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Definition of leadership

Leadership is a process that affects the activity of a person or group of people to achieve a goal that has been set out in a particular situation (Paul Hersay, Ken Blanchard).

Leadership is a process that affects the activity of a person or group of people to want to do and achieve certain goals that have been set (Stogdill).

Leadership is the ability to evaluate and or forecast a long term plan or policy and influence the followers towards the achievement of the said strategy. ( Adeoye Mayowa: A Leadership Manager in Nigeria,2009.) Leadership is a relationship that is created from the influence of a person to other people so that other people want and are willing to voluntarily work together to achieve the desired goal (Georgy R. Terry).

The leadership will emerge if there is someone who because of the properties and behaviors of its having the ability to encourage others to think, behave, and act in accordance with, or desired. A person is called by the name of the leader (Leader). Leadership will also appear when someone or a group of people who can be influenced to think, behave and act in accordance with the desired. A person or group of people are called by the name of followers (Follower)


While many different leadership theories have emerged, most can be classified as one of eight major types (Swanburg, 2008)

1. "Great Man" Theories:

Great man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent that great leaders are born, not made. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed.

2. Trait Theories:
Similar in some ways to "Great Man" theories, trait theories assume that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders

3. Contingency Theories:
Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation.

4. Situational Theories:
Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variables. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision-making.

5. Behavioral Theories:
Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.

6. Participative Theories:
Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account.

These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decisionmaking process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others

7. Management Theories:
Management theories, also known as transactional theories focus on the role of supervision, organization and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of rewards and punishments.

8. Relationship Theories:
Relationship theories, also known as transformational theories, focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers.Transformational leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task

Style of leadership is a way of leading people use in interacting with subordinates. Commonly known 6 styles of leadership, which is:

Autocratic Leadership
Also called a dictator or directif. People who adopt this approach to make decisions without consulting his subordinates to

implement decision or employee who is affected the decision.

Democratic Leadership
This leadership style also known as konsultif leadership or consensus. People who adopt this approach involves the employees who must implement decisions in the process actions.

Actually, that makes the final decision is the leader,

but previously has received input and recommendations from team members.

Participative leadership
This leadership style is also known as the leadership

is open, free and non directif. People who adopt

this approach only slightly in control in the decision

making process. He presents information about

something issues and provide opportunities for team members (subordinates) to develop strategies and solutions.

Goal-oriented Leadership
This leadership style is also called leadership

based on the results or objectives. People who

adopt this approach ask for team members/

subordinates to focus only on the purpose/

there target.

Situational Leadership
This leadership style is known as a non-

permanent leadership. The assumptions used

in this style is that nothing came of leadership

styles appropriate for any manager in all


Leadership relaxed
In the relaxed style of leadership (laissez-faire leadership style) is almost no looked leadership role because all decisions are delegated to subordinates. Each member of the organization can perform their activities - each in accordance with the will of each anyway.


Leadership and power are two different things but can not be separated from one another. Leadership can be run only when the self-contained power leader because of the position to which it aspires and subordinate acceptance or recognition for his role as a leader (Gillies, 2006)

Franch and Raven proposed five basic interpersonal power

The power of legitimacy

Ability to influence a person in connection with his position. Legitimate power is not dependent on subordinates.

Power award
Using rewards to gain the cooperation of subordinates.

The power of coercion

Power is the power to force penalties.

Power charisma
From the personal and the leadership behavior.

Power experts
A person who has special skills have a higher value.


Manager or leader is the person in charge of the process or management function. Under his leadership hierarchies grouped as follows:

(Top Manager)

(Middle Manager)

(Lower Manager)

Leader and Nurse Service delivery and nursing care is a complex activityi involving many individuals. In order to achieve the purpose of nursing needed various activities in applying leadership skills.

According to kron, activities include: 1. Planning and organitation To work in a room of his planned and organized. All activities are coordinated so that it can be done to time and to right way.

2. Make assiggnments and give rewad In giving the award, a leader mustbe able to make someone understand is directed and also a responsibility to see does the job done right.

3. Providing guidance Guidance provided include knowledge and skills in nursing.

4. Encourage cooperation and participation Collaboration between nurses needs to be improved in implementing nursing. The leader needs to be aware that subordinates working with leaders not for or under the leader.

5. Coordination of activities Coordination of activities in space is an essential part of leadership.

6. Job performance evaluation result Evalution of the result the work done through the appearance through observation of staff and employment brand.

Task - the task of the leader:

a. As decision makers

b. As the bearer of responsibility

c. Mobilize resources to achieve goals as a conceptual thinker d. Working with and through others e. As a mediator, politician, and diplomat

The role of the leader of the group:

a. As liaison interpersonal, g. As liaison interpersonal,

b. As




h. As an innovator or reformer.
i. j. For release information gathering strength

reformer. c. For release information

d. gathering strength
e. Stimulating public debate f. Creating the position of

k. Stimulating public debate l. Creating the position of nurses in the media

nurses in the media

The Function Of Leadership Is As Follows:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Planning function Forward-looking function Function loyalty development Monitoring functions Decision function Motivating function

Criteria for Effective Leaders in Nursing

An effective leader is a leader who can influence others to work together to achieve a satisfactory outcome for the beneficial changes There are some effective leadership among others by: 1. Ruth M. Trapper (1989), divided into 6 parts: a. Determine clear objectives, appropriate, and meaningful to the group. b. Self-awareness and use them to understand their own needs and the needs of others. c. Communicate clearly and effectively. d. Enough energy to exert leadership activities e. Act

2. Hellander (1974) Said to be effective when followers see the leader as a jointly identify goals and determine alternative activities 3.Bennis (Lancaster and Lancaster, 1982) Identified four important skills for a leader, namely: a. Have extensive knowledge of complex systems and human (human relations). b. Applying knowledge about development and coaching subordinates. c. Have the ability to inter-human relations, especially in influencing others. d. Has a set of values and skills that enable a person to know others well.

4. Gibson (Lancaster and Lancaster, 1982) A leader must consider: a. Self-awareness (self awareness) b. Characteristics of the group c. Individual characteristics