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An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

HVAC
HEATING VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING

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SERVICES:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

TYPES OF HVAC SYSTEM:


Portable air conditioning system (window units). Ducted Split system or DX system. package unit system. Central air conditioning system.

HVAC LAYOUTS:
Ventilation Schematics. Chilled Water Schematics. Air Conditioning ducting. Ventilation ducting. Exhaust ducting.

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ABBRIVATIONS:
A AHU AD AP ATT AFFL B BL BOP BOD BOU BTU C C CFM CHWS CHWR D DP DUC E EAD AIR HANDLING UNIT ACCESS DOOR ACCEDD PANEL ATTENUATOR ABOVE FINISHED FLOOR LEVEL BOTTOM LEVEL BOTTOM OF DUCT BOTTOM OF DUCT BOTTOM OF UNIT BRITISH THERMAL UNIT DEGREES IN CENTIGRADE CUBIC FEET PER MINUTE CHILLED WATER SUPPLY CHILLED WATER RETURN DRAIN POINT DOOR UNDER CUT EXHAUST AIR DUCT

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

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ABBRIVATIONS:
F FA or F/A Flex. FC FCU FD FFL FMS FAHU FAG FAL F FPM
G GV GPM H HL HP I IV IL
An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

FROM ABOVE FLEXIBLE DUCT FALSE CEILING FAN COIL UNIT FIRE DAMPER FINISHED FLOOR LEVEL FLOW MEASURING STATION FRESH AIR HANDLING UNIT FRESH AIR GRILL FRESH AIR LOUVER DEGREES IN FAHRENHEIT FEETPER MINUTE GATE VALVE GALLONS PER MINUTE

HIGH LEVEL HORSE POWER


ISOLATING VALVE INVERT LEVEL
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ABBRIVATIONS:
K KED KITCHEN EXHAUST DUCT

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

L L/S LL N NRD N.T.S O OBD R RAR RALD RLBG RPM S SAD RAD SALD

LETERS PER SECOND LOW LEVEL NON RETURN DAMPER NOT TO SCALE

OPPOSED BLADE DAMPER


RETURN AIR REGISTER RETURN AIR LINEAR DIFFUSER RETURN LINEAR BAR GRILL REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE SUPPLY AIR DIFFUSER RETURN DIR DIFFUSER SUPPLY AIR LINEAR DIFFUSER
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ABBRIVATIONS:
S SAR STL SLBG STR SD SSL T TED TA or T/A TB or T/B T U U/G SUPPLY AIR REGISTER SAND TRAO LOUVER SUPPLYU LINEAR BAR GRILL STRAINER SMOKE DAMPER STRUCTURAL SLAB LEVEL TOILET EXHAUST DUCT TO ABOVE TO BELOW THERMOSTAT UNDER GROUND VOLUME DAMPER VOLUME CONTROL DAMPER VARIABLE AIR VOLUME

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

V VD VCD VAV

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DEFINATIONS :
AXIAL FAN :

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

Type of fan where pressure is produced due to an increase In air velocity thorough the rotating impeller. the air flow through the fan is parallel to the impeller axis. Type of fan where pressure and velocity are produced by the centrifugal action of the rotating impeller and the velocity of air leaving the tip of the impeller. A refrigerant compressor converts input electricity Into mechanical energy In order to remove heat from air. The heat exchanger In a mechanical refrigeration cycle. it removes heat from the hot, high pressure refrigerant vapor. the removal of heat converts the vapor into a liquid. A machine which uses mechanical shaft energy to chill water through the vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Chillers can be air or water cooled , and typically have centrifugal, reciprocating or screw compressors. Condensation occurs when water vapor is converted to liquid. A coil which is used to lower the temperature of an air stream. heat is transferred from the air stream to chilled water or refrigerant circulating through the coil tubes.

CENTRIFUGAL FAN :

COMPRESSOR CONDENSER

: :

CHILLER

CONDENSATION COOLING COIL

: :

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DEFINATIONS :
DUCT :

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

A passageway made of galvanized sheet metal or other suitable material that is used to distribute the air needed to heat, ventilate, or cool the conditioned spaces. A devise used to control the flow of air within a duct. Process where moisture is removed from the air. A devise which removes moisture from the air. A devise which evenly distributes high velocity supply air into the conditioned space. The transport of conditioned air or water throughout a facility. Also refers to the equipment which performs this function. A passageway made of galvanized sheet metal or other suitable

DAMPER

DEHUMIDIFICATION: DEHUMIDIFIER DIFFUSER DISTRIBUTION DUCT : : : :

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DEFINATIONS :
EXHAUST AIR :

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

Building air which is expelled of exhausted from the building to balance the incoming fresh outside air, Exhaust sir removes airborne contaminants. Fan coil units (FCU) are typically mounted In the ceiling at each zone and contain a blower, air filter, and water coil or coils. A devise which removes particulate contaminants from an air stream. A coil used to increase the temperature of an air stream. heat is transferred to the air stream from hot water circulating through the coil tubes. HVAC units that contain all components for a complete air cooled refrigeration cycle in one unit. An enclosure that is part of the air distribution system and is distinguished by having almost uniform air pressure. BOP is the distance between the finished floor level to the bottom of the pipe. BOD is the distance between the finished floor level to the bottom of the duct.
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FAN COIL UNITS

FILTER HEATING COIL

: :

PACKAGED UNITS PLENUM BOTTOM OF PIPE BOTTOM OF DUCT

: : : :

HVAC:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

A simple definition of air conditioning is the simultaneous control of Temperature , humidity, air movement, and the quality air in a space.

The human body may be compared to a furnace using food as fuel. Its individual comfort depends upon how fast or how slow the body Loses or gains heat. Proper air circulation in a conditioned space is essential for maintaining good comfort. Proper circulation of the air will absorb heat and moisture uniformly throughout the entire room. It is also important that air movement be gentle so as not to cause Objectionable drafts.

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PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM:

Drawings from consultant

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

Arch. drawings

Structural drawings

Services design drawings

Comments updated Rejected

Shop drawings (ISD Dwgs.)

Approved MEP Coordination Drawings (CSD Dwgs.)

Approved
Builders work drawings

As built drawings

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DESIGN GUIDE ORGANIZATION :

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

The Design Guide is organized around eight design areas that help achieve a highperformance HVAC system. Integrated design describes an approach to the design of a small commercial buildings that provides high performance with minimal first cost impacts.

Unit sizing provides information on right-sizing HVAC systems to improve efficiency and reduce first costs.
Unit selection provides information on features to look for when specifying packaged rooftop equipment. Distribution systems provides information on the design of the HVAC distribution system to minimize fan energy consumption, duct leakage and improve comfort. Ventilation provides information on how to provide adequate ventilation to commercial building spaces without excessive energy costs. Thermostats and controls provides information on control system selection and installation for small rooftop systems. Commissioning provides information on commissioning procedures to ensure the building as constructed meets the intent of the designer. Operations and maintenance provides information on recommended operations and maintenance practices to preserve system efficiency and performance over time.
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PORTABLE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

Window air conditioner

*Many traditional air conditioners in use are single rectangular units (window mounted) *These are compressor based refrigerant system that uses air to exchange heat, with this type of system the air is dehumidified as it is cooled. *Normally outside air is used to cool the condenser section for this reason these units are placed in windows or through openings in a wall. *These are for small capacity cooling loads (usually upto2.5 Ton)
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PACKAGE UNIT SYSTEM:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

*Package units located on roof

*Package units system: All components (condenser, compressor and the evaporator) are located in a single outdoor unit that may be located on the ground floor are on the roof floor. *Package unit system doesnt need chilled or refrigerant pipe connections they act as independent cooling system
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Ducted split (DX system):

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

Input drawing

Output drawing

*In ducted split system the condenser and compressor are located In an outdoor unit and the evaporator is mounted in the indoor unit. *When air conditioner is turned on, room air is drawn from various parts of the room through return air outlets. this air is pulled through a filter where airborne particles such as dust and lint are removed. the filtered air routed to supply duct through FCU back to the room. *Condenser unit is connected to the indoor unit through refrigerant pipes.

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Ducted split (DX system):

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

Typical ducted split units arrangement


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Central air conditioning system:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

*In ducted split system the condenser and compressor are located In an outdoor unit and the evaporator is mounted in the indoor unit. *When air conditioner is turned on, room air is drawn from various parts of the room through return air outlets. this air is pulled through a filter where airborne particles such as dust and lint are removed. the filtered air routed to supply duct through FCU back to the room. *Condenser unit is connected to the indoor unit through refrigerant pipes.

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AIR HANDLING UNIT (AHU):


An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

OUTPUT DRAWING

Air handling unit is a devise used as part of a HVAC system. usually, an air handler is a large metal box Containing a blower, heating and or cooling elements, filter racks or chambers, sound attenuators, and Dampers. Air handling units usually connect to ductwork that distributes the conditioned air through the building, and returns to the unit . AHU are mounted on anti vibration pads. While placing AHU, maintenance place should be taken in to consideration to the left or to the right side of the unit

INPUT DRAWING
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AIR HANDLING UNIT (AHU):


An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

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Access doors:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

Access doors are provided for fire dampers as they need inspecting and testing. These access doors are fitted to the duct vertically down are on either side of the duct.
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THERMOSTAT:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

Input drawing

Output drawing

*Thermostats control the operation of HVAC systems. *Turning on and off, or modulating, the heating or cooling systems to bring the building to the set temperature. *Usually thermostat location is as shown in the design drawing (input drawing). other wise it has to shown near to the return grill area and near to the door.
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SUPPLY AIR DIFFUSER:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

OUTPUT DRAWING

Supply air diffusers or square diffusers are the most common air outlets that we may found in air conditioning. Available standard sizes of SAD are 150x150, 225x225, 300x300, 375x375, 450x450, etc., Factors to be considered while designing SAD sizes are cfm ,noise level, through area, type of false ceiling.
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RETURN or EXHAUST AIR DIFFUSER:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

INPUT DRAWING

OUTPUT DRAWING

Return air diffusers (RAD) or Extract air diffusers (EAD) are available in standard sizes of 150x150, 225x225, 300x300, 375x375, 450x450, etc., Factors to be considered while designing RAD or EAD sizes are cfm ,noise level, type of false ceiling.
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An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

SAMPLE CHILLED WATER PUMP ROOM LAYOUT AND SECTIONS:

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An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

SAMPLE CHILLED WATER PUMP ROOM LAYOUT AND SECTIONS:

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An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

SAMPLE CHILLED WATER PUMP ROOM LAYOUT AND SECTIONS:

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FAN COIL UNIT (FCU):

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

A fan coil unit is, just as the name implies, a small unit with a fan and a chilled and/or heating water coil enclosed in a common cabinet. fan coil units are usually small enough to be located in the space that they serve. Fan coil units typically have a small fan, fan motor, filters, a single water coil, and controls mounted inside a decorative cabinet. FCU are usually located in bath rooms, toilets are in kitchens.

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VARIABLE AIR VOLUME (VAV):

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

INPUT DRAWING

OUTPUT DRAWING

VAV is an all air HVAC system that has relatively fixed supply air temperature, but the volumetric flow Rate of air varies to meet the thermal load.

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FLEXIBLE DUCTS:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

FLEXIBLE DUCTS CONNECTED TO DIFFUSERS

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DAMPERS:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

MOTORISED DAMPERS Ducting systems must provide a method of adjusting the volume of air flow to various parts of the system. Balancing , flow-control, and fire/smoke dampers provide this function. besides the regulation provided at the registers or diffusers that spread air into individual rooms, dampers can be fitted within the ducts themselves. These dampers may be manual or automatic.
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FLEXIBLE DUCTCONNECTION DETAILS:


An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

Flex duct connections to a diffuser from a main Branch showing smooth duct routing without kinks or compression.

The flex duct used in this connection is too long, resulting in kinking at the branch connection and duct length compression.

To avoid kinking, maintain a bend radius at least equal to the duct diameter.

Support flex duct at minimum 5 ft intervals, with hanging straps at least 2 in. wide.

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BASIC DESIGN OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

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OUTPUT:HVAC LAYOUT 3D (ABS) :

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

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OUTPUT:EQUIPMENT (AHU) 3D (ABS) :

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

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OUTPUT:CHILLED & HOT WATER CONNECTION 3D (ABS) :

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

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OUTPUT:COORDINATED LAYOUT:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

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An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

OUTPUT:COORDINATED LAYOUT 3D (ABS) :

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OUTPUT:HVAC LAYOUT 2D (ABS) :

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

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OUTPUT:HVAC LAYOUT 3D (ABS) :

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

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FIRE DAMPER:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

INPUT DRAWING

OUTPUT DRAWING

STANDARD DETAIL

*Fire dampers are used to isolate the fire by stopping the flow of air when there is any fire hazard. *In most of the cases access doors are shown with fire dampers. *Connecting duct shall not be continuous thru the wall or floor opening but shall terminate at the sleeve. *sleeves shall extend a maximum of 6(150mm) on either side of the wall or floor opening or 16 (400mm) on one side when incorporating a factory installed access door. *The maximum size of the opening shall be 2(50mm) larger in either dimension than the allowable minimum size. for example a sleeve dimension of 36x12(900x300) shall be of 38x14(950x350). *Installation shall be in accordance with appropriate requirements of the national fire Protection Association Standard NFPA.
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STANDARD DETAILS:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

TYPICAL DUCT JOINT

VERTICAL DUCT SUPPORT DETAILS IN SHAFT RISERS

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SECTIONS:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

Abbreviations: BOD BOP BOFC S.S.L F.F.L BOCT BOB : : : : : : : Bottom Of Duct Bottom Of Pipe Bottom Of False Ceiling Structural Slab Level Finished Floor Level Bottom of Cable Tray Bottom of Beams

TYPICAL SECTION
Sections must be shown to have better idea of the services where they are fouling. First check the distance between S.S.L to S.S.L in this case it is 4650mm. Check the height from F.F.L to bottom of the slab in this case it is 4225mm. False ceiling is at 3000mm, so we have 1175mm to run all our services. As a general rule we should run all the drainage pipes just below the slab. All ducts can be run minimum 150mm above false ceiling.

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SUPPLY AIR DUCT:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

Duct which carries conditioned air from FCU or AHU or FAHU is called supply air duct. This duct must be properly insulated with insulation (normally fiber glass wool ), insulation will be 25mm Thick if the duct is internal and 50mm thick if duct is exposed to sun.

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CHILLERS:
An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

OUTPUT DRAWING

A chiller is a machine that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-compressor or absorption refrigeration cycle. Most often water is chilled, this chilled water is used to cool and dehumidify air in mid-to large commercial, industrial, and institutional facilities. Most chillers are weather proof. Chilled water is distributed to heat exchangers, FCUs, AHUs, FAHUs and used water is returned to the chiller. Chiller is a huge machine and makes lot of noise, so these are mounted on concrete foundations with inertia base system

INPUT DRAWING
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CHILLERS:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

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EXPANSION JOINT:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

Buildings will have expansion joints. services which are crossing these expansion joint must be provided

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SAND TRAP LOUVER (STL):

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

Turning vanes in rectangular duct elbow reduce pressure drop and turbulence

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VOLUME CONTROL DAMPER {VD}:

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

INPUT DRAWING

OUTPUT DRAWING

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TYPICAL CONNECTIONS

An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Organization

SHOE NECK CONNECTION

SPLITTER DAMPPER

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