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Civil EngineeringWhere are we going wrong?

Dr.P.Rathish Kumar Department of Civil Engineering NIT Warangal

Civil/Structural Engineering
What does a Civil/Structural Engineer do?
A Structural Engineer designs the structural systems and structural elements in buildings, bridges, stadiums, tunnels, and other civil engineering works (bones) Design: process of determining location, material, and size of structural elements to resist forces acting in a structure

Engineering Design Process


Identify the problem (challenge) Explore alternative solutions
Research past experience Brainstorm Preliminary design of most promising solutions

Analyze and design one or more viable solutions Testing and evaluation of solution
Experimental testing (prototype) or field tests Peer evaluation

Build solution using available resources (materials, equipment, labor)

Design Process in Structural Engineering


Select material for construction Determine appropriate structural system for a particular case Determine forces acting on a structure

Calculate size of members and connections to avoid failure (collapse) or excessive deformation

WHERE ARE WE GOING WRONG? Preliminary Planning Stage

Change of user-Conversion of residential to commercial-Overloads Provision for future expansion Soil conditions, Finalization of ground level Materials used for construction Location of toilet blocks, ducts and water tanks Services

WHERE ARE WE GOING WRONG?

Supervision Stage Material Testing RCC Work Civil Works Provision of Dowel bars for continuation Post Completion and maintenance

Record of Drawings Maintenance contract Unauthorized internal work

WHAT WILL BE OUR APPROACH IN THIS COURSE?

Introduction Increased use of RCC-a fact today Deterioration of RCC- common Concentration on durability Need of a systematic approach-Repair Repair and maintenance

Over view of the repair practices Distress identification Repair Management

WHAT WILL BE OUR APPROACH IN THIS COURSE?

Causes of Distress Initial deterioration-Slow-Temperature, physical causes, overloading, chemical effects Models for deterioration Permeability of concrete-ingress of harmful chemicals Durability aspects

WHAT WILL BE OUR APPROACH IN THIS COURSE?

Condition survey and NDE of structures Preliminary and detailed inspection Laboratory and field tests Evaluation-Mainly for corrosion, concrete quality and deterioration, concrete strength, structural integrity. Scientific analysis, documentation and grouping an classification of damages Take up some real life case studies

WHAT WILL BE OUR APPROACH IN THIS COURSE?

Structural Analysis and Design Evaluation of reserve strength, active and passive repairs Modeling of composite structures Structural system and its validation Mechanical properties, evaluation of building configuration and load tests. Analysis and Design-Example evaluation of remaining strength in a corroded structure.

WHAT WILL BE OUR APPROACH IN THIS COURSE?

Selection of Repair Material Essential parameters-Compatibility with existing material Aesthetics and cost aspect Materials for repair-Premixed cement concrete/mortars, polymer modified mortars and concretes, epoxies and epoxy system, polyester resins and surface coatings.

WHAT WILL BE OUR APPROACH IN THIS COURSE?

Rehabilitation and Retrofitting Methods Repair options-guniting, grouting? Performance requirements, factors to be considered for repair, repair stages Repair methods-Resin/Polymer modified slurry injection, plate bonding technique, ferrocement jacketing, fiber wrap technique, RCC jacketing, propping and supporting, chemical and electrochemical method of repair.

WHAT WILL BE OUR APPROACH IN THIS COURSE?

Rehabilitation/Repair Strategies Stress reduction Repair/strengthening of beams and columns Compressive strength of concrete, cracks/joints, masonry and foundation, base isolation technique.

Guidelines for framing terms and conditions for Rehabilitation/Repair

Identification of problem, estimate quantity of work Engagement of contractors and consultants Execution of work and post repair inspection. Performance guarantee

Specifications for Structural Repair Work


Quality assurance Site requirements including aspects of shuttering, barricading, chipping an removal of unsound material. Cutting/Removing unsound reinforcement Fixing corroded steel, dealing with honey combed concrete, specs for the above Curing, dealing with chajjas, water proofing and protective coatings, masonry repair and post repair inspection.

DISTRESS DIAGNOSTICS
DISTRESS DIAGNOSTICS

STRUCTURAL DISTRESS

MATERIAL DEGRADATION

FIRE HAZARD IMPROPER ANALYSIS IMPROPER DETAILING UNCERTAINTY IN ESTIMATION OF LOADS ENVIRONMENT AL EFFECTS POOR QUALITY OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

FIELD INSTRUMENTATION

MODAL TESTING

CORROSION OF STEEL

LOCAL DEGRADATION DUE TO WEATHERING

SHAKE TABLE TESTS

WIND TUNNEL TESTS

PRESENT REPAIR PRACTICES


Construction activity-geometric increase Quality inputs not matching with skilled men and quality materials Maintenance and Periodic inspection for defects like cracks, excessive deflections and corrosion. No provisions for repair in budgets Lack of understanding of problem-cause and effect

PRESENT REPAIR PRACTICES

Cosmetic treatment and hotch potch practice The rational approach will be to consider the source of the problem and symptoms together

DISTRESS IDENTIFICATION

Planned approach to investigate condition of concrete and reinforcement Diagnosis and deterioration may not be clear Technical inspection-mapping effected areas Inaccessibility NDE of concrete Corrosion problems

REPAIR MANAGEMENT

Stage 1 Documentation of damage-Type and extent Stage 2 Preparation of detailed drawings, execution guidelines, specifications and tender documents Stage 3 Actual execution-Expertise with respect to men and infrastructure-Check for structural adequacy and safety

DEFINITIONS OF DIFFERENT RS INVOLVED

Renovation- Process of substantial repair or alteration that extends a buildings useful life Rehabilitation-Upgrading required to meet the present needs.It implies sensitivity to building features and a sympathetic matching of original construction Restoration-More restrictive term than rehabilitation-Replicating the structure as originally built

DEFINTIONS OF DIFFERENT RS INVOLVED

Repair- Process of reconstruction and renewal of the existing buildings either wholly or partly Retrofit-Upgrading of certain building systems such as mechanical, electrical or structural to improve the performance, function or appearance Remodeling-Same as renovation usually used for buildings Refurbishment-Replacement of certain components and using whatever is alright.

BUILDING AND HUMAN BODY-ANALOGY


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Conceived when designed, born when built, alive while standing, dead at old age or accidents Breathes through windows and ventilators sometimes through AC systems Circulates through the veins and arteries of pipelines and sends messages through nervous systems of electrical wires

BUILDING AND HUMAN BODY-ANALOGY


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Reacts to changes in its inner or outer conditions through the sensory system of feed back. Protected by its skin of faade, supported by skeleton of columns, beams and slabs. Rests on feet of its foundations. Accidental death is mainly due to failure of skeleton-The structure Health and disease-Norm and exception Standing buildings and failures-Norm and exception

PROBLEMS TO BE ADDRESSED
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Aging of structures-Expected life and performance Deterioration of concrete-causes and effects Durability considerations Distress diagnostics and performance monitoring-Non-Destructive test methods. Damage assessment and evaluation models Structural condition assessment

PROBLEMS TO BE ADDRESSED
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Analysis and Design of repairs-suitable repair techniques Materials for protection, repair and rehabilitation Repair Techniques-Shotcreting, guniting etc Refurbishment and Strengthening techniques Seismic retrofitting Bridge rehabilitation

THANK YOU