Anda di halaman 1dari 94

1

FUNDAMENTALS OF
FLUID MECHANICS
Chapter 3 Fluids in Motion
- The Bernoulli Equation
2
MAIN TOPICS
Newtons Second Law
F=ma Along a Streamline
F=ma Normal to a Streamline
Physical Interpretation of Bernoulli Equation
Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure
Application of the Bernoulli Equation
The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line
Restrictions on Use of the Bernoulli Equation

Bernoulli Equation
3
Newtons Second Law
1/5
As a fluid particle moves from one location to another, it
experiences an acceleration or deceleration.
According to Newtons second law of motion, the net force acting
on the fluid particle under consideration must equal its mass times
its acceleration.
F=ma
In this chapter, we consider the motion of inviscid fluids. That is,
the fluid is assumed to have zero viscosity. For such case, it is
possible to ignore viscous effects.
The forces acting on the particle ? Coordinates used ?
4
Newtons Second Law
2/5
The fluid motion is governed by
F= Net pressure force + Net gravity force
To apply Newtons second law to a fluid, an appropriate
coordinate system must be chosen to describe the
motion. In general, the motion will be three-dimensional
and unsteady so that three space coordinates and time
are needed to describe it.
The most often used coordinate systems are rectangular
(x,y,z) and cylindrical (r,u,z) system.
5
Newtons Second Law
3/5
In this chapter, the flow is confined to be two-dimensional
motion.
As is done in the study of dynamics, the motion of each
fluid particle is described in terms of its velocity vector V.
As the particle moves, it
follows a particular path.
The location of the particle
along the path is a function
of its initial position and
velocity.
6
Newtons Second Law
4/5
For steady flows, each particle slides along its path, and
its velocity vector is everywhere tangent to the path. The
lines that are tangent to the velocity vectors throughout the
flow field are called streamlines.
For such situation, the particle motion is described in
terms of its distance, s=s(t), along the streamline from
some convenient origin and the local radius of curvature
of the streamline, R=R(s).
7
Newtons Second Law
5/5
The distance along the streamline is related to the
particles speed by V=ds/dt, and the radius of curvature is
related to shape of the streamline.
The acceleration is the time rate of change of the velocity
of the particle


The components of acceleration in the s and n direction
n
R
V
s
ds
dV
V n a s a
dt
V d
a
2
n s

+ = + = =
R
V
a
ds
dV
V a
2
n s
= =
CHAPTER 04
8
F=ma along a Streamline
1/3
Consider the small fluid particle of
size of os by on in the plane of the
figure and oy normal to the figure.
For steady flow, the component of
Newtons second law along the
streamline direction s
s
V
V V
s
V
mV ma F
S S
c
c
o =
c
c
o = o = o

Where represents the sum of the s components of all the


force acting on the particle.

o
S
F
9
F=ma along a Streamline
2/3
The gravity force (weight) on the particle in the
streamline direction

The net pressure force on the particle in the streamline
direction
u o = u o = o sin V sin W W
s
( ) ( ) V
s
p
y n p 2 y n p p y n p p F
S S S ps
o
c
c
= o o o = o o o + o o o = o
V
s
p
sin F W F
ps s s
o
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
u = o + o = o
s
a
s
V
V
s
p
sin =
c
c
=
c
c
u
Equation of motion
along the streamline
direction
10
F=ma along a Streamline
3/3


A change in fluid particle speed is accomplished by the
appropriate combination of pressure gradient and particle
weight along the streamline.
For fluid static situation, the balance between pressure
and gravity force is such that no change in particle speed
is produced.
s
a
s
V
V
s
p
sin =
c
c
=
c
c
u
0
s
p
sin =
c
c
u
Integration
11
Integration..



s
a
s
V
V
s
p
sin =
c
c
=
c
c
u
Rearranged and Integrated
( )
C gz V
2
1 dp
0 dz V d
2
1
dp
ds
dV
2
1
ds
dp
ds
dz
2
2
2
= + +

>>>>
= + + >> =
}
along a streamline
Where C is a constant of integration to be
determined by the conditions at some point on
the streamline.
In general it is not possible to integrate the pressure term because
the density may not be constant and, therefore, cannot be removed
from under the integral sign.
12
Example 3.1 Pressure Variation along A
Streamline
Consider the inviscid, incompressible, steady flow along the
horizontal streamline A-B in front of the sphere of radius a, as
shown in Figure E3.1(a). From a more advanced theory of flow past
a sphere, the fluid velocity along this streamline is


Determine the pressure variation along the streamline from point A
far in front of the sphere (x
A
=- and V
A
= V
0
) to point B on the
sphere (x
A
=-a and V
B
=0)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
3
3
0
x
a
1 V V
13
Example 3.1 Solution
1/2
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
c
c
=
c
c
4
3
3
3
2
0
4
3
0
3
3
0
x
a
x
a
1 V 3
x
a V 3
x
a
1 V
x
V
V
s
V
V
The equation of motion along the streamline (sinu=0)
The acceleration term
s
V
V
s
p
c
c
=
c
c
(1)
s
a
s
V
V
s
p
sin =
c
c
=
c
c
u
The pressure gradient along the streamline is
( )
4
3 3
2
0
3
x
x / a 1 V a 3
s
p +
=
c
c
(2)
14
Example 3.1 Solution
2/2
The pressure gradient along the streamline
( )
4
3 3
2
0
3
x
x / a 1 V a 3
s
p +
=
c
c
(2)
The pressure distribution along the streamline
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
) x / a (
x
a
V p
6
2
2
0
15
Bernoulli Equation Along a Streamline
For the special case of incompressible flow



Restrictions : Steady flow.
Incompressible flow.
Frictionless flow. NO
Flow along a streamline.
t tan cons z
2
V
p
2
= + +
BERNOULLI EQUATION
C gz V
2
1 dp
2
= + +

}
16
Example 3.2 The Bernoulli Equation
Consider the flow of air around a bicyclist moving through still air
with velocity V
0
, as is shown in Figure E3.2. Determine the
difference in the pressure between points (1) and (2).
17
Example 3.2 Solution

2
V
2
V
p p
2
0
2
1
1 2
= =
The Bernoullis equation applied along the streamline that passes
through (1) and (2)
z
1
=z
2
(1) is in the free stream V
1
=V
0

(2) is at the tip of the bicyclists nose V
2
=0
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
1
z
2
V
p z
2
V
p + + = + +
18
F=ma Normal to a Streamline
1/2
For steady flow, the
component of Newtons
second law in the normal
direction n
R
V V
R
mV
F
2 2
n
o
=
o
= o

Where represents the


sum of the n components of all
the force acting on the particle.

o
n
F
19
F=ma Normal to a Streamline
2/2
The gravity force (weight) on the particle in the normal
direction

The net pressure force on the particle in the normal
direction
u o = u o = o cos V cos W W
n
( ) V
n
p
y s p 2 y s ) p p ( y s p p F
n n n pn
o
c
c
= o o o = o o o + o o o = o
V
R
V
V
n
p
cos F W F
2
pn n n
o

o o o o =
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
= + =
R
V
n
p
cos
2

u =
c
c

Equation of motion
normal to the streamline
Normal direction
20
Integration..



R
V
dn
dp
dn
dz
2

=
R
V
n
p
cos
2

=
c
c
u
Rearranged
across the streamline
In general it is not possible to
integrate the pressure term because
the density may not be constant and,
therefore, cannot be removed from
under the integral sign.
Integrated
A change in the direction of flow of a fluid particle is
accomplished by the appropriate combination of pressure
gradient and particle weight normal to the streamline
C gz dn
R
V dp
2
= + +

} }
Without knowing the n dependent
in V=V(s,n) and R=R(s,n) this
integration cannot be completed.
21
Bernoulli Equation Normal to a Streamline
For the special case of incompressible flow



Restrictions : Steady flow.
Incompressible flow.
Frictionless flow. NO
Flow normal to a streamline.
C z dn
R
V
p
2
= + +
}
BERNOULLI EQUATION
C gz dn
R
V dp
2
= +
} }
+

22
Example 3.3 Pressure Variation Normal to
a Streamline
Shown in Figure E3.3 (a) and (b) are two flow fields with circular
streamlines. The velocity distributions are
) b (
r
C
) r ( V ) a ( r C ) r ( V
2
1
= =
Assuming the flows are steady, inviscid, and incompressible
with streamlines in the horizontal plane (dz/dn=0).
23
Example 3.3 Solution

( )
0
2
0
2
2
1
p r r C
2
1
p + =
r
V
r
p
2

=
c
c
For flow in the horizontal plane (dz/dn=0).
The streamlines are circles c/cn=-c/cr
The radius of curvature R=r
For case (a) this gives
r C
r
p
2
1
=
c
c
3
2
2
r
C
r
p
=
c
c
For case (b) this gives
0
2 2
0
2
2
p
r
1
r
1
C
2
1
p +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
R
V
dn
dp
dn
dz
2

=
24
Physical Interpreter
1/2
Under the basic assumptions: the flow is steady and the fluid is
inviscid and incompressible.
Application of F=ma and integration of equation of motion along
and normal to the streamline result in



To produce an acceleration, there must be an unbalance of
the resultant force, of which only pressure and gravity were
considered to be important. Thus, there are three process
involved in the flow mass times acceleration (the V
2
/2 term),
pressure (the p term), and weight (the z term).
C z dn
R
V
p
2
= +
}
+ C z
2
V
p
2
= + +
25
Physical Interpreter
2/2
The Bernoulli equation is a mathematical statement of The
work done on a particle of all force acting on the particle is equal
to the change of the kinetic energy of the particle.
Work done by force : Fd.
Work done by weight: z
Work done by pressure force: p
Kinetic energy: V
2
/2
26
Head

An alternative but equivalent form of the Bernoulli
equation is obtained by dividing each term by
c z
g 2
V P
2
= + +

Pressure Head
Velocity Head
Elevation Head
The Bernoulli Equation can be written in
terms of heights called heads
27
Example 3.4 Kinetic, Potential, and
Pressure Energy
Consider the flow of water from the syringe
shown in Figure E3.4. A force applied to the
plunger will produce a pressure greater than
atmospheric at point (1) within the syringe.
The water flows from the needle, point (2),
with relatively high velocity and coasts up to
point (3) at the top of its trajectory. Discuss
the energy of the fluid at point (1), (2), and (3)
by using the Bernoulli equation.
28
Example 3.4 Solution

The sum of the three types of energy (kinetic, potential, and pressure)
or heads (velocity, elevation, and pressure) must remain constant.
The pressure gradient between (1) and (2)
produces an acceleration to eject the water
form the needle.
Gravity acting on the particle between (2) and
(3) produces a deceleration to cause the water
to come to a momentary stop at the top of its
flight.
streamline the along t tan cons z V
2
1
p
2
= + +
The motion results in a change in the magnitude of each type of
energy as the fluid flows from one location to another.
29
Example 3.5 Pressure Variation in a
Flowing Stream
Consider the inviscid, incompressible, steady flow shown in Figure
E3.5. From section A to B the streamlines are straight, while from C
to D they follow circular paths. Describe the pressure variation
between points (1) and (2)and points(3) and (4)
30
Example 3.5 Solution
1/2

1
2 2 1 2 2 1
rh p ) z z ( r p p

+ = + =
t tan cons rz p = +
R= , for the portion from A to B
Using p
2
=0,z
1
=0,and z
2
=h
2-1

Since the radius of curvature of the streamline is infinite, the pressure
variation in the vertical direction is the same as if the fluids were
stationary.
Point (1)~(2)
31
}
=

4
3
z
z
2
3 4 3
dz
R
V
rh p
With p
4
=0 and z
4
-z
3
=h
4-3
,this becomes
3 3 4
z
z
2
4
rz p rz ) dz (
R
V
p
4
3
+ = + +
}
Example 3.5 Solution
2/2
Point (3)~(4)
For the portion from C to D
32
Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and
Total Pressure
1/5
Each term in the Bernoulli equation can be interpreted as a
form of pressure.


p is the actual thermodynamic pressure of the fluid as it
flows. To measure this pressure, one must move along
with the fluid, thus being static relative to the moving
fluid. Hence, it is termed the static pressure seen by the
fluid particle as it moves.
C z
2
V
p
2
= + +
Each term can be interpreted
as a form of pressure
33
Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and
Total Pressure
2/5
The static pressure is measured in a flowing fluid using a
wall pressure tap, or a static pressure probe.


h h h p h p
3 4 1 3 3 1 3 1
= + = + =

The static pressure
z is termed the hydrostatic
pressure. It is not actually a
pressure but does represent the
change in pressure possible due
to potential energy variations of
the fluid as a result of elevation
changes.
34
Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and
Total Pressure
3/5
V
2
/2 is termed the dynamic pressure. It can be interpreted
as the pressure at the end of a small tube inserted into the
flow and pointing upstream. After the initial transient
motion has died out, the liquid will fill the tube to a height
of H.
The fluid in the tube, including that at its tip (2), will be
stationary. That is, V
2
=0, or point (2) is a stagnation point.
2
1
1 2
V
2
1
p p + = Stagnation pressure
Static pressure
Dynamic pressure
35
Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and
Total Pressure
4/5
There is a stagnation point on any stationary body that is
placed into a flowing fluid. Some of the fluid flows over
and some under the object.
The dividing line is termed the stagnation streamline and
terminates at the stagnation point on the body.
Neglecting the elevation
effects, the stagnation
pressure is the largest
pressure obtainable along a
given streamline.
stagnation point
36
Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and
Total Pressure
5/5
The sum of the static pressure, dynamic pressure, and
hydrostatic pressure is termed the total pressure.
The Bernoulli equation is a statement that the total
pressure remains constant along a streamline.
t tan cons p z
2
V
p
T
2
= = + +
Constant along a streamline
37
The Pitot-static Tube
1/5
= >>
=
= =
~
+ = =
/ ) p p ( 2 V
2 / V p p
p p p
z z
2 / V p p p
4 3
2
4 3
1 4
4 1
2
3 2
Knowledge of the values of the static and
stagnation pressure in a fluid implies that the
fluid speed can be calculated.
This is the principle on which the Pitot-
static tube is based.

Static pressure
Stagnation pressure
Pitot-static stubes measure
fluid velocity by converting
velocity into pressure.
38
The Pitot-static Tube
2/5
39
The Pitot-static Tube
3/5
The use of pitot-static tube depends on the ability to
measure the static and stagnation pressure.
An accurate measurement of static pressure requires that
none of the fluids kinetic energy be converted into a
pressure rise at the point of measurement.
This requires a smooth hole with no burrs or imperfections.
Incorrect and correct design of static pressure taps.
40
The Pitot-static Tube
4/5
Typical pressure distribution along a Pitot-static tube.
The pressure along the surface of an object varies from the
stagnation pressure at its stagnation point to value that
may be less than free stream static pressure.
It is important that the pressure tapes be properly located
to ensure that the pressure measured is actually the static
pressure.
41
The Pitot-static Tube
5/5
Three pressure taps are drilled into a small circular
cylinder, fitted with small tubes, and connected to three
pressure transducers. The cylinder is rotated until the
pressures in the two side holes are equal, thus indicating
that the center hole points directly upstream.
( )
2
1
1 2
3 1
P P 2
V
P P
(

=
=
Directional-finding Pitot-static tube.
If =0
42
Example 3.6 Pitot-Static Tube
An airplane flies 100mi/hr at an elevation of 10,000 ft in a
standard atmosphere as shown in Figure E3.6. Determine
the pressure at point (1) far ahead of the airplane, point (2),
and the pressure difference indicated by a Pitot-static
probe attached to the fuselage.
43
Example 3.6 Solution
1/2
2
V
p p
2
1
1 2

+ =
psia 11 . 10 ) abs ( ft / lb 1456 p
2
1
= =
The static pressure and density at the altitude
If the flow is steady, inviscid, and incompressible and elevation
changes are neglected. The Bernoulli equation
3
ft / slug 001756 . 0 =
With V
1
=100mi/hr=146.6ft/s and V
2
=0
) abs ( ft / lb ) 9 . 18 1456 (
2 / ) s / ft 7 . 146 )( ft / slugs 001756 . 0 ( ft / lb 1456 p
2
2 2 2 3 2
2
+ =
+ =
44
psi 1313 . 0 ft / lb 9 . 18 p
2
2
= =
In terms of gage pressure
psi 1313 . 0
2
V
p p
2
1
1 2
=

=
The pressure difference indicated by the Pitot-static tube
Example 3.6 Solution
2/2
45
Application of Bernoulli Equation
1/2
The Bernoulli equation can be applied between any two
points on a streamline provided that the other three
restrictions are satisfied. The result is
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
1
z
2
V
p z
2
V
p +

+ = +

+
Restrictions : Steady flow.
Incompressible flow.
Frictionless flow.
Flow along a streamline.
46
Application of Bernoulli Equation
2/2
Free jet.
Confined flow.
Flowrate measurement

47
Free Jets
1/3
Application of the Bernoulli equation between points (1)
and (2) on the streamline
gh 2
h 2
V
2
V
h
2
=

=
At point (5)
) H h ( g 2 V + =
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
1
z
2
V
p z
2
V
p +

+ = +

+
48
Free Jets
2/3
For the horizontal nozzle, the
velocity at the centerline, V2,
will be greater than that at the
top V1.
In general, d<<h and use the V2
as average velocity.
For a sharp-edged orifice, a
vena contracta effect occurs.
The effect is the result of the
inability of the fluid to turn the
sharp 90 corner.
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
1
z
2
V
p z
2
V
p +

+ = +

+
Vena contracta effects
for sharp-edged
orifice.
49
Free Jets
3/3
Typical flow patterns and
contraction coefficients for
various round exit
configuration.
The diameter of a fluid jet is
often smaller than that of the
hole from which it flows.
Define Cc=contraction coefficient
h
j
c
A
A
C =
Aj=area of the jet at the vena contracta
Ah=area of the hole
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
1
z
2
V
p z
2
V
p +

+ = +

+
50
Example 3.7 Flow From a Tank Gravity
A stream of water of diameter d = 0.1m flows steadily from a tank
of Diameter D = 1.0m as shown in Figure E3.7 (a). Determine the
flowrate, Q, needed from the inflow pipe if the water depth remains
constant, h = 2.0m.
51
Example 3.7 Solution
1/2
2
2
2 2 1
2
1 1
z V
2
1
p z V
2
1
p + + = + +
2
2
2
1
V
2
1
gh V
2
1
= +
The Bernoulli equation applied between points (1) and (2) is
(1)
With p
1
= p
2
= 0, z
1
= h, and z
2
= 0

(2)
For steady and incompressible flow, conservation of mass requires
Q
1
= Q
2
, where Q = AV. Thus, A
1
V
1
=A
2
V
2
, or

2
2
1
2
V d
4
V D
4
t
=
t
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
1
z
2
V
p z
2
V
p +

+ = +

+
2
2
1
V )
D
d
( V =
(3)
52
Example 3.7 Solution
2/2
s / m 26 . 6
) m 1 / m 1 . 0 ( 1
) m 0 . 2 )( s / m 81 . 9 ( 2
) D / d ( 1
gh 2
V
4
2
4
2
=

=
Combining Equation 1 and 3
Thus,
s / m 0492 . 0 ) s / m 26 . 6 ( ) m 1 . 0 (
4
V A V A Q
3 2
2 2 1 1
=
t
= = =
V
1
0 (Q) vs. V
1
0 (Q
0
)

4
4
2
2
0
) / ( 1
1
2
] ) / ( 1 /[ 2
D d
gh
D d gh
V
V
Q
Q
D

=

= =
=
53
Example 3.8 Flow from a Tank-Pressure
Air flows steadily from a tank, through a hose of diameter
D=0.03m and exits to the atmosphere from a nozzle of
diameter d=0.01m as shown in Figure E3.8. The pressure
in the tank remains constant at 3.0kPa (gage) and the
atmospheric conditions are standard temperature and
pressure. Determine the flowrate and the pressure in
the hose.
54
Example 3.8 Solution
1/2
3
2
3 3 2
2
2 2 1
2
1 1
z V
2
1
p z V
2
1
p z V
2
1
p + + = + + = + +
2
2 1 2
1
3
V
2
1
p p and
p 2
V =

=
For steady, inviscid, and incompressible flow, the Bernoulli equation
along the streamline
With z
1
=z
2
= z
3
, V
1
= 0, and p
3
=0

(1)
The density of the air in the tank is obtained from the perfect gas law

3
3
2
1
m / kg 26 . 1
K ) 273 15 )( K kg / m N 9 . 286 (
kN / N 10
] m / kN ) 101 0 . 3 [(
RT
p
=
+
+ = =
55
Example 3.8 Solution
2/2


s / m 00542 . 0 V d
4
V A Q
3
3
2
3 3
=
t
= = s / m 0 . 69
m / kg 26 . 1
) m / N 10 0 . 3 ( 2 p 2
V
3
2 3
1
3
=

=
Thus,
or

The pressure within the hose can be obtained from Eq. 1
and the continuity equation

s / m 67 . 7 A / V A V , Hence V A V A
2 3 3 2 3 3 2 2
= = =
2 2
2 3 2 3 2
2 1 2
m / N 2963 m / N ) 1 . 37 3000 (
) s / m 67 . 7 )( m / kg 26 . 1 (
2
1
m / N 10 0 . 3 V
2
1
p p
= =
= =
56
Example 3.9 Flow in a Variable Area Pipe
Water flows through a pipe reducer as is shown in Figure E3.9. The
static pressures at (1) and (2) are measured by the inverted U-tube
manometer containing oil of specific gravity, SG, less than one.
Determine the manometer reading, h.
57
Example 3.9 Solution
1/2
2 2 1 1
V A V A Q = =
For steady, inviscid, incompressible flow, the Bernoulli equation along
the streamline
The continuity equation
Combining these two equations
(1)
2
2
2 2 1
2
1 1
z pV
2
1
p z pV
2
1
p + + = + +
] ) A / A ( 1 [ pV
2
1
) z z ( p p
2
1 2
2
2 1 2 2 1
+ =
58
Example 3.9 Solution
2/2
h ) SG 1 ( ) z z ( p p
1 2 2 1
+ =
2 1 2 1
p h SG h ) z z ( p = + +
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
2
2
2
A
A
1 pV
2
1
h ) SG 1 (
This pressure difference is measured by the manometer and determine
by using the pressure-depth ideas developed in Chapter 2.
or
(2)
( )
( ) SG 1 g 2
) A / A ( 1
A / Q h
2
1 2
2
2

=
Since V
2
=Q/A
2

- +
be independent of
59
Confined Flows
1/4
When the fluid is physically constrained within a device,
its pressure cannot be prescribed a priori as was done for
the free jet.
Such cases include nozzle and pipes of various diameter
for which the fluid velocity changes because the flow area
is different from one section to another.
For such situations, it is necessary to use the concept of
conservation of mass (the continuity equation) along with
the Bernoulli equation.
Tools:Bernoulli equation + Continuity equation
60
Confined Flows
2/4
Consider a fluid flowing through a fixed volume that has
one inlet and one outlet.
Conservation of mass requires
For incompressible flow, the continuity equation is
2 2 2 1 1 1
V A V A =
2 1 2 2 1 1
Q Q V A V A = =
61
Confined Flows
3/4
If the fluid velocity is increased,
the pressure will decrease.
This pressure decrease can be
large enough so that the
pressure in the liquid is reduced
to its vapor pressure.
Pressure variation and cavitation
in a variable area pipe.
62
Confined Flows
4/4 example of cavitation
A example of cavitation can be demonstrated with a garden hose. If
the hose is kinked, a restriction in the flow area will result.
The water velocity through the restriction will be relatively large.
With a sufficient amount of restriction the sound of the flowing
water will change a definite hissing sound will be produced.
The sound is a result of cavitation.
63
Damage from Cavitation

Cavitation from propeller
64
Example 3.10 Siphon and Cavitation
Water at 60 is siphoned from a large tank through a constant
diameter hose as shown in Figure E3.10. Determine the maximum
height of the hill, H, over which the water can be siphoned without
cavitation occurring. The end of the siphon is 5 ft below the bottom
of the tank. Atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psia.
The value of H is a function of both the
specific weight of the fluid, , and its
vapor pressure, p
v
.
65
Example 3.10 Solution
1/2
3
2
3 3 2
2
2 2 1
2
1 1
z V
2
1
p z V
2
1
p z V
2
1
p + + = + + = + +
For ready, inviscid, and incompressible flow, the Bernoulli equation
along the streamline from (1) to (2) to (3)
With z
1
= 15 ft, z
2
= H, and z
3
= -5 ft. Also, V
1
= 0 (large tank), p
1
= 0
(open tank), p
3
= 0 (free jet), and from the continuity equation A
2
V
2
=
A
3
V
3
, or because the hose is constant diameter V
2
= V
3
. The speed of
the fluid in the hose is determined from Eq. 1 to be

(1)
2
2
3 1 3
V s / ft 9 . 35 ft )] 5 ( 15 )[ s / ft 2 . 32 ( 2 ) z z ( g 2 V = = = =
V
2
=V
3
66
Example 3.10 Solution
2/2
2
2 2 1 2
2
2 1
2
1 1 2
V
2
1
) z z ( z V
2
1
z V
2
1
p p = + + =
2 3 3 2 2 2
) s / ft 9 . 35 )( ft / slugs 94 . 1 (
2
1
ft ) H 15 )( ft / lb 4 . 62 ( ) ft / . in 144 )( . in / lb 4 . 14 ( =
Use of Eq. 1 between point (1) and (2) then gives the pressure p
2
at the
top of the hill as
The vapor pressure of water at 60 is 0.256 psia. Hence, for incipient
cavitation the lowest pressure in the system will be p = 0.256 psia.
Using gage pressure: p
1
= 0, p
2
=0.256 14.7 = -14.4 psi
(2)
ft H 2 . 28 =
67
Flowrate Measurement
in

pipes 1/5
Various flow meters are
governed by the Bernoulli
and continuity equations.
2 2 1 1
2
2 2
2
1 1
V A V A Q
V
2
1
p V
2
1
p
= =
+ = +
( )
| |
2
1 2
2 1
2
) A / A ( 1
p p 2
A Q

The theoretical flowrate


Typical devices for measuring flowrate in pipes
68
Example 3.11 Venturi Meter
Kerosene (SG = 0.85) flows through the Venturi meter shown in
Figure E3.11 with flowrates between 0.005 and 0.050 m
3
/s.
Determine the range in pressure difference, p
1
p
2
, needed to
measure these flowrates.
Known Q, Determine p
1
-p
2
69
Example 3.11 Solution
1/2
3 3
O 2 H
kg/m 850 ) kg/m 1000 ( 85 . 0 SG = = =
2
2
2
A 2
] ) A / A ( 1 [ Q
p p
2
1 2
2 1

=
For steady, inviscid, and incompressible flow, the relationship between
flowrate and pressure
The density of the flowing fluid
The area ratio
36 . 0 ) m 10 . 0 / m 006 . 0 ( ) D / D ( /A A
2 2
1 2 1 2
= = =
( )
| |
2
1 2
2 1
2
) A / A ( 1
p p 2
A Q


= Eq. 3.20
70
Example 3.11 Solution
2/2
The pressure difference for the smallest flowrate is
The pressure difference for the largest flowrate is
2 2
2
2
2 1
] ) m 06 . 0 )( 4 / [( 2
) 36 . 0 1 (
) 850 )( 05 . 0 ( p p
t

=
kPa 116 N/m 10 16 . 1
2 5
= =
kPa 16 . 1 N/m 1160
] ) m 06 . 0 )( 4 / [( 2
) 36 . 0 1 (
) kg/m 850 ( ) /s m 005 . 0 ( p p
2
2 2
2
3 2 3
2 1
= =
t

=
kPa 116 -p p kPa 16 . 1
2 1
s s
71
Flowrate Measurement
sluice gate 2/5
The sluice gate is often used to regulate and measure the flowrate in
an open channel.
The flowrate, Q, is function of the water depth upstream, z
1
, the
width of the gate, b, and the gate opening, a.
( )
2
1 2
2 1
2
) / ( 1
2
z z
z z g
b z Q


=
With p
1
=p
2
=0, the flowrate
2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
2
2
2 2 1
2
1 1
z bV V A z bV V A Q
z V
2
1
p z V
2
1
p
= = = =
+ + = + +
72
Flowrate Measurement
sluice gate 3/5
In the limit of z
1
>>z
2
, this result simply becomes


This limiting result represents the fact that if the depth ratio, z
1
/z
2
, is
large, the kinetic energy of the fluid upstream of the gate is
negligible and the fluid velocity after it has fallen a distance (z
1
-
z
2
)~z
1
is approximately


Z
2
?? <a Z
2
=C
c
a C
c

1 2
gz 2 b z Q =
1 2
gz 2 V =
73
Flowrate Measurement
sluice gate 4/5
As we discussed relative to flow from an orifice, the fluid
cannot turn a sharp 90 corner. A vena contracta results
with a contraction coefficient, C
c
=z
2
/a, less than 1.
Typically C
c
~0.61 over the depth ratio range of 0<a/z
1
<0.2.
For large value of a/z
1
, the value of C
c
increase rapidly.


74
Example 3.12 Sluice Gate
Water flows under the sluice gate in Figure E3.12 (a). Dertermine
the approximate flowrate per unit width of the channel.
75
Example 3.12 Solution
1/2
( )
( )( )
( )
s / m 61 . 4
m 0 . 5 / m 488 . 0 1
m 488 . 0 m 0 . 5 s / m 81 . 9 2
m 488 . 0
b
Q
2
2
2
=


=
( )
( )
2
1 2
2 1
2
/ 1
2
z z
z z g
z
b
Q


=
For steady, inviscid, incompreesible flow, the flowerate per unit width
With z
1
=5.0m and a=0.80m, so the ratio a/z
1
=0.16<0.20.
Assuming contraction coefficient is approximately C
c
=0.61.
z
2
=C
c
a=0.61(0.80m)=0.488m.
The flowrate
( )
2
1 2
2 1
2
) / ( 1
2
z z
z z g
b z Q


= Eq.3.21
76
Example 3.12 Solution
1/2
If we consider z
1
>>z
2
and neglect the kinetic energy of the upstream
fluid, we would have
( )( ) s m m s m m gz z
b
Q
/ 83 . 4 0 . 5 / 81 . 9 2 488 . 0 2
2 2
1 2
= = =
77
Flowrate Measurement
weir

5/5
For a typical rectangular, sharp-crested, the flowrate over the top of
the weir plate is dependent on the weir height, P
w
, the width of the
channel, b, and the head, H, of the water above the top of the weir.
2 / 3
1 1 1
H g 2 b C gH 2 Hb C AV C Q = = = The flowrate
Where C
1
is a constant to be determined.
78
Example 3.13 Weir
Water flows over a triangular weir, as is shown in Figure E3.13.
Based on a simple analysis using the Bernoulli equation, determine
the dependence of flowrate on the depth H. If the flowrate is Q
0

when H=H
0
, estimate the flowrate when the depth is increased to
H=3H
0
.
79
Example 3.13 Solution

gH 2
For steady , inviscid , and incompressible flow, the average speed
of the fluid over the triangular notch in the weir plate is
proportional to
The flow area for a depth of H is H[H tan(u /2)]
The flowrate


where C
2
is an unknown constant to be determined experimentally.
( )
2 / 5
2 2
2
H g 2
2
tan C gH 2 C
2
tan H V A Q
u
=
u
= =
An increase in the depth by a factor of the three ( from H
0
to 3H
0
)
results in an increase of the flowrate by a factor of
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
6 . 15
H g 2 2 / tan C
H 3 g 2 2 / tan C
Q
Q
2 / 5
0 2
2 / 5
0 2
H
H 3
0
0
=
u
u
=
80
EL & HGL
1/4
For steady, inviscid, incompressible flow , the total energy
remains constant along a streamline.
g / p
g 2 / V
2
z
H
The head due to local static pressure (pressure energy)
The head due to local dynamic pressure (kinetic energy)
The elevation head ( potential energy )
The total head for the flow
H t tan cons z
g 2
V P
2
= = + +

81
EL & HGL
2/4
Energy Line (EL) : represents the total head height.



Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) height: represents the sum of the
elevation and static pressure heads.



The difference in heights between the EL and the HGL represents
the dynamic ( velocity ) head
z
g 2
V P
2
+ +

z
P
+

g 2 / V
2
82
EL & HGL
3/4
H t tan cons z
g 2
V P
2
= = + +

83
EL & HGL
4/4
H t tan cons z
g 2
V P
2
= = + +

H t tan cons z
g 2
V P
2
= = + +

84
Example 3.14
Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line
Water is siphoned from the tank shown in Figure E3.14 through a
hose of constant diameter. A small hole is found in the hose at
location (1) as indicate. When the siphon is used, will water leak out
of the hose, or will air leak into the hose, thereby possibly causing
the siphon to malfunction?

85
Example 3.14 Solution
1/2
Whether air will leak into or water will leak out of the hose depends
on whether the pressure within the hose at (1) is less than or
greater than atmospheric. Which happens can be easily determined
by using the energy line and hydraulic grade line concepts. With the
assumption of steady, incompressible, inviscid flow it follows that the
total head is constant-thus, the energy line is horizontal.

Since the hose diameter is constant, it follows from the continuity
equation (AV=constant) that the water velocity in the hose is constant
throughout. Thus the hydraulic grade line is constant distance, V
2
/2g,
below the energy line as shown in Figure E3.14.
86
Example 3.14 Solution
2/2
Since the pressure at the end of the hose is atmospheric, it follows that
the hydraulic grade line is at the same elevation as the end of the hose
outlet. The fluid within the hose at any point above the hydraulic grade
line will be at less than atmospheric pressure.

Thus, air will leak into the hose through the hole at point (1).
87
Restrictions on Use of the Bernoulli
Equation
compressibility effects 1/4
The assumption of incompressibility is reasonable for
most liquid flows.
In certain instances, the assumption introduce considerable
errors for gases.
To account for compressibility effects

C gz V
2
1 dp
2
= + +

}
88
Restrictions on Use of the Bernoulli
Equation
compressibility effects 2/4
For isothermal flow of perfect gas


For isentropic flow of perfect gas the density and pressure
are related by P /
k
=Ct, where k = Specific heat ratio
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
z
g 2
V
P
P
ln
g
RT
z
g 2
V
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
t tan cons gz V
2
1
dP P C
2
k
1
k
1
= + +
}

t tan cons gz V
2
1 dp
RT
2
= + +

}
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
gz
2
V P
1 k
k
gz
2
V P
1 k
k
+ +

|
.
|

\
|

= + +

|
.
|

\
|

89
Restrictions on Use of the Bernoulli
Equation
compressibility effects 3/4
To find the pressure ratio as a function of Mach
number
1 1 1 1 a1
kRT / V c / V M = =
The upstream Mach number
Speed of sound
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =


1 M
2
1 k
1
p
p p
1 k
k
2
1 a
1
1 2
Compressible flow
Incompressible flow
2
1 a
1
1 2
M
2
k
p
p p
=

90
Restrictions on Use of the Bernoulli
Equation
compressibility effects 4/4
2
1 a
1
1 2
M
2
k
p
p p
=

(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =


1 M
2
1 k
1
p
p p
1 k
k
2
1 a
1
1 2
91
Example 3.15 Compressible Flow Mach
Number
A Boeing 777 flies at Mach 0.82 at an altitude of 10 km in a
standard atmosphere. Determine the stagnation pressure on the
leading edge of its wing if the flow is incompressible; and if the
flow is incompressible isentropic.
kPa 5 . 12 ... p p
471 . 0 ... M
2
k
p
p p
1 2
2
1 a
1
1 2
=
= = =

For incompressible flow


For compressible isentropic flow
kPa 7 . 14 .... p p
55 . 0 ... 1 M
2
1 k
1
p
p p
1 2
1 k
k
2
1 a
1
1 2
= =
= =
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =


92
Restrictions on Use of the Bernoulli
Equation
unsteady effects
For unsteady flow V = V ( s , t )


To account for unsteady effects

s
V
V
t
V
a
S
c
c
+
c
c
=
( ) 0 dz V d
2
1
dp ds
t
V
2
= + + +
c
c

Along a streamline
+ Incompressible condition
2
2
2 2
S
S
1
2
1 1
z V
2
1
p ds
t
V
z V
2
1
p
2
1
+ + +
c
c
= + +
}
93
Example 3.16 Unsteady Flow U-Tube
An incompressible, inviscid liquid
is placed in a vertical, constant
diameter U-tube as indicated in
Figure E3.16. When released from
the nonequilibrium position shown,
the liquid column will oscilate at a
specific frequency. Determine this
frequence.

94
Example 3.16 Solution

Let points (1) and (2) be at the air-water interface of the two columns
of the tube and z=0 correspond to the equilibrium position of the
interface.
Hence z = 0 , p
1
=p
2
= 0, z
1
= 0, z
2
= - z , V
1
= V
2
= V z = z ( t )
dt
dV
ds
dt
dV
ds
t
V 2
1
2
1
S
S
S
S
= =
c
c
} }
The total length of the liquid colum
( )

/ g 2 0 z
g 2
dt
z d
g
dt
dz
V
z
dt
dV
z
2
2
= e = +
= =
+ =
Liquid oscillation