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Alliances of the Cold War

By Gauri Bahuguna

Political, strategic and ideological struggle between the US and the USSR that spread throughout the world Struggle that contained everything short of war Competing social and economic ideologies

Cold War Characteristics

USAs Aims Post WWII


we have emerged from this war the most powerful nation in the world- the most powerful nation perhaps in all history- Truman pearl harbor shattered illusion of invulnerability of America Establish integrated global network of naval and aerial bases controlled by USA Promote open markets for US goods to prevent another depression Promote democracy throughout the world, especially in Asia and Africa Stop the spread of communism- Domino Effect

Soviet Aims Post WWII


Create greater security for itself lost tens of millions of people in WWII and Stalins purges feared a strong Germany Establish defensible borders Encourage friendly governments on its borders Spread communism around the world

Alliances
1. NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization - originally consisted of USA, UK, Canada, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Italy and Iceland. Later expanded to include other European countries 2. NAM- Non Aligned Movement- Egypt India and Yugoslavia originally 3. SEATO - South East Asian Treaty Organization - includes USA and Australia, as well as Japan, South Korea, New Zealand and various island nations in the Pacific 4. Warsaw Pact - Western name for the alliance between USSR and it's Eastern European satellite countries from 1949 to 1991. Created as a military buffer zone to defend against a NATO attack from Western Europe.

United States Belgium Britain

NATO

Canada
Denmark France Iceland Italy

Luxemburg
Netherlands Norway Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey

1955: West Germany 1983: Spain

Background
4 March 1947, France and Britain signed the Treaty of Dunkirk, to support each other if either of them should 'become again involved in hostilities with Germany'. 17 March 1948, France and Britain joined with the Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to sign the Treaty of Brussels. 1. Pledged to ' fortify and preserve the principles of democracy, personal freedom and political liberty'. 2. Changed involved in hostilities with Germany to an armed attack in Europe. Fear of Germany changed to fear of USSR-April 1948, the Brussels Pact agreed to set up a Western Union Defense Organization (WUDO). WUDO was formed in September 1948 (during the Berlin crisis), and in 1949 it held a naval training exercise in the Bay of Biscay involving 60 British, French, and Dutch warships.

Formation of NATO
No European force would be strong enough to stop the Red Army if Stalin attacked. March 1949 the Brussels Pact opened secret negotiations with the Americans April 1949 the North Atlantic Treaty was signed, which set up the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

Principles
The North Atlantic Treaty promised: To safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilization of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty. Continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid to maintain and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack. However, Article 4 stated: If an armed attack occurs, each of them [will help with] such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force. (i.e. they promised to help, but not necessarily to send military aid). And Article 5 limited the alliances operations to the area north of the Tropic of Cancer (i.e. the North Atlantic). The Treaty also set up a Council which would meet regularly as necessary. It should be clear from this that the chief aim of NATO was to resist the threat of the Soviet Union, and that - as the words 'continuous and effective' indicated - that this would be a very active, armed resistance.

NAM
Founded in April 1955 The Non-Aligned Movement is an international organization of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc Brainchild of Gamal Abdul Nasser, former president of Egypt, Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister of India and Josip Broz Tito President of Yugoslavia purpose of the organization as stated in the Havana Declaration of 1979 is to ensure "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries"

SEATO
regional-defense organization from 1955 to 1977 created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, signed at Manila on Sept. 8, 1954, by the representatives of Australia,France, New Zealand, pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, The United Kingdom and The USA Southeast Asian area be protected against communist expansionism, especially as manifested through military aggression in Korea and Indochina Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos were not considered for membership in SEATO because of the Geneva agreements of 1954 on Vietnam. These states were, however, accorded military protection by a protocol. The treaty defined its purposes as defensive only and included provisions for self-help and mutual aid in preventing and countering subversive activities from without and cooperation in promoting economic and social progress.

Communist Information Bureau Set up in September 1947 by Stalin to unite the communist parties together. Aimed to tighten grip on satellites- ensure Russian style communist was being implemented Critics call It collectivization of eastern Europe Members were to trade primarily with each other and contact with any non member nations was discouraged In 1948 Yugoslavia objected and was thrown out of Cominform

Cominform

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance Formed in 1949, disbanded in 1991 Economic organization for countries in the eastern bloc Response to formation of European Economic Cooperation- which was a result of the Marshall Aid Expansion of Molotov Plan In reality did not achieve much during Stalin's time.

Comecon

Warsaw Pact
} U. S. S. R.

} Albania
} Bulgaria } Czechoslovakia

} East Germany
} Hungary } Poland

} Rumania

Background
NATO formed 1949 SEATO formed by anticommunist countries 1954 soviet union tried joining NATO- Denied in 1955 West Germany was admitted to the NATO and allowed to re-arm. (West Germany was essential to an overall defense system in Europe. ) The Soviet Union looked at these anti-communist moves with fear.

Formation
May 1955 Warsaw Pact was signed in Warsaw, included the Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria as members. treaty called on the member states to come to the defense of any member attacked by an outside force and it set up a unified military command under Marshal Ivan S. Konev of the Soviet Union. Warsaw Pact remained intact till 1991

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