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MH206- Fluid power Control Valves

Hydraulic Valves
Responsible for controlling and directing flow
Directional flow control valves
Spool and internal passages dictate flow paths

Proportional flow control valves


Variable orifice Gate, globe, and needle valves

Check valves (similar to a diode in an electrical circuit)

1. Direction Controls
Simple direction control
On-off type direction control

Multi-direction Control
Circuits Switching-type direction control

Proportional direction control


Direction and flow integrated control

Check Valves

Directional Control Valves

Simple direction Control


P Pp PT Q T T Qk Q1 P1 1

PT

Qk
Q2 P2 2

QP

Above are common centerspool arrangements for matching neutralposition fluid routes to the application

This cutaway view of a multiplespool stack valve shows main directional spools, internal flow passages, and auxiliary valves

Solenoid actuated DCV

Operators for directional-control valves are either mechanical, pilot, electrical and electronic, or a combination of these
With a mechanical operator, a machine element or person applies force on the valve's flow-directing element to move or shift it to another position. Manual operators include levers, palm buttons, push buttons, and pedals. Purely mechanical operators include cams, rollers, levers, springs, stems, and screws. Springs are used in most directional valves to hold the flow-directing element in a neutral position

Pilot-actuated valves are shifted by pressurized fluid (air or oil) that applies force to a piston that shifts the valve's flowdirecting elements. An important advantage of pilot operation is that large shifting forces can be developed without the impact and wear that affects mechanically actuated valves. Electrical or electronic valve operation involves energizing a solenoid. The force generated at the solenoid plunger then shifts the valve's flow-directing element. Solenoid-actuated valves are particularly popular for industrial machines because of the ready availability of electric power in industrial plants

Multi-direction Control
Case 1: Hydraulic Cylinder Controls
M M M
PP R R H H

T T

M M

2. Pressure Controls
System Pressure Control
Use of a line relief valve to limit the maximum allowable system pressure

Other Pressure Control Functions


Unloading Pressure reduction Load holding Sequential control Others

Uses of pressure control valves


Limit system pressure Reduce pressures Set pressure at which oil enters a circuit Unload a pump

Pressure-control valves
Pressure-control valves are found in virtually every hydraulic system, and they assist in a variety of functions, from keeping system pressures safely below a desired upper limit to maintaining a set pressure in part of a circuit. Types include relief, reducing, sequence, counterbalance, and unloading. All of these are normally closed valves, except for reducing valves, which are normally open.

Line Relief Valve


Line relief valve is a pressure control valve. A basic LR valve has a pilot pressure applied. There are a few types of LR valves available.
Inlet

Pilot

Outlet

Cracking pressure and pressure override


Cracking pressure and pressure override - The pressure at which a relief valve first opens to allow fluid to flow through is known as cracking pressure. When the valve is bypassing its full rated flow, it is in a state of full-flow pressure. The difference between full-flow and cracking pressure is sometimes known as pressure differential, also known as pressure override. In some cases, this pressure override is not objectionable. However, it can be a disadvantage if it wastes power (because of the fluid lost through the valve before reaching the maximum setting). This can further permit maximum system pressure to exceed the ratings of other components. (To minimize override, use a pilot-operated relief valve.)

Pressure Override Characteristics


Pfull flow P
Pressure

Pcracking

Qmax
F low

Improved Pressure Override Characteristics


Pfull flow P

Pfull flow
Pcracking

Pressure

Qmax
F low

Pressure Relief Valves


Found in all hydraulic circuits Normally closed Can be pilot operated (i.e. Spool is biased by both spring and fluid pressureless override) Provides protection against exceeding system pressure rating which can damage components

Pressure Relief Valves

Pilot Operated Relief Valves


Function: protect a hydraulic system with low override characteristics. Operation: The spring loaded puppet valve opens when the pressure reaches the cracking pressure, the flow cause the back pressure drop, which leads the open of the spool valve.

Compound pressure relief valve


The pilot-operated relief valve operates in two stages. A pilot stage, which consists of a small, spring-biased relief valve (generally built into the main relief valve), acts as a trigger to control the main relief valve. However, the pilot may also be located remotely and connected to the main valve with pipe or tubing.

Application of Relief Valves


M
P
1,000 psi T R H 800 psi

800 psi

It is recommended that there is always at least 200 psi difference between two line release (pressure relief) valves in a line.

Pressure Reducing valve

Pressure-reducing valves
The most practical components for maintaining secondary, lower pressure in a hydraulic system are pressurereducing valves. Pressure-reducing valves are normally open, 2-way valves that close when subjected to sufficient downstream pressure. There are two types: direct acting and pilot operated

Direct acting pressure reducing valve

A pressure-reducing valve limits the maximum pressure available in the secondary circuit regardless of pressure changes in the main circuit and as long as the work load generates no back flow into the reducing valve port in which case the valve will close The pressure-sensing signal comes from the downstream side (secondary circuit). This valve, in effect, operates in reverse fashion from a relief valve (which senses pressure from the inlet and is normally closed). As pressure rises in the secondary circuit, hydraulic force acts on area A of the valve, closing it partly. Spring force opposes the hydraulic force, so that only enough oil flows past the valve to supply the secondary circuit at the desired pressure. The spring setting is adjustable.

When outlet pressure reaches that of the valve setting, the valve closes except for a small quantity of oil that bleeds from the low-pressure side of the valve, usually through an orifice in the spool, through the spring chamber, to reservoir. Should the valve close fully, leakage past the spool could cause pressure build-up in the secondary circuit. To avoid this, a bleed passage to reservoir keeps it slightly open, preventing a rise in downstream pressure above the valve setting. The drain passage returns leakage flow to reservoir.

Sequence valves
Sequence valve is a 2-way valve held closed by an adjustable spring and opened by pressure at the inlet port acting on the left of the spool

Sequence valves
Sequence valves are normally closed, 2-way valves. They regulate the sequence in which various functions in a circuit occur, They resemble direct-acting relief valves except that their spring chambers are generally drained externally to reservoir, instead of internally to the outlet port, as in a relief valve. When the primary function is satisfied, pressure in the primary circuit rises and is sensed in pressuresensing passage A. This pressurizes the spool and overcomes the force exerted by the spring. The spring is compressed, the valve spool shifts, and oil flows to the secondary circuit.

Example Other Pressure Controls: -- Sequence Valves

Counter balance Valve


Counterbalance valve stops flow from its inlet port to its outlet port until pressure at the inlet port overcomes adjusting spring force. An integral check valve permits free flow through the valve in the opposite direction.

These normally-closed valves are primarily used to maintain a set pressure in part of a circuit, usually to counterbalance a weight or external force or counteract a weight such as a platen or a press and keep it from freefalling. The valve's primary port is connected to the cylinder's rod end, and the secondary port to the directional control valve. The pressure setting is slightly higher than that required to keep the load from free-falling. When pressure fluid flows to the cylinder's cap end, the cylinder extends, increasing pressure in the rod end, and shifting the main spool in the counterbalance valve. This creates a path which permits fluid to flow through the secondary port to the directional control valve and to reservoir. As the load is raised, the integral check valve opens to allow the cylinder to retract freely.

Unloading Valve
Unloading valve is springloaded to the closed position. When system pressure, transmitted to the valve though the pilot port, is sufficient to overcome force of the adjustable spring, the valve opens. Pump delivery unloads to tank at low pressure.

Unloading valves
These valves are normally used to unload pumps. They direct pump output flow (often the output of one of the pumps in a multi-pump system) directly to reservoir at low pressure, after system pressure has been reached. The force exerted by the spring keeps the valve closed, When an external pilot signal acting on the opposite end of the valve spool exerts a force large enough to exceed that exerted by the spring, the valve spool shifts, diverting pump output to reservoir at low pressure. High-low circuits which use two pumps for traverse and speed, or clamping, depend on unloading valves to improve efficiency. Output from both pumps is needed only for fast traverse. During feed or clamping, output from the large pump is unloaded to reservoir at low pressure.

2. Flow Controls
Uncompensated Flow Control Compensated Flow Control
Example Example metering-in/metering-out using needle valves

Proportional Flow Control


Often use of proportional directional control valve (discuss in direction control)

Metering Controls of Flow

Often us of a needle valve Simple, but energy inefficient Commonly used in some light load, inexpensive systems for load control.

Proportional Flow Control Valves

Typical Metering Flow Control Approaches

Flow Divider Example of Pressure-compensated Flow Control

Functionality and Operation of a Flow Divider Valve


Directs flow to two or more branches Controls flow and also direction
(e.g., priority control)

Common on off-road equipment to divide flow between circuits


(e.g., power steering and front-end load or left and right crawler tracks)