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WELLSITE GEOLOGY

Cuttings Logging Oil show evaluation (Fluorescence ) Drilling Core Logging Side Wall Core Logging

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Cuttings Logging

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Cuttings
Cuttings are rock fragments broken from the penetrated rock during drilling operations. Characteristics
Some cuttings have sign cut by the bit. Mix

Direct material of formation


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Real Cuttings & False cuttings


Real cuttings Cuttings coming from bit penetrate to open new hole. Brilliant color smaller size (2-5 mm, effected by formation hardness, bit tooth shape and size) Poor roundness ( considering hardness and consolidate extent) False cuttings (Caving) dull color, bigger size, sorted cuttings
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Sampling and Cuttings Analysis


Reasons for sample collection and shipping Sample Intervals Sample Types Sample collection and preparation Cuttings examination Sample description
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Reasons For Sample Collection and Shipping

Wellsite geological information Paleontological / Palynological analysis Geochemical analysis Oil company partners Governmental requirements Future reference / library samples
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Sample Intervals
Set by the client, named in well proposal. Common intervals: 10m, 5m, 2m, 1m. Regardless of the sampling interval, under no circumstances should the mudlogger neglect their other responsibilities Other times that the sample interval should be shortened:
During coring 1 ft or 0.5 meter intervals Areas of geological interest Changes in drilling parameters (drill breaks / reverse drill breaks, torque changes) Changes in mud properties (viscosity, cut MW, chlorides, etc) Changes in gas content
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Sample Types
Wet unwashed samples Washed and dried samples Geochemical samples Paleontological / Palynological samples ( biostrat sample) Metal shavings Mud samples
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Sample Collection
Install a sample collection basin at the base of the shaker Try to collect from the shaker with the smallest mesh size Samples are taken at regular intervals specified by the client Samples should be taken when changes in ROP, background gas or any other parameter is noticed. (spot sample, for casing point, coring point, formation tops, gas show, required by geologist or company man) Regularly check desander and desilter for samples When sampling in smaller intervals than required, the sample bags should be progressively filled up Clean the sample board after a sample is taken
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Sample Catching Board

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Sample Preparation
In clayey areas, care must be taken to wash away as little of the clay as possible. When determining the sample composition, take into account any clay that may have been washed away Samples are washed through at least 2 sieves (80 or 120 mesh at the bottom and 8 mesh on top) Cuttings left on the 8 mesh sieve are considered to be cavings A sample of these cavings should be placed on the sample tray for observation
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Cavings
Cavings are cuttings from previously drilled intervals Most removed by the coarse seive Generally be recognized as large, splintery rock fragments that are concave or convex in cross-section Lithologically identical with formations from higher sections in the open hole
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Importance of Cavings
An increase in the amount of cavings this could indicate an unstable hole Cavings with splintery, concave appearance may indicate increasing formation pressure If the cavings are of the same lithology, then by reviewing the master log, areas of washouts or hole problems can be pinpointed Much cavings found should be reported to wellsite geologist and company man.
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Preparing Samples Where Oil Based Mud Is Used


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fill 2 containers with base drilling fluid (e.g. diesel if mud is diesel-based) Immerse sample in Bath A (initial bath) and sieve sample Immerse sample in 80 mesh in Bath B (final bath) Take a representative sample to be examined under the microscope; leave the sieves outside of the unit Use a detergent degreaser to wash the sample and then rinse with water NOTE: All OBM samples should be air dried outside the logging unit Use rubber gloves when handling OBM samples

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Cuttings Examination
Samples are examined under the microscope for:
Lithology Oil staining Porosity

Objective:
To depict changes of lithology and appearance of new formations
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Sources of Sample Contamination


Cavings Recycled cuttings Mud chemicals Cement Metal Unrepresentative samples
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Cases Where Unrepresentative Samples Occur

Evaporite sections drilled with water-based muds Drilling soft clays/shales Rock flour due to high speed drilling Burning of cuttings while drilling with diamond bits

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End of Topic

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Sample Description

Functions and Format

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Sample Description
Major functions Porosity and Permeability Description format Describing clastic rocks Describing carbonate rocks Describing other chemical rocks Describing igneous and metamorphic rocks
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Major Functions of Sample Description


Allows another person to understand the components and structure of the rock and to draw conclusions as to the source, depositional environment and subsequent history of the formation Allows another person to recognize the rock whenever it is seen again
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Porosity and Permeability


Porosity is a measure of the volume of void space in the rock. It determines the amount of fluid that is present in a rock. Permeability is a measure of the capacity of a rock for transmitting fluid and it is dependent on effective porosity and the mean size of the individual pore spaces. It has a direct bearing on the amount of fluid that can be recovered.
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Sample Description Format


1. 2. 3. Rock type / Classification Color Texture: Cuttings shape and parting (calcareous and argillaceous lithologies), Grain size, Grain shape or roundness, Sorting, Hardness or induration, Luster / Slaking / Swelling Cementation or matrix Fossils and accessories Visual structures Visual porosity Oil show descriptions
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4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Sample Description Examples


Sst: lithic, lt gy-off wh, vf-f gr, occ med gr, sbangsbrd, mod w srtd, fri, sl arg mtx, v wk calc cmt, mica, glau, p-fr vis por, tr-5% blu wh fluor, slow strmg bl wh cut, no cut color, no res, p oil show. CLYST: lt gy-med gy, occ dk gy, sbblky-blky, mod hd, mic mica, sl calc. Ls: oolitic grainstone, buff-brn, med gr, mod hd, arg, Brach, glau, gd vis por, no oil show

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Rock Type
Consists of two fundamental parts: Basic rock name (Sandstone, claystone)
Proper compositional or textural classification term (lithic, quartzose, oolitic grainstone)

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Color
Rock color may be due:
Mass effect of the colors of its constituent grains Cement or matrix color Staining of cement or matrix

Use a rock color chart for standardization of color Observe samples when they are wet Dried cuttings may be viewed to allow a better discrimination of subtle hues and color shades When describing color, distinguish between rock particles, staining, matrix/cement and accessories
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Color
Rock color may occur in combination or in patterns Suitable descriptions are:
Mottled Variegated Iridescent Banded Multicolored Scattered Spotted Speckled

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Color: Depositional Environment


Color Depositional Environment

Red and brown Oxidizing environment

Green & grey


Dark brown

Reducing environment
Possible source rock

Black

Anaerobic environment

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Texture
Texture refers to the physical makeup of rock-namely, the size, shape, and arrangement (packing and orientation) of the discrete grains or particles of a sedimentary rock

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Cuttings Shape
Blocky Subblocky Amorphous Elongate Flat or Tabular Platy Irregular Splintery
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Parting (Shales)
The mud logger should always distinguish between shale, which exhibits parting or fissility, and mudstone or claystone, which yields fragments, which do not have parallel plane faces.

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Grain Size
Grain size and sorting have a direct bearing on porosity and permeability Size classifications are based on the Wentworth scale Report weighted average If largest grains present are much larger than the average, the maximum size should be reported If the grain size range is large and diverse, report the minimum to maximum size (e.g. vf vc) Use Grain Size comparator chart
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Grain Shape
A function of roundness and sphericity Use Grain Shape comparator chart Gives clues to:
Mode and distance of transport Porosity and permeability

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Sphericity
Sphericity refers to the comparison of the surface area of a sphere of the same volume as the grain, with the surface area of the grain itself.

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Roundness
Roundness refers to the sharpness of the edges and corners of a fragment or grain. 5 degrees of roundness:
Angular Subangular Subrounded Rounded Well rounded
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Particle Shape: Roundness vs. Sphericity

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Supplemental Grain Shape Descriptive Terms

Sharp Flat Platy Disk

Elongate Rod-like Conchoidal Faceted

Bladed Blocky Irregular Fibrous

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Sorting
Sorting is the measure of dispersion of the size frequency distribution of grains in a sediment or rock. It involves shape, roundness, specific gravity, mineral composition and size. Along with Grain Size both have a direct bearing on porosity and permeability Most difficult and subjective assessment A function of mean grain size If more than 50% of the cuttings are of the same modal size, the sample is well sorted
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Sorting

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Hardness and Induration


Hardness is a physical parameter based on the amount of force required to break apart the cutting using a simple probe Induration is the process by which a sediment is converted into a sedimentary rock. It is function of the type and quantity of the cement
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Hardness: Descriptive Terms


Soluble Soft Plastic Unconsolidated Moderately Hard Hard Brittle Loose Crumbly Firm Friable Very Hard Dense

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Luster
Describes the surface features of a cutting under reflected light Observe features with naked eye and under microscope and when wet and dry Rotating the sample tray under the light source also helps in describing luster

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Luster: Descriptive Terms


Coated Vitreous, glassy, faceted Silky, pearly (nacreous), polished Frosted, dull, etched Pitted Striated
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Slaking and Swelling


Marked slaking and swelling in water is characteristic of montmorillonite (a major constituent of bentonites) and distinguishes them from kaolins and illites Add water to dried cuttings

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Slaking and Swelling


Non-swelling doesnt break up in water even after adding 1% HCl Hygroturgid swelling in a random manner Hygroclastic swelling with irregular pieces Hygrofissile swelling into flakes Cryptofissile swelling into flakes only after adding 1% HCl
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Relationship Between Texture, Porosity and Permeability

Porosity (and possibly permeability) may decrease with increased sphericity and rounded grains. Permeability decreases with decreasing grain size because pore throats are smaller and the capillary pressure goes up.

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Matrix
Matrix consists of small individual grains that fill interstices between the larger grains. In general, where intergranular contact does not occur, the fill material between grains is matrix. Matrix material does have cementing qualities which holds the grains fixed relative to each other.
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Matrix Materials
Silt acts as a matrix, hastening cementation by filling interstices Clay is a common matrix material

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Cement
Cement is a chemical precipitate deposited around the grains and in the interstices of a sediment as aggregates of crystals or as growths on grains of the same composition. It may be derived from, or related to, the rock particles, matrix, or can externally derived.
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Cementing Agents
Common cementing agents:

Calcite (most common) Silica (most common) Sulfates (Gypsum, Anhydrite) Clays Dolomite
Siderite Fe oxides Pyrite Zeolites Phosphatic minerals
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Minor cementing agents:

Cementing Agents: Sandstones


Chemical cement is uncommon in sandstone that has an argillaceous matrix. Silica cement is common in nearly all quartz sandstones usu. as secondary overgrowths. Dolomite and calcite are deposited as crystals in the interstices and as aggregates in voids. (Note: both could also be found as detrital grains)

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Cementing Agents: Sulfate Cements


Anhydrite and gypsum cements are more commonly associated with dolomite and silica than with calcite

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Cement or Matrix
Cement is deposited chemically and matrix is deposited mechanically.

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Fossils and Accessories


Minerals or fossils in trace quantities Have great diagnostic and descriptive value If the accessory mineral could not be identified it should be carefully described

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Fossils
Used for correlation Common fossils and microfossils encountered are: foraminifera, ostracods, bryozoa, corals, algae, crinoids, brachiopods, pelecypods and gastropods Presence and abundance should be recorded

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Fossils: Estimation of Abundance


> 25% 10% 25% < 10% Abundant Common Trace

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Common Accessories
Glauconite Pyrite Feldspar Mica Siderite Carbonaceous material Heavy minerals Chert Lithic fragments
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Crystal Structure Terminology


Anhedral - no visible crystal form Subhedral - partly developed crystal form Euhedral - well developed crystal form

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Visual Structures
Most sedimentary structures are not discernible in sample cuttings Structures in individual cuttings may be indiscernible Slickensided surfaces should be carefully scrutinized Other structural types, which may be visible in cuttings, are:
Fractures (usu. w/ some type of fillings), jointing/partings, bioturbidation, lamination
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Visual Porosity
Easier to determine with a dry sample than on a wet one A magnification of 10x is frequently adequate to establish the amount of relative visible porosity in a dry sample. Samples with good porosity should always be examined for hydrocarbon shows The porosity in rudaceous and arenaceous rocks is primarily interparticle
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End of Topic

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Sample Description: Clastic Rocks

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Clastic Rocks: Rock Type


Rock size Consolidated Unconsolidated

Rudaceous

Conglomerate Breccia Tillite


Sandstone Siltstone Claystone Shale
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Gravel Scree Till


Sand Silt Clay Clay / Mud

Arenaceous

Argillaceous

WELLSITE GEOLOGY

Clastic Rocks: Classification


Sandstones:
Orthoquartzite (Qtz >75%, qtz cement) Greywacke (badly sorted, Qtz <75%, lithic frags > feldspars) Arkose (coarse qtz and feldspars in a calcitic or ferruginous cement, Qtz <75%, feldspar > lithic frags)

Claystone / Shale:
Difference between claystone and shale is fissility

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Clastic Rocks: Hardness and Induration


Common descriptions are:
Rudaceous and arenaceous rocks: unconsolidated, friable, moderately hard, hard and extremely or very hard Argillaceous rocks: soluble, soft, plastic, firm, hard Other descriptive terms: brittle, dense, crumbly, loose, amorphous
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Hardness and Induration: Arenaceous Rocks: Definitions

Unconsolidated cuttings fall apart or occur as individual grains Friable rock crumbles with light pressure; grains detach easily with a sample probe Moderately hard cuttings can be broken with some pressure Hard grains difficult to detach; extreme pressure causes cuttings to break between grains Extremely hard grains cant be detached; cuttings will break through the grains
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Hardness and Induration: Argillaceous Rocks: Definitions

Soluble readily dispersed by running water Soft no shape or strength Plastic easily molded and holds shape; difficult to wash through a sieve Firm material has definite structure and shape; readily penetrated and broken by a probe Hard sharp angular edges; not easily broken by a probe
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Clastic Rocks: Luster


Common terms used:
Coated, vitreous, glassy, faceted, silky, pearly (nacreous), polished, frosted, dull, etched, pitted, striated

Common terms used for argillaceous rocks:


Earthy, silky, waxy, velvety, soapy, resinous

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Clastic Rocks: Visual Porosity


3 types of porosity: interparticle, moldic, fracture The porosity in rudaceous and arenaceous rocks is primarily interparticle or intergranular The theoretical maximum porosity for a clastic rock is about 26%. Never use numerical values in estimating porosity, use descriptive terms

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Visual Porosity Table for Clastic Rocks


Porosity >15% Descriptive term Good

10% to 15%
5% to 10% <5%

Fair
Poor Trace

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End of Topic

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Sample Description: Carbonate Rocks

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Describing Carbonate Rocks


Carbonate rocks are difficult to classify because of the complexity of sources and types of their occurrences

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Carbonate Rocks: Rock Type


Rock Type Limestone Reactivity in 10% HCl Reacts instantly and violently It will float on top of acid Dissolve within minutes Reacts immediately Reaction is moderate but continuous Move about in acid Reacts slowly and weakly at first,but accelerates to a continuous reaction after a few minutes Some bobbing up and down Very slow and hesitant reaction Bubbles evolve one at a time Leave acid milky
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Dolomitic Limestone

Calcitic Dolomite

Dolomite

Aids to Carbonate Rock Determination


Calcimeter Alizarin Red
Limestone will turn deep red Dolomite is unaffected

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Dunham Classification System


Rock Type Mudstone (Mdst) Wackestone (Wkst) Packstone (Pkst) Description Composed of lime mud and <10% grains. Mud supported. Composed of lime mud with >10% grains. Mud supported. Composed of grains. >10% interstitial mud matrix and occasionally sparry calcite or pore space. Grain supported.

Grainstone (Grst)
Boundstone (Bdst)

Composed of grains. <10% interstitial mud matrix. Grain supported.


Original constituents are bound together and supported in place by organic growth. All original textures gone because of recrystallization. Distinct crystal faces with occasional relics.

Crystalline (Xln)

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Dunham: Mudstone

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Dunham: Wackestone

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Dunham: Packstone

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Dunham: Grainstone

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Dunham: Boundstone

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Carbonate Rocks: Color


Of less importance than in clastics Variations in color may be the result of the presence of detrital material (clay) or from the substitution of metallic ions into the mineral lattice Describe color when sample is wet

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Carbonate Rocks: Grain Size


Describe the size of physically transported particles (oolites, interclasts, fossils, pellets) and chemically precipitated minerals (either as pore-filling cement, primary ooze, or products of recrystallization and replacement)

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Carbonate Rocks: Grain Shape


Terminology used for clastic rocks may be used

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Grain Type Categories


Grain Type
Detrital Grains

Example
Rock fragments, intraclasts

Skeletal Grains
Pellets Lumps Coated Grains

Crinoidal, Molluscan, Algal


Fecal Pellets, grains of mud Composite grains, Algal lumps Oolites, Pisolites, Encrusted grains

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Carbonate Rocks: Sorting


Sorting in carbonates (as in clastics) is a function of mean grain size Very little is known about carbonate sorting because of the varied grain types found in carbonate rocks To describe sorting in carbonates, two conditions must be met:
Particles of diverse kinds and/or sizes are present in a sequence of samples These particles are segregated into layers of varying mean grain size
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Carbonate Rocks: Hardness or Induration


Same as those for clastics

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Carbonate Rocks: Luster


The significance and terminology is the same as used for clastic rocks Additional terms that are used:
Rhombic, Sucrosic, Microsucrosic, Grainy, Oolitic

Use combinations where applicable

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Carbonate Rocks: Cement or Matrix


Cementation is a result of crystallization from an aqueous solution with unimpeded growth into a void Lime mud/clay matrix is an integral part of the deposited sediment Matrix recrystallization occurs at the lattice level in the solid phase

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Carbonate Rocks: Cement or Matrix


It is not recommended that such terms as weakly and strongly be used. Preferably use the terms: partially, poorly, moderately, well, very well, extremely well for intergranular cement and pressure recrystallization at grain boundaries If recrystallization occurs across grain boundaries, resulting in a total crystalline structure, the term cement should not be used
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Micrite and Sparite


Micrite abbreviation of microcrystalline ooze; a precipitate formed within the basin of deformation and showing no or little evidence of transport; consists of crystals 1-4 m diameter occuring as matrix (dull and opaque ultra finegrained material that forms the bulk of limestones and the matrix of chalk) Sparite cement consists of clean calcite crystals, generally longer than micrite, forming pore filling cement between grains and within cavities
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Carbonate Rocks: Accessories or Inclusions


Minor accessories detrital or diagenetic products of terrigenous rock fragments with some mixed carbonate terrigenous diagenetic minerals Elemental sulfur and metallic sulfides (as concretions or staining on fractures) is common Silica (chalcedony, chert and crystalline quartz) Fossils

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Carbonate Rocks: Visual Structure


Most significant structural features are postlithification voids (fractures, fissures, joints, vugs) because they have a major impact on rock strength, porosity and permeability and are significant in terms of reservoir potential and lost circulation problems Other less prominent features: slickensides and staining
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Carbonate Rocks: Visual Porosity


Pore size can vary from one micron to hundreds of meters The simplest and most common classification of porosity is primary and secondary

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Porosity Classification of Carbonate Rocks


Intergranular pore space between grains or particles of a rock Intercrystal pore space between crystals of a rock Vuggy pore space between grains or crystals of a rock wherein the space is equal or larger than the size of the individual grains or crystals. It usually has the form of irregular voids. Moldic due to the leaching of soluble grains Fracture
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Carbonate Rocks: Primary Porosity


Primary porosity is porosity formed as an integral part of the rock fabric.
Ex: interparticle porosity and voids within skeletal particles and growth structures

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Carbonate Rocks: Secondary Porosity


Secondary porosity is porosity formed secondary to the rock fabric. This type is usually not seen in cuttings, but may be inferred.
Ex: fractures, fissures, vugs

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Chalky
A widely used surface-texture term denoting dull and earthy in many calcareous rocks Can also be applied as a porosity term

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End of Topic

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Sample Description: Chemical Rocks

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Chemical Rocks
Chert Halite Anhydrite and Gypsum Carbonaceous rocks

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Chemical Rocks: Chert


Very hard (very slow ROP, bit bouncing, vibration) Glass-like brittleness Bedded cherts are usually even bedded, thinly laminated to massive Color could be indicative of the environment of deposition Cuttings: large, elongate, blade-shaped, fresh conchoidal fracture surfaces, cryptocrystalline or microcrystalline, very hard Possible abundant metal shavings in the sample
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Chemical Rocks: Chert Color


Diatomaceous and radiolarian chert is black to dark grey due to clay impurities Spiculiferous cherts are light to medium grey with a brown to green tinge due to large amounts of calcite

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Chemical Rocks: Halite


Secondary evidence of presence of evaporites:
An increase and smooth ROP Decreased cuttings volume Eroded or reworked appearance of cuttings Increased mud salinity Increased mud viscosity Decrease and smooth background gas Salty encrustations on surface of cuttings

Cuttings good cubic cleavage, colorless to white (often with a pink to red tinge), soluble, salty taste
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Chemical Rocks: Anhydrite and Gypsum


Determination between anhydrite and gypsum is not always possible at the wellsite, but an attempt should be made

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Anhydrite and Gypsum


Gypsum Formula CaSO4x2H2O Anhydrite CaSO4

Color

White, light to dark grey, red, blue, yellowbrown

White, pale grey, red


Fibrous, parallel & radiate structures, fine grained Amorphous, fine grained, massive but cleavable Pearly, glassy, vitreous Scratched by a brass pin 2.9 to 3.0 gm/cc

Structure Selenite crystals, glassy, slightly flexible, fibrous texture Satin spar, fibrous to lacy, pearly Massive, fine grained, subvitreous to dull luster Spongy, white soft Luster Pearly, earthy, subvitreous

Hardness Scratched by a fingernail Density 2.3 to 2.37 gm/cc


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Checking For the Presence of Anhydrite and Gypsum

Barium Chloride Test 1. Place several cuttings in a bottle and fill with distilled water 2. Agitate and pour off water. Refill and repeat 3. Fill bottle half full with distilled water and add 3 drops of HCl and agitate 4. Add 2 drops of Barium Chloride 5. A pearly white discoloration will confirm the presence of gypsum or anhydrite
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Limestone/Dolomite or Anhydrite/Gypsum?

To discriminate between limestone / dolomite and anhydrite or gypsum, use HCl, limestone will effervesce, anhydrite and gypsum will not.

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Carbonaceous Rocks
Coal beds are useful marker beds Can be inferred from ROP Give well defined methane peaks Show up quite well in the GR, Density-Neutron logs Unusual to encounter coal beds > 6 ft (2 meters) thick In geologically young deposits, lignite (brown coal) is found There should be signs of vegetal matter in the lignite

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Coal: Classification Based On Constituents

Humic Coal Sapropelic Coal

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Humic Coal
Gas-prone source rock Woody, plant tissue dominant Divisible by decreasing proportion of volatile components:
Lignite -> Sub-bituminous -> Bituminous -> Semibituminous

Laminated, friable in part, jointed, fibrous, bright jet-like layers, variable luster, hard/brittle
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Sapropelic Coal
Oil-prone source rock Non-woody, comprises of spores, algae and macerated plant material Massive unlaminated glassy appearance, conchoidal fracture, firm rather than hard

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End of Topic

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Oil Show Evaluation

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Oil Show Evaluation


Solid Hydrocarbons and Dead Oil Oil show description Hydrocarbon Odor Oil Staining Natural Fluorescence Solvent Cut Fluorescence Other Tests
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Solid Hydrocarbons and Dead Oil


Solid hydrocarbon refers to hydrocarbons that are in a solid state at surface conditions, usually brittle, and often shiny and glossy in appearance (ex: Gilsonite) Dead oil is thermally dead solid hydrocarbons that will not fluoresce or give a cut (ex. Anthraxolite)
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Gilsonite
Immature or barely mature oils High-quality gasoline, industrial fuel oils and an endless list of other products are produced from gilsonite.

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Anthraxolite
Anthraxolite represent the carbonaceous residue left after hydrocarbons have been overheated and thermally cracked Considered to be thermally dead oil

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Sample Examination Procedure For HC Shows


1. Take a mud sample, aside from the regular sample or bottoms up sample, when there are significant gas shows. If a significant gas peak arrives in between sampling intervals, a spot sample is caught along with a mud sample. 2. Pour mud sample into a shallow dish and observe under UV light. If nothing is seen, water is added to the mud and the mixture is stirred. Again the sample is observed under UV light.
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Sample Examination Procedure For HC Shows


3. The unwashed sample is also observed under UV light. 4. For the lithological samples, smell the sample first before observing it under the microscope. Observe sample under microscope for staining / bleeding. 5. Place some oil-stained cuttings, if any, into some of the depressions on the spot plate. Observe under microscope.
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Sample Examination Procedure For HC Shows


6. Observe sample tray under UV light. Separate some fluorescing grains and place them in the spot plate. 7. Observe the grains that have been selected in Step 6 under the microscope for stains/bleeding. 8. Use the Solvent Cut Test on the samples in the spot plate. Observe under UV light. 9. Observe cutting samples in plain light. 10. Observe the residue.
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Observing a Sample Under the UV Box

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Order of Oil Show Description


Free oil in mud: amount, intensity and color Petroliferous odor: type and strength Visible oil staining/bleeding: distribution, intensity and color Sample Fluorescence: percentage, intensity, color Solvent cut: speed, character, intensity and color Cut color and intensity Cut residue (intensity and color)
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Observing Mud Samples


Mud samples are poured into a container and observed under UV light If no droplets of oil is seen, water may be added to reduce the viscosity and the solution is stirred

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Rating Oil Shows in Mud Under UV Light


Type 1 Characteristic 1mm pops, scattered and few in number; frequently associated with oil found in shale and sandstone containing very slight traces of residual oil 2mm pops or larger, few in number, commonly noted in large fractures and residual oil in sandstone; maybe dull and streaky, associated with low gas readings

3
4 5

Pinpoints common, along with 2mm or larger pops; frequently observed from sections with fair amounts of oil
Common and abundant pinpoint; normally associated with good to fair oil show Abundant pops 2mm and larger, are frequently associated with good shows. In higher gravity oil, the pops surface and spread rapidly

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Hydrocarbon Odor
Always check the sample for petroliferous odor Odor may range from heavy, characteristic of low gravity oil, to light and penetrating, for condensate. Use general terms for describing hydrocarbon odor: faint, moderate or strong
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Oil Staining
The amount of oil staining on cuttings and cores is primarily a function of the distribution of the porosity and the oil distribution within the pores. Check all samples with oil stains under UV light and with a cut solvent Check cuttings under UV light that bob to the surface when placed in acid The amount, degree and color of the oil stain should be noted For amount of oil stain the following: No visible oil stain, spotty oil stain, streaky oil stain, patchy oil stain, uniform oil stain The color of the oil stain is related to the oils API gravity
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Bleeding Core Sample

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Natural Fluorescence
The intensity and color of oil fluorescence is a useful indicator of oil gravity and mobility Fluorescence checks should be done ASAP because fluorescence tends to dull appreciably , due to the loss of volatiles The degree of oil fluorescence should be noted as: none, spotty, streaky, patchy, uniform, any combination thereof Care must be taken not to confuse mineral and contaminant fluorescence with true formation fluorescence
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Fluorescence

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Fluorescence: Indication of API Gravity


Gravity (API) < 15 15 - 25 Color at 3600A Brown Orange

25 - 35
35 - 45 > 45
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Yellow to Cream
White Blue White to Violet
WELLSITE GEOLOGY

Mineral Fluorescence
Rock Type Dolomite, Sandy Limestone Some Limestones (magnesian) Chalk, chalky limestones Paper Shale Fossils Marl, Clay Marl Fluorescence Color yellow, yellowish brown brown purple yellow to coffee brown, greyish yellow-white to yellow-brown yellowish to brownish grey

Anhydrite
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grey brown, greyish, blue


WELLSITE GEOLOGY

Chemicals Used for Solvent Cut Test


Chloroform ( we often use on well site now.) Carbon tetrachloride Ethylene dichloride Methylene chloride 1,1,1 trichloroethane 1,1,2 trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Acetone Petroleum Ether
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Be careful
Carbon Tetrachloride is a cumulative poison and should not be used Proper ventilation is needed when petroleum ether is used Petroleum ether and acetone must be kept away from open flame Do not store chemicals in plastic bottles Test solvent under UV light before using them Always work with small quantities in a well-ventilated area Remember to wash your hands after using them. Do not eat without washing your hands after handling them.
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Solvent Cut or Wet Cut Test


The speed in which the solvent cut occurs yields useful info If the suspected cutting will not initially cut, the test can be repeated. Samples can be dried, crushed or have diluted HCl applied to it The residue oil that remains in the spot plate is the oils natural color Be careful not to get the cutting agent into the rubber of the dropper as it might contaminate the solvent by giving it a pale yellowish fluorescence
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Cut
A cut is the hydrocarbon extracted by the solvent

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Residual Cut
The fluorescent ring or residue in the dish after the reagent has evaporated

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How To Do A Solvent Cut Test


1. Place a few drops of solvent, enough to immerse the sample, on the sample in the depression in the spot plate or the test tube. 2. Observe the following:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cut speed Cut nature Cut color fluorescence and intensity Cut color intensity Residue color and intensity
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Solvent Cut Test: Alternate Method


1. Pick out a number of fragments and drop them into a clear one-or- two-ounce bottle or test tube 2. Pour chlorothene or acetone until the bottle is half full 3. It is then stoppered and shaken 4. Observe the color of the solvent
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Samples Immersed In Solvent

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Samples Immersed In Solvent

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Cut Speed
This is an indication of both the solubility of the oil and the permeability of the sample. The speed can vary from instantaneous to very slow.

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Cut Nature
Coloration of the solvent with dissolved oil may occur in a uniform manner, in streaming manner or in a blooming manner. A streaming cut also indicates low oil mobility.

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Cut Color Fluorescence and Intensity


Observe the color and the intensity of the oil in the solvent under both UV and natural lights. The cut color observed under UV light could be called a cut color fluorescence

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Cut Color and Intensity


After observing the sample under UV light observe the sample under natural light. The cut color observed in natural light is just called cut color

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Residue Color and Intensity


Residue color observed in natural light is the true color of the oil

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What To Do When A Sample Will Not Cut


The sample is crushed using the metal probe and it is observed for a solvent cut. The cut is called a crushed cut. Sometimes, adding a little dilute acid will produce a solvent cut, called an acid cut. Sometimes, you need to let the sample dry before a solvent cut test is performed.
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Other Tests for Oil Shows


Reaction in acid of oil-bearing samples Wettability Acetone-Water test Hot Water test Iridescence

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Reaction In Acid of Oil-bearing Samples


1. Select a cutting or core chip (appx. 1/2 to 2 mm diameter) to be tested. Place the sample in the shallow depression on the spot plate or in a shallow container. 2. Immerse the sample in dilute HCl 3. If oil is present in the rock, surface tension will cause large bubbles to form
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Reaction In Acid of Oil-bearing Samples


The test is very sensitive to the slightest amount of hydrocarbons, even such as found in carbonaceous shale; therefore, it is well to discount the importance of a positive test unless the bobbing effect is clearly evident or lasting iridescent bubbles are observed It is very useful as a simple and rapid preliminary check for the presence of hydrocarbons

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Wettability
1. Let 1 or 2 drops of water fall on the surface of a stained rock fragment 2. If oil is present the water will not soak into the cutting or flow on the surface but will stand on it or roll off as spherical beads Not useful in powdered (air drilled) samples
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Acetone-Water Test
The test is done if the presence of oil or condensate is suspected, and provided no carbonaceous or lignitic matter is present in the rock sample

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Acetone-Water Test
1. The rock chip or cutting is powdered using a mortar and pestle. 2. Place the powdered rock or cutting in a test tube. 3. Add acetone and shake it vigorously. 4. After shaking it vigorously, filter the mixture into another test tube and an excess of water is added. 5. When hydrocarbons are present, they form a milky white dispersion, in as much as they are insoluble in water, whereas acetone and water are completely miscible.
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Hot Water Test


1. Place 500 cc of fresh, unwashed cuttings in a 1000 cc glass beaker or similar container. 2. Pour in hot water with a temperature of at least 170F (77C) until it covers the sample to a depth of 1 cm. 3. Observe the oil film that is formed under ultraviolet light and record the amount of oil released using the scale below.
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Hot Water Test


Oil Show
Extremely weak Very weak Weak Fair Strong

Amt of surface covered


< 25% covered 25-33% covered 33-50% covered 50-99% covered 100% covered

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Iridescence
Iridescence may be associated with oil of any color or gravity, but it is more likely to be observable and significant for the lighter, more nearly colorless oils where oil staining may be absent Iridescence without oil coloration or staining may indicate the presence of light oil or condensate
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Summary
Lack of visible stain is not conclusive proof of the absence of hydrocarbons Lack of fluorescence is not conclusive proof of the absence of hydrocarbons Bona fide hydrocarbon shows will usually give a positive cut fluorescence (wet cut). High gravity hydrocarbons will often give a positive cut fluorescence and/or a residual cut, but will give negative results with all other hydrocarbon detection methods. Minerals which fluoresce will not yield a cut. The oil acid reaction test will give positive results when oil is present, but it is very sensitive and may give positive results in the presence of insignificant amounts of hydrocarbons
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End of Topic

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Handling Cores

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Materials Needed to Handle Cores


Hammer and chisel Steel measuring tape Clipboard Indelible black and red marker pens Stick Rags Pail with water Plastic core boxes HUBCO bags Fibre tape
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Materials Needed to Handle Cores


Hot work permit (optional) Wax bath (optional) Wax (optional) Cling film (optional) Aluminum foil (optional) String or wire for dipping (optional) Core catching trays (optional) Fire extinguisher (optional)
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Preparation Prior To Handling Cores


Obtain a hot work permit before turning on the wax bath (if waxing is required). Do not overheat the wax. The wax should have a bright appearance. If it has a burnt appearance it will not seal the samples completely. Make up plastic core boxes. Core length plus 10% to 15%. Mark the core boxes and then lay them out in order. Prepare core catching trays (for conventional cores).
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Preparation Prior To Handling Cores


Get all miscellaneous materials like marker pens, measuring tape, hammer, HUBCO bags, etc. ready

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Safety During Core Handling


Ensure that the core barrel has been checked for H2S Never place your hands under the barrel Wear safety glasses Wear gloves preferably the hide gloves rather than cotton gloves Ensure that forearms are covered
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Conventional Core Retrieval


1. The outer core barrel is suspended from the rotary table 2. The inner barrel is removed and then the core catcher is removed 3. Place a mat underneath the core barrel 4. Check for the presence of H2S 5. The coring hand attaches the core tong handle to the base of the inner barrel 6. The driller raises the inner barrel upon directions of the coring hand. The core comes out base first.
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Conventional Core Retrieval


7. The core catcher is removed and core inside it is placed in the bottom of the first box. Continue filling the core box with core. Note: boxes are 1m or 3 ft long. 8. When 1 meter of unbroken core appears, break it with a hammer. Only when the core is away from the inner barrel should it be handled. If the core breaks into pieces try to rearrange it in the box. 9. Get a core chip sample and place in a HUBCO bag.
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Conventional Core Retrieval


10. Mark the cores top and bottom depth on the core itself. 11. Spread out the cling film and remove the core from the box and put it on top of the cling film. Ensure that it properly orientated. 12. Wrap in foil. 13. Tape securely. 14. Label the core depths, its top and bottom and its way up correctly.
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Conventional Core Retrieval


15. Wrap wire or string around the sample about 5 cms from each end, to allow dipping in the wax bath. 16. Dip the core into the wax bath. Ensure complete coverage. Minimize the amount of time the sample is immersed in the wax. Ensure that the wax coating is around 4 mm thick all over. 17. Hang the core from a bar to allow the wax to dry. Avoid contact between samples. Do not dip the hot wax in the water.
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Conventional Core Retrieval


18. When the core has been completely removed from the barrel, the rabbit (a flanged metal cylinder) will appear. 19. Collect any small chips and pieces of core remaining around the barrel. Store it in sample bags. 20. Pack any space in the box to prevent movement of the core. 21. Close the core boxes. Use heavy duty fibre tape to secure the core boxes.
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Conventional Core Retrieval


22. Remove the boxes from the area. Ensure that they are properly labeled. 23. Weigh a representative box so that the approximate weight of the shipment is known.

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What To Do If Core Is Stuck In Inner Barrel

Hammering the core barrel Pumping using compressed air or mud (preferred) Note: Water should not be used.

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Safety During Pumping


Do not stand in front of the of the barrel while pumping is in progress Do not peer into the barrel

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Sleeved Core Retrieval


1. The core barrel is broken into singles at the surface. 2. The singles are swung onto the pipe deck where the inner core barrel is pulled off the sleeve. Carefully note the relationship of each section of sleeve to the other. 3. Once the sleeve is free, wipe its surface with dry cloth or rags. 4. Draw two lines using marker pens on the sleeve. The black on the left and the red on the right.
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Sleeved Core Retrieval


5. Locate the top of the core using percussion techniques and a stick. 6. Once located, properly mark the sleeves in intervals of 1 ft or 1 m. Note the total amount of core recovered. 7. Cut the core and sleeve in 3-ft or 0.5/0.25-m intervals. 8. Take core chip samples and place in HUBCO bags.
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Sleeved Core Retrieval


9. Seal the ends with plastic cups secured by jubilee clips/worm drive clips. The caps can also be additionally sealed by wax (optional). 10. Place the sleeve into the core box. 11. Collect any small chips and pieces of core remaining in the area. Store it in sample bags. 12. Pack any space in the box to prevent movement of the core. 13. Close the core boxes. Use heavy duty fibre tape to secure the core boxes.
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Sleeved Core Retrieval


14. Remove the boxes from the area. Ensure that they are properly labeled. 15. Weigh a representative box so that the approximate weight of the shipment is known.

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Marking Core Sleeves


Every 1-m or 3-ft interval a long black line is drawn. Short black lines are drawn for every ft or 0.5/0.25 m interval. The top and bottom of each 1-m or 3-ft interval is marked by a T or a B, respectively and their corresponding depths. Depths are also written for each 1-ft or 0.5/0.25-m interval. Arrows showing the way up are drawn on the two lines (red and black).
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End of Topic

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Side Wall Cores (SWC)

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Warrant for SWC


ROP GAS DATA CUTTINGS DRILLING FLUID LOGGING DATA WIRE LOGGING DATA

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SWC Section
Real Cuttings can not be differ from the false cuttings, and no clear idea about the lithology. The section did not have drilling core, as it need core drilling. No oil show in cuttings, but there is gas show, being suspected oil-gas layer, which bears oil or gas in the next well. Formation having no sure information or having special lithology needing to be verified.
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SWC DATA
SWC section Proposal number Number of guns Number of bullets Actual number of core samples Core recovery
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SWC Data requirement


Description is same as cuttings. SWC affairs should be marked on the materlog.

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Masterlog
XX WELL

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THE END

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