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FERMENTED FOOD TRADITIONS IN AFRICA

BY
PAUL T. ASARE FOOD MATERIAL SCIENCE LAB DEPT. OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CHONBUK NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
a. Africa in brief
b. History of fermented foods in Africa c. Types of fermented foods in Africa

d. The role of fermented foods in Africa


e. New trends in food fermentation in Africa f. References

AFRICA IN BRIEF

Population: 1074 (million) Second largest continent after Asia

Countries : 56
Divided into 5 subgroups based on location a. North Africa b. South Africa c. West Africa d. East Africa e. Middle/central Africa

AFRICA IN BRIEF CONT


Invaders a. Greek 800 BC b. Romans 150BC c. Middle East 600AD d. European 1800s

Culture in Africa a. Dress

Mixed with both modern and traditional style. Women tend to be more traditional b. Music

European Influence
a. Trade b. Slave c. Language d. Colonization

Traditional, modern made up of jazz, afrobeats


c. Foods in Africa Cuisine combines traditional fruits and vegetables, exotic games and fish form oceans

HISTORY OF FERMENTED FOODS IN AFRICA


Fermented foods have a long Sour milk 1352 Alcoholic beverage from millet 1785

history in Africa
Records not available Sour milk was documented by Ibn

-1787
Sour porridge 1800s

Batoutah 1352
Souring milk by then was basically

to preserve it

HISTORY OF FERMENTED FOODS IN AFRICA


Some advantages that prompted the art of food fermentation in Africa
a. Preservation: some of the fermented foods keep longer because of the

organic acids produced during the fermentation. Eg Ogi


b. Variety of flavor: the acid flavor from fermented cassava and cereals is

different from those cooked unfermented foodstuff.


c. Making inedible foods edible: Example African locust beam and oil beams are

inedible in their in their unfermented state. Also cassava cynaide level


d. Ease transportation of food materials

FEATURES OF TRADITIONAL ARTS OF FERMENTATION


a. Currently the production of many of the fermented foods is still a family art

b. Low or no value addition


c. Rudimentary equipment's are used d. Chance inoculation from the environment

e. Conditions are not optimized beyond the levels of the original art of

production.
f. Women are the major stakeholders

g. Focus on conventional foods like rice, maize, millet, sorghum etc

SOCIO ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FOOD FERMENTATION

SOCIO ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FOOD FERMENTATION

FERMENTATION MATERIALS

Pot fermentation

gourd fermentation

Pit fermentation

TYPES OF FERMENTED FOODS IN AFRICA

Fermented starchy roots and tuber Fermented cereals Alcoholic beverages Fermented vegetable proteins Fermented animal proteins

FERMENTED NON ALCOHOLIC STARCHY FOODS


Name Gari Area of Production West Africa Substrate Cassava Microorganism involved reference

Streptococcus lactis Collard & Levi 1959 Geotrichum candidum Okafor 1977 Lactic acid bacteria Unknown Lactic acid bacteria Yeast Gashe 1987 Personal Abioye 1981

Banku Cingwada Kocho Abolo

West Africa East and Central Africa Ethiopia Ghana

Cassava/Maize Cassava Ensette Maize

FERMENTED NON ALCOHOLIC STARCHY FOODS

Gari

Banku

Abolo

FERMENTED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES


Product name Palm wine Tej Brukutu Pito Kaffir Beer Plantain wine Cacao wine Kishk Merissa Area of production Substrate Nigeria Ghana Ghana/ Nigeria Ghana/ Nigeria South Africa Nigeria Nigeria Egypt Sudan Palm sap Honey Guinea corn Guinea corn/Maize Kaffir corn or maize Plantain Cacao Wheat and milk Sorghum Microorganims involved Yeast Yeast Yeast and LAB Moulds and yeast Lactobacillus spp Yeast and LAB Yeast Lactobacillus spp LAB Reference Okafor 1975 Steinkraus 1979 Faparusi et al., 1973 Ekundayo,1969 Novellie, 1968 Sanni, 1982 Nout, 1979 Morocos et al., 1973 Dirar 1978

FERMENTED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES

Palm wine

Pito

FERMENTED NON-ALCOHOLIC CEREAL-BASED FOODS


Product name Ogi Koko and kenkey Mahewu Uji Kisra Enjara Area of production Nigeria, Benin Ghana South Africa East Africa Sudan Ethiopia Substrate Maize, sorghum or millet Maize, sorghum or millet Maize, sorghum or millet Maize, sorghum or millet Sorghum Sorghum Microorganisms involved Lactobacillus sp and yeast Lactobacillus sp and yeast L. delbrueckii and L. bulgaris Lactobacillus sp Unknown Candida guilliermondii Reference Akinrele 1970 Christian 1970 Hesseltine 1979 Mbugua 1981 Perten 1976 Stewrt 1976

FERMENTED NON-ALCOHOLIC CEREAL-BASED FOODS

Kenkey

Kenkey

Porridge

FERMENTED ANIMAL PROTEINS


Product name Maziwa lala Nono (milk curd) Guedj Bonome (stink fisk) Leban (sour milk) Area of production East Africa West Africa Senegal Ghana Morocco Sunstrate Milk Milk Fish Fish Milk Microorganims involved Streptococcus lactis Various Not known Not known Lactic streptococci Tantaoui-Elaraki et al. 1983 Reference Nout 1981 Eka and Ohaba 1977 Toury et al., 1970

FERMENTED ANIMAL PROTEINS

Salted fish/Bomone

Maziwa Lala

FERMENTED VEGETABLE PROTEINS


Product name Iru Ogiri-saro Kawal Ogiri Area of production West Africa Sierra Leone Sudan Nigeria Substrate Locust bean Sesame seed Cassia abtusifolia Melon seeds Microorganims involved Bacillus subtillis Bacillus spp Bacillus subtillis Bacillus spp Reference Odunfa 1981 Odunfa 1985 Odunfa 1985 Dirar et.al 1985

FERMENTED VEGETABLE PROTEINS

Iru

PROBLEMS FACING FOOD FERMENTATION IN AFRICA

1. Lack of quality assurance 2. It is mostly trial and error basis

3. It is done at the household level hence difficult to produce in high quantities


4. Methods of preparation varies from household to household and also not

documented.
5. Research into fermented foods is minimal

CONCLUSION
The fermentation of food has the following advantages: longer keeping quality,

variety in flavor, making inedible foods edible. In addition fermentation have enhanced nutritional values and decreased toxicity
Unfortunately, the production of these foods in most African countries is

largely unsophisticated and does not allow for increased production in most increasing demand
To improve the production of fermented foods in Africa, there should be

scientific investigation into the microbial culture involved in the fermentation, the processing equipment's and methods of optimizing the fermentation conditions.

REFERENCES
AKINRELE, I.A. (1964) Fermentation of cassava. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture 9,584-589. CHRISTIAN, W.F. (1970) Lactic acid bacteria in fermenting maize dough. Ghana Journal of Science 10,

22-28.
DIRAR, H.A. (1978) A microbiological study of Sudanese merissa brewing. Journal of Food Science 43,

1683-1686.
HESSELTINE, C.W. (1979) Some important fermented foods in mid-Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

Journal of American Oil Chemists' Society 56, 367-374.


MBU6UA, S.K. (1981) Microbiological and Biochemical Aspects of uji (an East African Sour Cereal

Porridge) Fermentation and its Enhancement through Applications of Lactic Acid Bacteria. PhD Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca.
NOUT, M.J.R. (1979) The manufacture and composition of Chang'aa (Nubian gin). Lebensmittel und

Wissenchafien Technologie 12, 212-216.


OVELLIE, L. (1968) Kaffir beer brewing, ancient art and modern industry. Wallerstein Laboratory

Communications 31, 17-29.

REFERENCES
ODUNFA, S.A. (1981a) Microorganisms associated with fermentation of African locust bean during iru

preparation. Journal of Plant Foods 25, 245-250.


ODUNFA, S.A. (1985a) African fermented foods. In Microbiology of Fermented Foods. Vol. 2, ed. Wood,

B.J.B., pp. 155-191. London & New York: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers.
ODUNFA, S.A. (1988) African fermented foods: from art to science. M1RCEN Journal, 1988, 4, 259-273 PERTEN, H. (1976) UNDP/FAO sorghum processing project in the Sudan. In Tropical Products Institute

Conference Papers, pp. 53-55. Tropical Products Institute: Vienna.


STEWART, B.R. & GETACHEW, A. (1962) Investigations of the nature of injera. Economic Botany 16,

127-130.
TOURY, J., WARE, A., GIORGI, R. & GlOS, J. (1970) Fish in the diet in Senegal: Quantitative and

qualitative aspects, methods of preservation. Food and Nutrition in Africa 8, 6-13.

Thank you for your audience