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Chapter 2

Foundations of Individual Behavior


ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S
E L E V E N T H 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E D I T I O N PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS

OBJECTIVES LEARNING

SASARAN PEMBELAJARAN
1. Mendefinisikan karakteristik utama biography seseorang

2. Mendefinisi dua jenis kemampuan (ability)


3. Bentuk perilaku terhadap orang lain 4. Menjelaskan empat jenis schedules of reinforcement. 5. Menjelaskan tentang aturan dalam punishment dalam proses learning. 6. Praktek self-management
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Biographical Characteristics
Karakteristik Biografi
Karakteristik personal - seperti umur, jenis kelamin, dan status pernikahan yang bersifat objektif dan mudah diketahui dari record seseorang

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Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence


Ability Kemampuan / kapasitas seorang individu dalam menyelesaikan berbagai tugas dalam sebuah jabatan (organisasi) .
Intellectual Ability Kapasitas untuk mengerjakan pekerjaan mental (non fisik). Multiple Intelligences Intelligensia terdiri dari empat sub bagian, yaitu : cognitive, social, emotional, dan cultural.
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Dimensions of Intellectual Ability


Kecerdasan numerik (einstein, olimpiade matematika) Pemahaman Verbal (kemampuan memahami instruksi) Kecepatan perseptual (seni lukis, penterjemah perintah) Inductive reasoning Deductive reasoning Spatial visualization (= designer) Kapasitas kemapuan mengingat (hafidz, perawi, dll)
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Physical Abilities
Kemampuan Fisik
Kapasitas untuk melakukan tugastugas yang menuntut stamina, ketangkasan, kekuatan, dan karakteristik serupa

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Sembilan Jenis Physical Abilities


Strength Factors
1. Dynamic strength 2. Trunk strength 3. Static strength 4. Explosive strength

Flexibility Factors
1. Extent flexibility 2. Dynamic flexibility

Other Factors
1. Body coordination 2. Balance

3. Stamina
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Source: Adapted from HRMagazine published by the Society for Human Resource Management, Alexandria, VA.

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The Ability-Job Fit

Employees Abilities

Ability-Job Fit

Jobs Ability Requirements

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Learning Learning
Perubahan yang relatif permanen pada pengetahuan, kemampuan atau perilaku/tingkah laku sebagai hasil dari pengalaman yang diperoleh seseorang. Proses belajar merupakan hubungan antara input dari proses penginderaan (akibat stimulus) dengan tingkah laku atau respon (sbg impuls) sehingga individu tsb memiliki habit tertentu (hubungan Stimulus S Respon R. Faktor lain dalam proses belajar adalah penguatan (Reinforce) baik reward (+) maupun punishment (-).
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Theories of Learning
Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov)
Suatu pengondisian di mana seorang individu merespon beberapa rangsangan (stimulus) yang tidak biasa dalam menghasilkan suatu respon.
Key Concepts Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned stimulus Conditioned response
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Source: The Far Side by Gary Larson 1993 Far Works, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

E X H I B I T 23 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 211

Theories of Learning (contd)


Operant Conditioning (BF Skinner)
Tingkah laku merupaka fungsi dari konsekuensi (law of efffect) dimana tiap individu cenderung ingin mendapatkan sesuatu yang diinginkan (reward/konsekuensi positif) dan menghindari konsekuensi negatif (punishment). Key Concepts Reflexive (unlearned) behavior

Conditioned (learned) behavior


Reinforcement
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Theories of Learning (contd) Social-Learning Theory (Albert Bandura)


Manusia dapat melakukan proses belajar melalui pengamatan (observasi) dan pengalaman langsung

Gabungan antara teori belajar dan teori tingkah laku.


Key Concepts Attentional processes Retention processes Motor reproduction processes Reinforcement processes
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Theories of Learning (contd)


Shaping Behavior
Penguatan (reinforcement) secara sistematis akan mendekat individu untuk merespon sesuai keinginannya.

Key Concepts

Reinforcement is required to change behavior.


Some rewards are more effective than others. The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence.
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Types of Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement
Providing a reward for a desired behavior.

Negative reinforcement
Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs.

Punishment
Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior.

Extinction
Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation.

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Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated.

Intermittent Reinforcement

A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.

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Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)


Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals.

Variable-Interval Schedule Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses.

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Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)

Fixed-ratio

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Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement

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Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)

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Behavior Modification
OB Mod
Aplikasi konsep reinforcement terhadap individu tertentu pada pengaturan (sistem) kerja di organisasi. Five Step Problem-Solving Model 1. Identify critical behaviors 2. Develop baseline data 3. Identify behavioral consequences 4. Develop and apply intervention

5. Evaluate performance improvement


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OB MOD Organizational Applications


Well Pay versus Sick Pay
Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not absence.

Employee Discipline
The use of punishment can be counter-productive.

Developing Training Programs


OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness.

Self-management
Reduces the need for external management control.

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