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TYPES OF SECTIONS

Compression Failure of Singly Reinforced Beam


To assess the true behavior of section, stress-strain curve for concrete should be assumed. Strain is proportional to distance from neutral axis. Shape of stress-strain curve indicates shape of compressive stress

block at various stages of loading.

Stress-Strain Distribution in Compressed Concrete


When total compressive force in concrete multiplied by lever arm is maximum, section of beam reduces maximum moment of

resistance.
In case, cross-sectional area of steel reinforcement bars is large as HYSD bars are used. Compressive strength of concrete will be exhausted prior to steel bars start yielding. Depth of neutral axis increases considerably. Compressive force increases and crushing will take place Crushing failure is sudden, which is an explosive nature and occurs without warning.

Tension Failure of Singly Reinforced Beams


In case, cross-sectional area of steel reinforcement is small at some value of load; steel bars will attain their yield point.

Tensile force in steel bars remains constant at 0.87Astfy even with


increasing loading. A small additional load causes large plastic elongation of steel. At that

stress, steel bars yield and stretch to a large amount.


Tension cracks are widened; which propagate upwards with the simultaneous significant deflections of beam.

At this stage stress distribution in concrete becomes non-linear. The


mean stress in concrete increases. In order to maintain equilibrium between internal forces, then depth of neutral axis reduces.

Balanced Beam Section


Beam section is called Balanced Section in case, area of steel reinforcement in the section is such that the maximum compressive

strain in bending in concrete attains cu simultaneously as the strain


in steel reaches, sy1. A singly reinforced rectangular beam section of breadth, b and effective depth, d. As per limit state of collapse, cu = 0.0035. Therefore, a balanced section, is defined for design purposes as one in which the steel stress reaches the design strength simultaneously as the concrete reaches the

strain 0.0035.

Under Reinforced Beam Section


A beam section is called Under Reinforced in case the area of steel reinforcement provided in the beam section is such that the steel ratio is less than that for balanced section, pb. As bending moment increases, the strain in steel s reaches its limiting value, sy , while strain in concrete, c remains still below its ultimate value (0.0035).
In an under reinforced beam, steel yields prior to crushing of concrete in compression. Since, crushing of concrete does not occur, (collapse of beam does not occur), until strain in concrete at extreme fibre in compression attains, cu.

Beam section continues to resist increasing applied moment and the neutral axis shifts upwards.
Lever arm increases somewhat while the total compressive force in concrete remains unaltered.

Over-Reinforced Beam Section


A beam section is called over-reinforced if the area of steel reinforcement in the beam sections is such that the ratio of steel, p is more than that for of the balanced section, pb. Strain in concrete in compression reaches the ultimate strain, cu = 0.0035 prior to strain in steel reaches

In over-reinforced beam failure initiates in the concrete.


In crushing failure of concrete, deflection of beam remains small and there is no extensive cracking.

Sudden failure without warning.

Design of Singly Reinforced Beams


Design of singly reinforced rectangular beams deals with the selection of
grade of concrete mix, quality of steel, shape, sizes and proportions of beams

M20 and M25 grades of concrete mix are very commonly used for the

beams.
Mild steel bars, Fe 250 or high yield strength deformed steel bars Fe415 or Fe500 are used as tension reinforcement. Material strengths for concrete and steel are known.

Design of Singly Reinforced Beams


Following are the usual steps in the design of singly reinforced beams. i. Step-1. The effective span is needed to determine maximum moment and maximum shear force. For simply supported spans. i. Effective span = clear span + effective depth ii.ls = centre to centre of supports. iii. width of supports at two ends of beams may be assumed as 300 mm or 600mm. for Cantilever beam

i. Effective span = clear projection +


ii. Step-2. Loads acting on the beam are given. The max. moment and max. shear forces should be calculated. Then, factored loads are

calculated.

Side Face Reinforcement


When the overall depth of beam becomes more than 750mm, side face reinforcement shall be provided along the two faces of the beam section, to take into consideration the crack width limitation and lateral buckling of the web in beam. Side face reinforcement shall not be less than 0.1 percent of web area and shall be distributed equally in two faces at a spacing not exceeding 300mm or web thickness whichever is less.

Spacing of Reinforcement
In order to ensure proper placement of concrete around the main
reinforcement bars and to achieve full surface contact between the bars and concrete, it is necessary to maintain a certain minimum distance

between adjacent bars


Clear horizontal distance between two adjacent parallel main reinforcing bars shall not be less than maximum of the following
i. diameter of the bar (for equal diameter) ii. diameter of larger bar (unequal bars) iii. 5 mm more than the nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate.

Clear vertical distance shall not be less than


a. b. c. 15mm two-thirds of max-size of aggregate maximum diameter of main bar.

Effective Span
Effective span of a member is computed as follows:1. Simply supported beam or slab: effective span of a simply supported member is taken as lesser of the following:-

a. l = Lc + d b. l = l (l = centre to centre distance between supports)


Where Lc = clear span
d = effective depth of beam or slab

Effective Span
2. Continuous beam or slab; effective span of a continuous beam or slab is calculated as follows:a. If the width of support is less than or equal to Lc/12, the effective span is taken as lesser of the following:i.
ii.

l = Lc + d,
Centre to centre distance between supports.

b. If width of support is greater than Lc/12 or 600mm, whichever is less, the effective span is taken as follows:i. For end span with one end fixed and the other continuous or for intermediate span; i. l = Lc ii. For end span with one end free and the other continuous: the effective span is the lesser of
i. l = Lc + 0.5d ii. l = Lc + 0.5ts

ts = is the width of the discontinuous support

Guidelines for Design of Beams


The minimum percentage of tension steel used in beams should be
around 0.3 percent. Usually, the depth of singly reinforced beams is so arranged that the

percentage of steel required is only around 75 percent of the balanced.


At least two bars should be used as tension steel, and not more than six bars should be used in one layer in a beam. The diameter of hanger bars should not be less than 10mm and that of main reinforcement in tension 12mm. The usual diameters of bars chosen for beams are 10,12,16,20,22,25 and 32mm. When using different sized bars in one layer, place the largest diameter bars near the beam faces. The areas of steel should be symmetrical above the centre line of the beam.

Guidelines for Design of Beams


The depth of the beam should satisfy the deflection requirements w.r.t L/d ratios. In addition, for economy, the ratio of overall depth to width should be between 1.5 and 2.0. In T-beams the depth of slab is usually taken as about 20 percent of the overall depth of the beam. For main bars, choose one size if possible. In any case, limit the main bars to two sizes and that too without much variation in diameter between the two. Usual widths of beams adopted in mm are ; 150, 200, 230, 250, 275 and

300mm.
Beam width should be equal to or less than the dimension of the column in to which it frames.