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Presented By: Eng.

Mazin Gabora 2009

Ventilation is the process by which Oxygen and

CO2 are transported to and from the Lungs.

Ventilation is also required to maintain constant

arterial blood gas tensions.

Diseases and lung illness result in poor ventilation and

hence collapse of the respiratory and circulatory systems. Pneumitis TB Pneumonia Asthma Etc.


Post operative cases.

CNS problems Circulatory problems


Total Lung Capacity (TLC): The total volume of gas a lung can use. Tidal Volume (V T): Total volume of gas used in respiration.

Residual Volume (VR): The volume of gas left in the lung after forced


Inspiratory Pressure (Pinsp): Pressure used to deliver the tidal volume into

the lung.

PEEP: Positive End Expiratory Pressure.

Frequency: No. of Breaths per Minute. Flow: total volume of gas flowing in and out of the lung in one minute. Plateau: Inspiratory pause between inspiration and expiration. Apnea: Loss of Breath

During Active respiration, the diaphragm and the

intercostals muscles contract to increase the thoracic cavity and maintain a negative pressure to force air into the lungs. This is called inspiration.
During passive respiration, diaphragm and the

intercostals muscles relax and push the gas outside the lung. This is called expiration.


time Flow
Delivered Tidal Volume


User Interface:

To input commands and read patient data

Breath Delivery Unit:

This is the actual part that ventilates the patient


An optional part that supply the ventilator with air (21% O2)

Assisted/Controlled Mandatory Ventilation (A/C or

CMV): Used for Apnic and patient undergoing anesthesia. Synchronized intermandatory ventilation (SIMV): Used for patients with resistive behavior in ICU. Spontaneous Ventilation: Used for weaning a patient or anesthesing. Others (CPAP, Bilevel, etc.): Used for Patients with special conditions.

Volume Controlled (VC): Used when respiration

is needed for something not necessarily a lung disease. Pressure Support (PS): Used with patient when lungs need certain compliance factors. Volume ventilation plus (VV+): Used for patients with specific ventilation needs

Air and Oxygen are introduced to the machine with an

average pressure of 4Bar (3-6 bar).

The machine regulates the internal pressure, mixes Air

and O2, and delivers it to the patient according to the set parameters.
The machine then monitors the expired gas pressure

and volume and reacts to maintain parameters and support the patient in breathing.

Flow Sensors PSOLS O2 Sensor Sol 1

Pressure Switches





Vaporizer E I Flowmeter Bag Pump



Gas Inlet

Anesthesia Delivery System

High/Low circ. Pressure (P P)

High/Low Minute Volume (V. V.)

Low expired tidal volume ( VET) APNEA

Circuit Disconnected

Oxygen Sensor Failure

Battery depletion
Internal pressure Leak Safety Valve Open (SVO)

Flow sensor calibration

Expiration valve obstruction PEEP Valve troubles

Power supply failure

Internal SW and POST failure

Patient Type (Adult, Pediatric, neonate)

Modes of ventilation (A/C, SIMV, SPONT, Bi-level, etc)

Minimum and Maximum Tidal volume No. of Breathes /minute

Minimum PEEP value

Peak Inspiratory Pressure Tidal Volume Compensation

Self testing
Availability of Compressor