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Alkanes and Alkenes

ALKANES; - Single covalent bonds - Saturated hydrocarbons no spare single bonds, - Dont decolourise bromine water no spare bonds - Wont form polymers no spare bonds - The first four Alkanes are; Double the amount of Carbon *Methane CH4 and + 2 = The amount of Hydrogen *Ethane C2H6 ALKANES One E = 1 *Propane C3H8 covalent bond. * Butane C4H10

ALKENES; - Double covalent bonds - Unsaturated hydrocarbons have spare double bonds - Will decolourise bromine water have spare bonds - Form polymers by polymerisation - The first two Alkenes are; Amount of Carbon x 2 = Amount * Ethene C2H4 Of Hydrogen * Propene CH6 ALKENES 2 Es = 2 covalent bonds DOUBLE E FOR DOUBLE BOND AND YOU TIMES BY TWO ONLY. FOR THIS JUST REMEMBER THE NUMBER 2

Cracking Hydrocarbons
Long chain hydrocarbons are thick liquids, they are not useful - the process called cracking makes shorter chains, which are much more useful. CONDITIONS NEEDED; Heat & A Catalyst

Vegetable Oils
Vegetable Oils Unsaturated (have double bonds) Polyunsaturated oils are the healthiest and saturated oils are the least healthiest, because of what they do to the amount of cholesterol in your blood

Unsaturated Oils are Runnier than Saturated Ones.

- The double bonds change the shape of molecules by making an inflexible kink in the carbon chain - Kinked & less flexible chains cant pack together as tightly as straighter, flexible chains so the forces between the molecules arent as strong - Weaker forces make oils less viscous (less thick). So unsaturated oils are runnier than saturated oils

Vegetable Oils are Hydrogenated for the Food Industry

Unsaturated Oils (ones with double bonds) can be changed to saturated oils by breaking a double bond and adding hydrogen = this is called hydrogenation A Nickel Catalyst is needed it is a solid, so can be filtered out and used again As the filtered oil cools down to room temperature it turns into a solid fat (fat oil that is solid at room temp) Polyunsaturated vegetable oils are hydrogenated to make margarine. Not all the double bonds in the oil are hydrogenated, so some of the margarine is still unsaturated its called a partially hydrogenated oil. Firm enough to spread yet still low in saturates compared to butter.

Plastics are long chain molecules called polymers Polymers are made up of lots of monomers The name of the plastic comes from the name of the monomer, just put POLY in front The use of a plastic depends on its properties, E.g. a disposable cups for hot drinks needs to be of a low cost and needs to have a high melting point


CONDITIONS; High Pressure & Catalyst Polymerisation Double Bonds are removed, Single Bonds are attached to the side of the first and last Carbon.

Properties Of Plastics
THERMOPLASTIC; They have very weak bonds between chains These weak forces are really easy to overcome, so its easy to melt the plastic, When it cools, the thermoplastic hardens into a new shape. You can melt these plastic and remould them as many times as you like E.g. Polythene

THERMOSETTING; They have crosslinks between chains these hold the chains together in a solid structure The polymer doesnt soften when its heated but too much heat makes it burn Thermosetting polymers decompose after being heated E.g. Bakelite

Plastics Dont Rot

Most Plastics are non biodegradable there not broken down by microorganisms So they full up landfill sites And you cant burn them as they give off toxic gases So what are we going to do with the 2 million tonnes of plastic waste brits produce?

Drug Synthesis
New drugs have to be safe. They go through many stages of testing; 1 - Tests on living cells and animals to ensure the drug works 2 - Then tested on healthy humans 3 - Then tested on humans with the disease 4 A large group of people are tested, but some people are given a placebo. PLACEBO a harmless tablet without the drug inside.

Staged Synthesis
Helps you out how many products are to be produced E.g.

A1, A2

+ B ,B ,B ,B ,B + C ,C ,C
2 3



10 possible combinations

Relative Formula Mass

Relative Atomic Mass (Ar);
4 2 The TOP Number is The Ar. So 4, Its the Relative Atomic Mass (Ar)


Relative Formula Mass (Mr);

Used For Compounds Just Add All The Ars Of All The Elements E.g.

24 + (35.5 x 2) = 95 95, Is The Mr

Empirical Formulae
How to work it out; 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) List all the elements Write the experimental masses Divide the experimental mass by the Ar Turn the numbers into ratios, via x or Get the ratio in its simplest form

Calculating Masses in Reactions

Three Steps; 1) Write out the balanced equation 2) Work out the Mr just for the 2 substances 3) Apply the rule; divide to get one, then multiply to get all

What mass of Magnesium Oxide is produced when 60g of Magnesium is burned in air? 1) Write out the balanced equation 2Mg +02 = 2MgO 2 ) Work out The Mr Mg 2 x 24 = 24 & Mg0 2 x (24x16) = 80 3) Apply the rule; divide to get one, then times to get all 48g of Mg . . . 80g of MgO Divide Divide by 48 by 48 1g of Mg . . . 1.67g of MgO x 60 x 60 60g of Mg . . . 100g of MgO

Atom Economy
Atom economy = total Mr of useful products total Mr of reactants
X 100

High atom economy is better for profits and the environment

Percentage Yield
Percentage Yield actual yield (g) theoretical yield (g) Actual what you get in practise Theoretical prediction Yields are always less than 100% because; 1) The reaction is reversible 2) Some particles may be lost during filtration 3) You ALWAYS lose a bit of liquid when transferring it 4) Impurities

ISOTOPES different atomic forms of the same element, which have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons Carbon 12 Carbon 14
12 6

14 6

6 protons 6 electrons 6 neutrons

6 protons 6 electrons 8 neutrons

Periodic Table
Dmitri Mendleev first made it in 1869 ... Now there's around 100 element with more still being discovered Modern periodic table shows elements in order of increasing atomic number It is laid out so that elements with similar properties from columns Elements in the a group have the same number of outer electrons; E.g. All the elements in group 6, have six electrons in its outer shell, so they need 2 electrons to be stable

Electron Shells
1st Shell 2 Electrons 2nd Shell 8 Electrons 3rd Shell 8 Electrons 4th Shell 18 Electrons Use the Atomic Number to work out the Electron Configuration;

16 8

So Oxygen has an electron configuration of; 2,6

Ionic Bonding
Ionic Bonding Transferring Electrons All elements want to lose/gain electrons to have a full outer shell they want to be stable. Groups 1 & 2 and 6 & 7 are most likely to form ions; 1&2; are metals and they lose electrons to form +ions or cations 6&7; are non-metals they gain electrons to form-ions or anions When any cations react with anions they form ionic bonds, only elements of opposite sides of the periodic table with form ionic bonds

When a atom loses a electron it becomes POSITIVE because there are more positives (protons) than negative (electrons). When a atom gains an electron it becomes NEGATIVE because there are more negatives electrons) than positives (protons)

Ionic Compounds

Sodium Chloride (NaCl)

The sodium atom gives up its outer electron becoming a postive ion. The chlorine atom picks up the electron, becoming a negative ion.

Ionic Bonds; produce giant ionic structures, the ions are closely packed and there are very strong chemical bonds between all the ions. A single crystal of salt is one giant ionic lattice that why salt crystals are cuboids They have high melting and boiling points due to the very strong chemical bonds They dissolve to form solutions that conduct electricity because the electrons are able to freely move, they also conduct electricity when molten

Reactivity Trends
The inner shells provide shielding from the attraction of the positive nucleus. GROUP 1; as the atoms get bigger, the outer electron is more easily lost. This makes the alkali metals more reactive as you go down the group GROUP 7; as the atoms get bigger, the extra electron is harder to gain. This makes the halogens less reactive as you go down the group

Metals consist of a giant structure Theyre good conductors of heat and electricity due to the free electrons They are malleable (they can hammered/rolled permanently out of shape) because the layers of atoms in the metal can slide over each other They have high melting and boiling points due to the very strong metallic bonds They are hard this can be measured by how easy it is to dent to metal, the harder it is to dent; the harder the metal Metals can be mixed together to produce alloys the properties of the metal are changed, alloys are usually harder. E.g. steel is an alloy of iron and about 1% carbon. Steel is stronger and less brittle than iron.

Electrolysis & Half Equations

Means splitting up with electricity; It requires a liquid to conduct the electricity , called the electrolyte (ionic compounds dissolved in water/molten) POSTIVE ions are called ANIONS because theyre attracted to the ANODE NEGATIVE ions are called CATIONS because theyre attracted to the CATHODE Make sure the charges balance in each half equation

Covalent Bonding
Sharing Electrons, to ensure both have a full outer shell, to make them stable. Examples; Hydrogen, H2
Hydrogen atoms have just one electron. They only need one more to complete the first shell H-H

Molecular Substances; the Halogens

The forces of attraction between the molecules are very weak causing low melting and boiling points Most molecular substances are gases/liquids are room temperature They dont conduct electricity because there are no electrons You can always tell a molecular substance from its physical state; its mushy a liquid/gas or a easily melted solid.

Group 7 Elements Fluorine

Atomic Number 9


Physical State at room temp gas

Melting Point -220C

Boiling Point -188C










red brown






dark grey




The pattern in properties in the table can be explained because; - The halogens get bigger as you go down the group - The bigger the halogen molecule the stronger the inter molecular force of attraction - The stronger the forces, the more energy it takes to seperate the molecules, and so the higher their melting and boiling points

Giant Covalent Structures: Carbon

DIAMOND; - Hardest natural substance - Pure diamond is shiny, colourless and clear ideal for jewellery - Each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds in a very rigid giant covalent structure which makes the diamond really hard. This makes diamonds great as cutting tools. - There are lots of strong covalent bonds, so its got very high melting and boiling points - It doesnt conduct electricity as there are no free electrons

GRAPHITE - Black, opaque and lustrous (kind of shiny) - Each Carbon atom only forms three covalent bonds creating sheets of carbon atoms which are free to slide over each other - The layers are held together loosely that they can be rubbed off onto paper that is how a pencil works - Graphite's got high melting and boiling points, the covalent bonds need lots of energy to break them - As only 3 of carbons 4 outer electrons are used in bonds, there are lots of spare electrons. This makes graphite a good conductor of electricity

Fullerenes - Carbon can also form nanoparticle molecules called Fullerenes. These are molecules of carbon, shaped like hollow balls or closed tubes - Each carbon atom form three covalent bonds, leaving free electrons to conduct electrons - The smallest fullerene is Buckminster Fullerene, which has 60 carbon atoms joined in a ball its molecular formula is C60 - C60 was discovered by chance. In the 1980s a group of scientists investigating how carbon chains are formed in stars fired laser beams at graphite discs. When they analysed the soot formed, they found clusters of 60 carbon atoms were surprisingly common

Treatment and Homeopathy

Some people in the placebo control group will get better naturally and others will feel better just because they think theyre being treated this is the placebo effect. The main to look out for to decide whether a drug is effective or not is; - Did the people taking the drug get better? - Was the sample big enough? (testing 1000 people is better than testing 50) - Did the study use a suitable control group - How did the results from the control group compare with the results from the group actually taking the drug? (If both groups got better the test proves nothing)

Some Alternative Remedies arent Chemical-Based

Homeopathic remedies contain highly diluted does of natural substances that in their full-strength dose would produce the symptoms of illness in a healthy person Remedies are made by extracting the active ingredient from a plant, animal or mineral dissolving it in alcohol and then progressively diluting the mixture with water. A shaking process between each dilution is said to transfer the powers of the ingredients to the water Homeopathic remedies dont have to go through the same testing as conventional medicines the amounts of active ingredients are so low theyre considered harmless so there have been very few large scale trails. A recent study combining all the data gathered so far suggest that they work no better than a placebo, but many people still believe in the power of homeopathy.

Rates of Reaction
SLOW REACTION; rusting of iron MODERATE REACTION; a metal reacting with acid FAST REACTION; explosion

The rate of a reaction depends on four things; 1) Temperature 2) Concentration (or pressure for gases) 3) Catalyst 4) Size of Particles (or surface area)

Measuring Rates Of Reaction

Rate of reaction = amount of reactant used/amount of product formed time Three different ways the speed can be measured; PRECIPITATION; when the product of the reaction is a precipitate which makes the solution cloudy. Observe a marker through the solution and measure how long it takes to disappear and the quicker the marker disappears the quicker the reaction. You could also use data-logging equipment. CHANGE IN MASS (USUALLY GAS GIVEN OFF); it can be carried out using a mass balance. The quicker the reading on the balance drops, the faster the reaction. This is the most accurate method, but it had the disadvantage of releasing gas straight into the room THE VOLUME OF GAS GIVEN OFF; it involves using a gas syringe to measure the volume of gas given off. The more gas given off during a given time interval the faster the reaction. You have to be careful with the gas syringe, if you reaction is too vigorous, you can easily blow the plunger out the end of the syringe.

Collision Theory
- When the temperature is increased the particles all move quicker, if theyre moving quicker., theyre going to have more collisions.
Faster collisions are ONLY caused by increasing he temperature

- If the solution is more concentrated, it means there are more particles of the reactant knocking about which make collisions more likely. - The particles around it in the solution with have more surface area to work on so therell be more useful collisions - A solid catalyst gives reacting particles a surface to stick too. This increases the number of successful collisions by lowering the activation energy & MORE COLLISIONS INCREASE THE RATE OF REACTION

- They LOWER THE ACTIVATION ENERGY (the minimum amount of energy needed for a reaction to happen). It makes it easier for reactions to happen and a lower temperature can be used. - Solid Catalysts work best when they have a big surface area to enable the reacting particles to meet us and do business. Transition metals are common catalysts in the industrial reactions - An enzyme is a biological catalyst, enzymes need the right temperature around 37C and ph 7 which is neutral, but pepsin (a stomach enzyme) works best at ph2

Energy Transfer in Reactions

ENERGY MUST ALWAYS BE SUPPLIED TO BREAK BONDS; during a chemical reaction, all bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. Energy must be supplied to break existing bonds so bond breaking is ENDOTHERMIC. Energy is released when new bond are formed, so bond formations is EXOTHERMIC. EXOTHERMIC; gives out energy, usually in the form of heat, E.g. combustion and neutralisation reactions ENDOTHERMIC; takes in energy usually in the form of heat, E.g. Thermal decomposition EXO = EXIT energy exits ENDO = ENTER energy enters

Reversible Reactions
A reversible reaction is one where the products of the reaction can themselves react to produce the original reactants The sign showing a reversible reaction is; Reversible Reactions will reach dynamic equilibrium this means that the reactions are still taking place in both directions at the same rate, but the overall effect is nil because the forward and reverse reactions cancel each other out. Changing the temperature & pressures, alter the position of equilibrium; TEMPERATURE; all reactions are endothermic in one direction and exothermic in the other direction. If you raise the temperature, the endothermic reaction will use up extra heat. If you reduce the temperature, the exothermic reaction will give out more heat PRESSURE; many reactions have a great volume on one side. If you raise the pressure it will produce less volume. If you lower the pressure it will produce more volume.

Haber Process
Nitrogen + Hydrogen = Ammonia N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
Industrial Conditions; Pressure: 200 atmospheres Temperature: 450C Catalyst: Iron - Higher pressures favour the forward reaction (since there are four molecules of gas on the left for every 2 on the right) - So the pressure is set as high as possible to give the best yeild without making the plant to expensive to build - The forward reaction is exothermic so increasing the temp will move the equilibrium the wrong way away from ammonia. So the yield of ammonia would be greater at a lower temperature - But lower temperature = slower rate of reaction - 450C is a compromise between maximum yield and speed of reaction - The ammonia formed as a gas liquefies as it cools. The unused nitrogen and hydrogen are reused - The iron catalyst makes the reaction go faster & doesnt affect the yield

Ammonia makes Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizer;

If you neutralize ammonia with nitric acid, you get ammonium nitrate. Ammonium nitrate is a good fertilizer as it has nitrogen from two sources. Plants need nitrogen to make proteins Ammonium nitrate is much more effective than organic fertilizers (e.g. pig poo) There are disadvantages to artificial fertilizers; - if they wash into streams they can set off a mega growth/death/decay called eutrophication - if too many nitrates get into drinking water it can cause health problems as nitrates prevent bloody from carrying oxygen properly and children can die from it To help avoid these problems its important that artificial nitrate fertilisers are applied carefully by all famers and they must not apply them if its likely to rain soon

Basic Chemistry
Aq = aqueous. Where the solvent in the solution is water
MASS NUMBER; number of protons and neutrons 27 13


Neutrons; 27 13 = 14 Electrons ; 13 Protons; 13 Mass; 27

ATOMIC NUMBER; number of protons (number of electrons is same as protons)