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Insecticides

A Brief Overview of a Complex Subject

Modes of Entrance into Insect


Contact - dermal through the skin
Stomach - oral through the mouth Respiration - inhalation through the nose or gills Systemic - combination of above

Mode of Toxicity in Insects


Physical poison General protoplasmic poison Cellular enzyme poison Nerve poison Growth regulator Disease causing agent Repellant

Toxicity to humans or nontarget organisms


Most insecticides have the capacity to affect non-target organisms Same as previously discussed
Highly toxic LD50 0 50 mg/kg Moderately toxic - LD50 50 500 mg/kg Low toxicity - LD50 500 5,000 mg/kg Nontoxic - LD50 <5,000 mg/kg

Toxicity to insects natural enemies


Most insecticides have the potential to affect populations of beneficial insects.

Toxicity to insects natural enemies


Highly toxic - Pest populations recover much faster than enemy populations in nature

Toxicity to insects natural enemies


Moderately toxic Pest populations recover somewhat faster than enemy populations in treated environment

Toxicity to insects natural enemies


Low toxicity Natural enemies are maintained to a degree & quickly attack recovering pest populations

Toxicity to insects natural enemies


Nontoxic Normal enemy population levels are maintained which quickly attack recovering pest populations

Environmental hazard
Environmental hazard of insecticides is generally evaluated as a function of persistence often compared to effectiveness

Environmental hazard
High Environmental persistence far greater than period of effectiveness (> 5 months and often > a year)

Environmental hazard
Intermediate Persists beyond effectiveness (3-5 month half-life)

Environmental hazard
Low Persists about the period of effectiveness (up to about 3 months) and then degrades completely over several months

Environmental hazard
Very low Persists for short periods (>45 days) and degrades completely

Resistance/Resurgence Hazard
The hazard of populations developing resistance and resurging is evaluated for most insecticides

Resistance/Resurgence Hazard
High Strong potential to develop resistance and resurge

Resistance/Resurgence Hazard
Intermediate Moderate potential to develop resistance in treated environments

Resistance/Resurgence Hazard
Low Minimal potential to develop resistance

Resistance/Resurgence Hazard
None No resistance developed, no resurgence after many treatments

IPM Attributes
IPM is especially important when discussing the use of insecticides due to the potential for the development of resistance and subsequent resurgence of pest populations repeatedly treated with a single insecticide Repeated treatment with a single pesticide imposes artificial genetic selection on insect populations

IPM Attributes
However, IPM must be effective and so there are several criteria to evaluate
Effectiveness in controlling pest populations Cost of treatment Human and nontarget-animal toxicity Environmental persistence

Insecticide groups

The following slides present a system in which insecticides are generally catagorized It is not the only system Lumpers and splitters of names have created very different categories, depending on their emphasis

Organochlorines

Also called the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides

Organochlorines

Characterized by containing chlorine and carbon atoms

Organochlorines

Powerful nerve poisons

Organochlorines

Most affect a broad spectrum of nontarget organisms along with the target pests

Organochlorines

Biochemical mode of action uncertain

Organochlorines

Mode of action chemical dependant

Organochlorines

Long persistence and residual activity

Organochlorines

Several were used in forestry


DDT Lindane Dicofol (Kelthane) Endosulfan (Thiodan)

Organochlorines

Most have been banned in the U.S.

Organochlorines

Very few still available for our use


Endosulfan is sometimes used on ornamentals and in seed orchards Lindane is still registered for Southern Pine Beetle control but no product is available in the marketplace

Organophosphates

Also known as the OPs

Organophosphates

Characterized by containing carbon and phosphorus atoms

Organophosphates

Chemical and often habitat dependant effect on non-target organisms

Organophosphates

Mode of action varies by chemical

Organophosphates

Generally only short term persistence and limited residual activity

Organophosphates

Unfortunately, often have broad spectrum activity against beneficial insects

Organophosphates
Several used in forestry or applied to forests for public health purposes
Malthion (Malathion and Cythion) Acephate (Orthene) Methyl parathion (Methyl parathion) Diazinon (Diazinon and Spectracide) Chlorpyrifos (Dursban and Lorsban) Azinphos methyl (Guthion)

Organophosphates

Most have been lost to forestry due to FQPA (Food Quality Protection Act) review performed by the EPA

Organosulfurs

Small group of sulfur containing insecticides

Organosulfurs

Low insect toxicity, but with good miticidal characteristics

Organosulfurs

Have been used in seed orchard work

Organosulfurs

Only a single product relevant to this discussion


Propargite (Omite)

Carbamates

Insecticides which are derivatives of carbamic acid

Carbamates

Non-target toxicity is chemical specific, ranging from low to very high

Carbamates

Generally only short term persistence and limited residual activity

Carbamates

Often with broad spectrum activity against beneficial insects

Carbamates
Very few used in forestry
Carbaryl (Sevin) Aldicarb (Temik) Methomyl (Lannate)

Botanicals

Chemicals extracted or derived from plants

Botanicals

May be present and subsequently extracted from the plant material (a constitutive chemical), or

Botanicals

May be activated in the plant as a response to insect activity (inducible chemicals)

Botanicals

Limited numbers of extractable chemicals have performed well enough to have been made commercially available

Botanicals

Some are chemically modified after extraction to enhance their insecticidal properties

Botanicals
Only a few have found a niche in forestry, and generally even these are subsequently replaced by more targetspecific, less persistent synthetic chemicals
Pyrethrins Resmethrin (Pyosect, Synthhrin) Azadirachtin (Azatin)

Synthetic Pyrethroids

Modified esters of chrysanthemate a chemical similar to that which is derived from chrysanthemums

Synthetic Pyrethroids

Alterations in the acid components yield a reduced degradation rate compared to natural pyrethrins

Synthetic Pyrethroids

Often with additional modification to enhance synergistic action

Synthetic Pyrethroids

Rates are often 10% of the rates of OPs

Synthetic Pyrethroids

Several have been used in forestry, seed orchard or nursery work


Permethrin (Pounce, Ambush, Dragnet) Cypermethrin (Ammo) Esfenvalerate (Asana) Lamda cyhalothrin (Karate)

Synergists or activators

Chemicals which perform any of a variety of actions which enhance the action of an insecticide

Synergists or activators

Increase the toxicity of the initial chemical above that expected from the combination of the two products
Block detoxification of insecticides by insect defensive systems Induce the functioning of otherwise benign chemicals

Synergists or activators

Two primary chemicals used in insecticide formulation


Piperonyl butoxide Sesamin

Soaps and Abrasives

Produced by rending (cooking) animal fat (lard), fish oil or vegetable oil with an alkali metal such as sodium hydroxide (= hard soap) or potassium hydroxide (= soft soap)

Soaps and Abrasives

Soft soaps from fish oils were the most common insecticidal soaps in the past since they are the most effective insecticidal soaps

Soaps and Abrasives

Soft soaps made from vegetable oils are most common at the present time due to a better smell (not greater efficacy)

Soaps and Abrasives

Soften or wash off the waxy epicuticle covering an insect allowing it to dehydrate

Soaps and Abrasives

Abrasives degrade the epicuticle same result

Soaps and Abrasives

Two soaps are commonly used


Potassium salts of fatty acids (Safer soaps, M-Pede) Boric acid

Soaps and Abrasives

A single abrasive is currently registered as a forestry insecticide


Borax

Microbial Pathogens

Fungi, bacteria, viruses, etc. which can be used to cause disease in an insect population

Microbial Pathogens

Relatively narrow spectrum of activity, not broad spectrum insecticides

Microbial Pathogens

Several have been genetically engineered to kill target insects more rapidly

Microbial Pathogens

Bacteria in forestry
Bacillus thuringiensis var. karstaki (Dipel, Thuricide, Foray, Agrobac, Javelin, Cutlass)

Microbial Pathogens

Virus in forestry
Baculovirus (Nucleopolyhedrosis virus or NPV; Gypchek, TMBiocontrol-1)

Microbial Pathogens

Bacteria applied over forests for public health protection


Bacillus thuringiensis var. israeliensis Bacillus sphaericus

Microbial Derivatives

Generally organic chemicals with a nitrogen component

Microbial Derivatives

Microbially produced and then extracted and refined

Microbial Derivatives

Some are toxic to the target organisms at very low doses

Microbial Derivatives
Only one used in forestry at present
Avermectin (derived from Streptomyces avermitilis) Also available are:
spinosad (Tracer) pyrroles (Pirate)

Repellants

Large group of unrelated chemicals

Repellants

Many experimental chemicals but to the present no truly effective forest protectant chemical

Repellants

Mostly have found use for people or livestock protection

Repellants
Forestry insect repellants include
Verbenone 4-allyl anisole (4AA) Both are anti-aggregant chemicals designed to disrupt pine beetle aggregation and thwart spot formation

Repellants

Forester protective repellant


Deet (Off, Deep-Woods-Off)

Oils

Lightweight petroleum oils mixed with emulsifiers may be used as insecticides in some cases

Oils
Broadly defined in two groups: Dormant oils are designed to be used to protect dormant plant materials and may have bad effects if used during the growing season Summer oils may be used to protect growing plants

Oils

Oils kill by suffocation (scales, mealy bugs and aphids)

Oils

Forestry registered oils include


Sunspray Superior oil

Fumigants

Primarily used in forest tree nursery beds and greenhouses

Fumigants

Fumigants generally contain a halogen (chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.) in their molecules

Fumigants

Small molecules which vaporize at relatively low temperatures

Fumigants

Many are now or will shortly be banned in the US

Fumigants
Fumigants which have held forestry or ornamental insecticide registration
Methyl bromide (MC33, MC98, Brom-oSol, etc.) NFTA should eliminate this fumigant from the US by 2005 Dichloropropene Chloropicrin Metam-sodium (Vapam, Busan, Sectagon)

Transgenic Crops with Insecticidal Properties


Plants genetically engineered to enhance insecticidal properties

Transgenic Crops with Insecticidal Properties


None in forestry as yet