO
2
CH
4
CO
2
CO
2
CO
2
CH
4

Mining,
industries.
Fuel
Decomposition
by bacteria
Liquid & solid
wastes
People
Animals
Food
Nutrients
(NCP)
Water
Trees,
Plants,
Algae,
Grass
OXYGEN
Some
metals,
chemicals
&
pesticides
persists in
the soil,
water and
Food.
Wastes
Photo
synthesis
CO
2
SOx,
NOx

ACCUMULATION OF POLLUTANTS IN
ENVIRONMENT
1. Conservative Pollutants: Pesticides, Heavy Metals etc.,
2. Non Conservative Pollutants: Biodegradable Organics,
Human Waste
(A)
Water
Supply
Town A
Town B
Town C
Drainage
(B)
Initial
concentration
River
Concentration of conservative
pollutant increases after each outfall
(C)
Initial D.O.
D.O. profile sags below
each outfall as
biodegradable matter
exerts oxygen demand
Minimum D.O Minimum D.O
Bacterial concentration increases
below each outfall but rapidly
diminishes as natural die off occurs
(D)
Initial bacterial
concentration
River
Conservative Pollutants:
Biomagnification
Biomagnification is the
bioaccumulation of a substance up
the food chain by transfer of
residues of the substance in smaller
organisms that are food for larger
organisms in the chain.
Sequence of processes that results
in higher concentrations in
organisms at higher levels in the
food chain (at higher trophic levels).
These processes result in an
organism having higher
concentrations of a substance than
is present in the organisms food.

Biomagnification
When partitioning concentrates a chemical in one
phase that is the food for a higher phase, the
chemical can further concentrate as we move up
the food chain.
Bioconcentration
Bioconcentration is a process that results in an organism having a higher
concentration of a substance than is in its surrounding environmental media,
such as stream water.
Bio-concentration factor is the concentration of a particular chemical in a
tissue per concentration of chemical in water (reported as Lipid/kg). This
physical property characterizes the accumulation of pollutants through
chemical partitioning from the aqueous phase into an organic phase, such as
the gill of a fish..
BCF = [Concentration of X in Organism] / [Concentration of X in Environment]
High potential BCF>1000; Moderate Potential 1000>BCF>250; Low potential
250<BCF.
Bioconcentration of a substance is correlated to the octanol-water partition
coefficient (K
OW
) of the substance. The octanol (fatty alcohol, CH3(CH2)7OH) /
water partition coefficient (Kow) is defined as the ratio of a chemical's
concentration in the octanol phase to its concentration in the aqueous phase
of a two-phase octanol/water system.
Kow = Concentration in octanol phase / Concentration in aqueous phase.
Chemicals with low K
ow
values (e.g., less than 10) may be considered relatively
hydrophilic; they tend to have high water solubilities, small soil/sediment
adsorption coefficients, and small bio-concentration factors for aquatic life.
Conversely, chemicals with high Kow values (e.g., greater than 10000) are very
hydrophobic.
LogBCF = 0.79 x logK
OW
- 0.4
Bioaccumulation
Bioaccumulation is a general term for the accumulation
of substances, such as pesticides (DDT is an
example), methylmercury, or other organic chemicals
in an organism or part of an organism.
The accumulation process involves the biological
sequestering of substances that enter the organism
through respiration, food intake, epidermal (skin)
contact with the substance, and/or other means.
The sequestering results in the organism having a
higher concentration of the substance than the
concentration in the organisms surrounding
environment. More hydrophobic a substance is the
more likely it is to bioaccumulate in organisms, such as
fish.
The level at which a given substance is bioaccumulated depends on :
1. The rate of uptake,
2. The mode of uptake (through the gills of a fish, ingested along with food, contact
with epidermis (skin), etc),
3. How quickly the substance is eliminated from the organism, transformation of the
substance by metabolic processes, the lipid (fat) content of the organism, the
hydrophobicity of the substance, environmental factors, and other biological and
physical factors.
Example
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has a water to
plankton partition coefficient of 200,000; a
plankton to smelt (fish) magnification factor of
7.5; and a smelt to lake trout magification factor
of 3.5. If the concentration of HCB in the water
is 1.0 ppt, will either fish exceed the fish
consumption standards:
5 ppm for general consumption
1 ppm for pregnant and nursing women
Solution
kg
mg
2 . 0
kg
ng
10 x 2
L
ng
1
kg
L
10 x 2
5 5
plankton
water
plankton
p/w
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
C
C
C
K
( )
kg
mg
5 . 1
kg
mg
2 . 0 5 . 7 5 . 7
plankton smelt
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = C C
( )
kg
mg
25 . 5
kg
mg
5 . 1 5 . 3 5 . 3
smelt trout
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = C C
Interpretation
The lake trout exceed the general
consumption standard and both species
exceed the standard for pregnant and
nursing women
Both could easily argued on the basis of
uncertainty

PCB
Polychlorinated Biphenyls: A dielectric fluid, neither
burn nor conduct electricity & insulating materials in
transformers
Impairs thyroid functions and neurotoxins.
In an accident (1977), PCBs polluted Hudson River
(300 km).
PCB got concentrated in bottom sediments, consumed
by riverbed microorganisms eaten by fish.
Contaminated sediments are removed, extensive
dredging & proper disposed off.
Highly Toxic Electroplating
Sludge:
Chromium
Cadmium
Cyanide
Case Study-Ecosystem Restoration
Present Status
30
25
22
18
35
24
19
16
15
20
25
30
35
40
A B C D E F G H
Samples
B
O
D
(
m
g
/
L
)

Environment
If gases Concentration Increases
by our activities , What happen
to our Ecosystem ???
If we add heavy metals, What
happen to our Ecosystem ???
If we add large biodegradable
pollutants & Nutrients What
happen to our Ecosystem ???
If we add large amount of
garbage, What happen to our
Ecosystem ???
If we cut lot of trees, What
happen to our Ecosystem ???
If we add DDT or other
pesticides, What happen to
food chain/food web of our
Ecosystem ???
OBJECTIVE: HOW CAN WE PREVENT THE DISTURBANCE OF
ECOSYSTEM
OR HOW WE CAN RESTORE OUR ECOSYSTEM