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GROUP G6B : HALOALKANA & ELIMINASI

ENDAH SASMITA SATRIO BIMO W

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ASSIGNMENT


1 . INTRODUCTION 1.1. Title (compound name), Commercial name, trivial name 1.2 .Uses 1.3 Demand/supply national/global 2. A closer look at the chemical structure, 2.1 Show carbon chain, functional group, IUPAC name 2.2 Show selective Physical related to its uses and and show the effect of non-covalent interaction and geometry and hybridization 2.3 Show chemical reactivity, by drawing lewis structure, formal charge, active site, etc. 2.4 Use the physical/chemical properties to explain how the characteristic of this product and how it work 3. SINTESIS : 3.1 Reactant : compare its physical/chemical properties to that of the products. 3.2 Reaction mechanism : catalyst, reaction types, electron movement, reaction condition 3. Closing : Future Aspect of the product, Research Development, Environmental consideration

1.INTODUCTION

1.1 TITTLE PROPENA

1.2. Uses

Bahan dalam pembuatan plastik, seperti pembungkus makanan kering/snack, sedotan plastik, kantong obat, cup plastik, botol.

1.3. Demand/Suplay

The worldwide consumption of LAS has been estimated at 1.5 to 2 million tons per year

2. A CLOSER LOOK ON THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE


2.1. HC chain, functional group, IUPAC NAME

IUPAC name : Propena Trivial name : Propilen

Functional group :

2.2. SELECTIVE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE PRODUCT AND AFFECT OF NON-COVALENT INTERACTION show the effect of geometry & hybrization, carbon length, dipole interaction, hydrogen bond etc.
Compare Natrium Dodecyl sulfonate with ,,,,,,, tahan panas dengan titik lumer 160 derajat Celcius

2. A CLOSER LOOK ON THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE


2.3.Lewis structure and Formal charge

Formal charge

H = 1 - (0 + *2) = 0 C = 4 - (0 + *8) = 0

SPECIAL CHARACTERISTIC

KARAKTERISTIK

EXPLANATION RELATED TO SRUCTURE

Merupakan hidrofob

CARA KERJA PROPILEN MEMBENTUK POLIMER


Reaksi kebanyakan katalis metalosena membutuhkan sebuah kokatalis untuk pengaktifan. Salah satu ko-katalis yang paling umum digunakan untuk tujuan ini adalah Methylaluminoxane (MAO). Kokatalis yang lain adalah Al(C2H5)3. Ada sejumlah katalis metalosena yang bisa digunakan untuk polimerisasi propilena. (Sejumlah katalis metalosena dipakai untuk proses industri, sedangkan yang lain tidak, dikarenakan harganya yang tinggi.). Salah satunya yang paling sederhana adalah Cp2MCl2 (M = Zr, Hf). Katalis yang berbeda bisa menghasilkan polimer dengan berat molekul serta sifat yang berbeda. Katalis metalosena sedang diteliti secara aktif.

Katalis metalosena bereaksi dulu dengan ko-katalis. Jika MAO adalah ko-katalisnya, langkah pertama adalah menggantikan satu atom Cl di katalis dengan satu gugus metil dari MAO. Gugus metil di MAO digantikan oleh Cl dari katalis. MAO lalu menghilangkan Cl lainnya dari katalis. Ini membuat katalis bermuatan positif dan rentan terhadap serangan dari propilena. Begitu katalis diaktifkan, ikatan ganda di propena berkoordinasi dengan logamnya katalis. Gugus metil di katalis lalu bermigrasi ke propena, dan ikatan ganda terputus. Hal ini memulai polimerisasi. Begitu metil bermigrasi maka katalis bermuatan positif terbentuk kembali dan propena yang lain berkoordinasi dengan logam. Propena kedua berkoordinasi dan migrasi berlanjut serta sebuah rantai polimer tumbuh dari katalis metalosena

3. SYNTHESIS (WHOLE STEPS)


sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate
Acid base
dodecylbenzenes sulfonic acid + sodium hydroxide sulfonaion

dodecylbenzenes + sulfur trioxide Electrofilic aromatic substitution Alkylation benzene + dodecene

3. SYNTHESIS (acid base reaction)

Acid base

+NaOH

3. SYNTHESIS (sulfonation step)

sulfonaion

+ SO3+ H2SO4 H dodecylbenzenesulfonate

3.1 SYNTHESIS (SUBSTITUTION STEP) REACTION OF SYNTHESIS


dodecylbenzenesulfonate

Electrofilic Aromatic Substitution

Alkyl + benzena

Consider as reactant

3. 2. REACTANT CHEMICAL REACTIVITY


2.3.Lewis structure and Formal charge

3.3 REACTION REACTION OFMECHANISM SYNTHESIS


dodecylbenzenesulfonate

Electrofilic Aromatic Substitution

Alkyl + benzena

4. CLOSING:

The early ABS detergents (alkylbenzenesulfonic acid) had an important defect. They contained branched chain molecules that made them biologically hard, or nondegradable, which meant that the bacteria in sewage treatment plants did not easily break them down. These were replaced by degradable detergents (linear alkyl sulfonates, LAS). Even the biodegradable detergents are not free from faults. In addition to the LAS, which is the cleansing agent, or surfactant, many other substances are added, such as builders, bleaches, conditioners, optical brighteners and enzymes. A builder prevents the formation of insoluble compounds in hard water.

ORCHEM ASSIGNMENT
1 . INTRODUCTION 1.1. Title (compound name), chemical structure, IUPAC/trivial name 1.2 .uses, national world supply/demand 2. SINTESIS : 2.1 Reactant, product mechanism 2.2 Physical/chemical properties comparison of the product and the reactant 2.3 A closer look on the chemical structure (functional group, active site etc. 2.4 How it works to support its function/uses 3. Closing : Future Aspect of the product, Research Development, Environmental consideration

1.TITTLE

1. 2.USES
(KEGUNAAN)

Polystyrene is a thermoplastic resin that is easily processed. As such it is used in many applications such as disposables, packaging, toys, construction, electronics and house wares.

USES
(KEGUNAAN)

General-purpose (also referred to as crystal or straight) resin is sold in three common grades: high-heat, medium-flow and high-flow grades.

CD case

Disposable polystyrene razor made from general purpose polystyrene (GPPS)

USES
(KEGUNAAN)

What we commonly call styrofoam, is actually the most recognizable form of foam polystyrene packaging. Styrofoam is the trademark of the Dow Chemical Company, the technical name of the product is extruded polystyrene foam

packing materials, insulation, and foam drink cups.

1.3. SUPPLAY/DEMAND
In 1996, world production capacity for styrene was near 19.2 million metric tonnes per year

2. A CLOSER LOOK ON THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE

3. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTIC
AND HOW DOES THIS WORK TO SUPPORT ITS FUNCTION/USES

2.1. HC chain, functional group, IUPAC NAME

Poly(1-phenylethane-1,2-diyl), Special feature : polymer of hydrocarbon

Part of molecule : benzene ring


Functional group : no

2.2. Selective Physical properties of the product and affect of non-covalent interaction
show the effect of carbon length, dipole interaction, hydrogen bond

Compare boiling point of styrene with that of polystyrene to show the effect chain length

Compare boiling point styrene with that of the linier C8s compound to show the effect of benzene ring

Effect of chain length

Properties Molecular formula Molar mass Appearance Density Melting point C8H8

styrene
104.15 g/mol colorless oily liquid 0.909 g/cm -30 C

polystyrene ? ? Solid 1.05 g/cm3 240 C

SPECIAL CHARACTERISTIC

Special CHARACTERISTIC It is hard plastic with limited flexibility. It takes a very long time to biodegrade Polystyrene is a thermoplastic substance,

EXPLANATION RELATED TO SRUCTURE The existence of benzene branch It does has oxygen containing functional group It is not crystal structure

2.2. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTIC It is hard plastic with limited flexibility.

benzene ring stacking of aromatic rings (polystyren)

2.2. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTIC It takes a very long time to biodegrade

The reason traditional plastics are not biodegradable is because their long polymer molecules are too large and too tightly bonded together to be broken apart and assimilated by decomposer organisms

Another reason is that It does not has oxygen containing functional group

Polystyrene is a thermoplastic substance, which is in solid (glassy) state at room temperature, but flows if heated above its glass transition temperature (for molding or extrusion), and becomes solid again when cooled

No cross linking

If there are some cross linking, polimer become thermoset substance

3. SYNTHESIS
PS, is an aromatic polymer made from the aromatic monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum by the chemical industry.

Catalyst :boron trifluoride and water.

3. REACTANT Reactivity
2.3.Lewis structure and Formal charge

2.2. REACTION MECHANISM


Show reaction mechanism

4. CLOSING:

Many people are not aware of the harmful effects of Polystyrene, This article aims to highlight some of the dangers, both to our health and to the environment. It takes at least 500 years to decompose Polystyrene food containers leach the toxin Styrene when they come into contact with warm food or drink, alcohol, oils and acidic foods causing human contamination and pose a health risk to people Do not microwave food in Polystyrene containers

REFERENSI . . .
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polystyrene