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Terrorism

An overview By Martha Bohnenberger D. R. Hill Middle

What is terrorism?

What is

terrorism?

Definitions

Encyclopedia Britannica

“The systematic use of terror (such as bombings, killings, and

kidnappings) as a means of forcing some political objective. When used by a government, it may signal efforts to stifle dissent; used by insurrectionists or guerrillas, it many be part of an overall effort to

effect desired political change.”

Webster’s II New Riverside

University Dictionary

“Systematic use of violence, terror,

and intimidation to achieve an end.”

U.S. Department of State

“Terrorism is

premeditated,

politically

motivated violence

perpetrated against noncombatant targets by

subnational groups or clandestine state agents,

usually to

influence an

audience.”

Federal Bureau of Investigation

“Terrorism is the

unlawful use of force

or violence against

persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the

civilian population, or

any segment thereof, in furtherance of

political or social

objectives.”

“All criminal acts

directed against a State and calculated to create a state of terror in the

minds of particular persons or group of persons or the general

public.”

League of Nations

Convention

(1937)

United Nations

Resolutions Language

(1999)

“1. Strongly condemns all acts, methods, and practices of terrorism as

criminal and unjustifiable, wherever and by whomsoever committed;

2. Reiterates that criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons

for political purposes are in any circumstance unjustifiable, whatever

the considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial,

ethnic, religious or other nature that may be invoked to justify them.” (General Assembly Resolution 51/210, “measures to eliminate international terrorism”)

History or Terrorism

he term “terrorism” evolved during a phase of the French Revolution known as the “Reign of

he term “terrorism” evolved during a phase of the French Revolution known as the

“Reign of Terror”. From 1793 to 1794, one faction of the Revolution used violent methods to weed out “traitors” and to spread “terror” throughout the country. In just six weeks,

more than 1,300 people were guillotined in Paris alone.

French

Revolution

Terrorism is on the rise in recent years.

2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1970's 1980s 1990s
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1970's
1980s
1990s
  • North America

  • Africa

  • Europe

  • Asia

  • South America

Time Line

1988, Pan Am #103 bombed, Lockerbie Scotland
1988,
Pan Am
#103
bombed,
Lockerbie
Scotland

1979

Diplomats

held hostage,

Tehran, Iran

   
   

1972

 

Israeli

athletes

 

taken

hostage,

Munich

Germany

   

1984

Golden

Temple

seized,

Amritsar

India

   

1992

Two car

bombs

explode,

Lima, Peru

1995

Murrah

Building

bombed,

Oklahoma

City

Oklahoma

   

1996, Truck

 

bomb,

Manchester

England

   
   

1995 Nerve

gas released,

Aum

Shinrikyo

   

1998

U. S.

Embassies

bomed,

Kenya and

Tanzania

1997

 

Shopping

mall bombed,

Jerusalem

Isreal

   
   

2001 Four

 

airplanes hijacked and crashed,

Washington, DC

& New York City

Recent

Terrorism

1970s

1972 Israeli athletes taken hostage, Munich Germany

Recent Terrorism 1970s 1972 Israeli athletes taken hostage, Munich Germany 1979 Diplomats held hostage, Tehran, Iran
Recent Terrorism 1970s 1972 Israeli athletes taken hostage, Munich Germany 1979 Diplomats held hostage, Tehran, Iran

1979 Diplomats held hostage, Tehran, Iran

ovember, 1979 . After the exiled Shah of Iran was admitted into the United States for

ovember, 1979. After the exiled Shah of Iran was admitted into the United States for medical treatment, angry Iranian students

seized the U.S.

embassy in Tehran and took scores of American diplomats hostage. Thirteen hostages were released

shortly thereafter, but

the others were held for over a year.

Tehran

Iran

Recent

Terrorism

1984

1984 Golden Temple seized, Amritsar, India

Recent Terrorism 1984 1984 Golden Temple seized, Amritsar, India
une, 1984. In an effort to establish an independent state, Sikh terrorists seized the Golden Temple

une, 1984. In an effort

to establish an independent

state, Sikh terrorists seized the Golden Temple in Amritsar, India. Prime

Minister Indoor Gandhi

ordered a military campaign to drive out the terrorists. Hundreds were

killed.

Amritsar

India

1995
1995
Murrah Building bombed, Oklahoma City, OK
Murrah
Building
bombed,
Oklahoma
City, OK

1988, Pan Am #103 bombed, Lockerbie, Scotland

1995 Nerve gas released, Aum Shinrikyo

1995 Murrah Building bombed, Oklahoma City, OK 1988, Pan Am #103 bombed, Lockerbie, Scotland 1995 Nerve
1995 Murrah Building bombed, Oklahoma City, OK 1988, Pan Am #103 bombed, Lockerbie, Scotland 1995 Nerve
1992 Two car bombs explode, Lima, Peru
1992
Two car
bombs
explode,
Lima,
Peru

Recent Terrorism

1988-1995

Tokyo

Japan

Tokyo Japan arch, 1995 The terrorist group, Aum Shinrikyo, released nerve gas in a Tokyo subway

arch, 1995 The terrorist group, Aum Shinrikyo, released nerve gas in a Tokyo subway station to head off a raid by the Japanese government. The terrorist killed eleven people and injured thousands.

1996, Truck bomb, Manchester, England

1996, Truck bomb, Manchester, England Recent Terrorism 1995-2001 2001 Four airplanes hijacked and crashed, Washington, DC

Recent Terrorism

1995-2001

1996, Truck bomb, Manchester, England Recent Terrorism 1995-2001 2001 Four airplanes hijacked and crashed, Washington, DC

2001 Four airplanes hijacked and crashed, Washington, DC and New York City

1996, Truck bomb, Manchester, England Recent Terrorism 1995-2001 2001 Four airplanes hijacked and crashed, Washington, DC

1998 U. S. Embassies bomed, Kenya and Tanzania

1997 Shopping mall

bombed, Jeruselem, Isreal

eptember 11, 2001 was the deadliest terrorist attack in history. Osama Bin Laden’s terrorist organization Al

eptember 11, 2001 was the deadliest terrorist attack in history. Osama Bin Laden’s terrorist

organization Al Qaeda hijacked 4 commercial jets. Two of the planes were flown into the

World Trade Center, another into the Pentagon, and the last plane crashed in rural Pennsylvania. Thousands of lives were lost. Innocent citizens of over 80 different nations were attacked and killed without warning, shocking the civilized world.

New York

City

USA

Who are terrorists? Terrorists can be anyone who believes in a cause strongly enough to commit

Who are terrorists?

Who are terrorists? Terrorists can be anyone who believes in a cause strongly enough to commit
Who are terrorists? Terrorists can be anyone who believes in a cause strongly enough to commit
Who are terrorists? Terrorists can be anyone who believes in a cause strongly enough to commit
Who are terrorists? Terrorists can be anyone who believes in a cause strongly enough to commit
Who are terrorists? Terrorists can be anyone who believes in a cause strongly enough to commit
Who are terrorists? Terrorists can be anyone who believes in a cause strongly enough to commit

Terrorists can be anyone who believes in a cause strongly enough to commit violence to make a point.They can even be your neighbor next door.

What can we do about

Terrorism?

What can we do about Terrorism?

The spread of terrorism world wide must be stopped through education.

Education about the terrorist groups and why the

terrorist incidents happen is crucial, so that these acts can be stopped before they happen.

People worldwide need to join together in not

allowing these criminals to use intimidation as a

means of achieving their goals.

The following graphic organizers

will help you research and better

understand the terrorists groups

and the reasoning behind their

intimidation tactics.

Graphic Organizers on Terrorist

Incidents

Who is the terrorist group?

What or who did the group target?

When (year) did the action take place?

Where (city or country) did the action take place?

How was the attack carried out?

What was the goal of the terrorist?

           

Geography

Economy

Politics

Culture

Global

Connections

         

Bibliography

http://www.freefoto.com/

Terrorism, Bureau of Public Affairs, U. S. Department of State.

http://www.clipartconnection.com/searchsit

e/index.html?q=patriotism&b=9&f=jgwecb

p&p=5