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DSP Processor

Behdad Hosseini, 781413112 University of Isfahan April, May 2002

Dedicated to Z. Haghshenas

Digital signals & systems DSP (Digital Signal Processing) Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) vs General Purpose Processors (GPPs)

DSPs Features
High speed DSP computations

Specialized instruction set High performance repetitive numeric calculations Fast & efficient memory accesses

Special mechanism for real-time I/O Low power consumption Low cost in comparison with GPPs

DSPs General Applications

Digital cellular phones Satellite communications Seismic analysis Vehicle collision avoidance Secure communications Voice over Internet Tape less answering machines Motor control Sonar Voice mail Digital cameras Navigation equipment Modems (POTS, ISDN, cable,...) Audio production Noise cancellation Videoconferencing Medical ultrasound Music synthesis, effects Radar

DSPs Ps Applications
Speech and audio compression Filtering Modulation and demodulation Error correction coding and decoding Audio processing (e.g., surround sound, noise reduction, equalization, sample rate conversion, echo cancellation) Signaling (e.g., DTMF detection) Speech recognition Signal synthesis (e.g., music, speech synthesis)

DSPs Characteristics
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Data path & internal ALU architecture Specialized instruction set External memory architecture Specialized addressing modes Specialized execution control Specialized peripherals for DSP

Data Path
Performs all key arithmetic operations in 1 cycle. Hardware support for managing numeric fidelity:

Multiplies often take >1 cycle Shifts often take >1 cycle Other operations (e.g. saturation, rounding) typically take multiple cycles

Shifters Guard bits Saturation

DSPs Data Path Example

A representative conventional fixed-point DSP processor data path (from the Motorola DSP560xx, a 24-bit, fixed point processor family)

Instruction Set
Specialized, complex instructions Multiple operations per instruction (e.g. using VLIW)

General-purpose instructions Typically only one operation per instruction

Very long instruction word (VLIW) architectures are garnering increased attention for DSP applications. Major features:

Multiple independent operations per cycle Packed into a single large instruction or packet More regular, orthogonal, RISC-like operations Large, uniform register sets

Memory Architecture
Harvard architecture 2-4 memory accesses/cycle No cacheson-chip SRAM

Von Neumann architecture Typically 1 access/cycle May use caches


Von Neumann Architecture

The Von Neumann memory architecture, common among micro controllers. Since there is only one data bus, operands cannot be loaded while instructions are fetched, creating a bottleneck that slows the execution of DSP algorithms.


Harvard Architecture

A Harvard architecture, common to many DSP processors. The processor can simultaneously access the two memory banks using two independent sets of buses, allowing operands to be loaded while fetching instructions.


Addressing Modes
Dedicated address generation units Specialized addressing modes; e.g.:

Often, no separate address generation unit General-purpose addressing modes

Auto-increment Modulo (circular) Bit-reversed (for FFT)

Good immediate data support


Execution Control
Hardware support for fast looping Fast interrupts for I/O handling Real-time debugging support


Host ports Bit I/O ports On-chip DMA controller Clock generators Synchronous serial ports Parallel ports Timers On-chip A/D, D/A converters

DSPs classifications (1)

By arithmetic format

Fixed-point Floating-point Block floating-point Typical fixed-point DSPs: 16-bit Typical floating-point DSPs: 32-bit

By data width

By memory organization By multiprocessor support


DSPs classifications (2)

By speed

Million of instruction per second (MIPS) A basic operation (e.g. MAC) A basic algorithm (e.g. FFT, FIR or IIR filter) Benchmark programs Operating voltage Sleep or idle mode Programmable clock dividers Peripheral control

By power consumption


DSPs Evolution
First generation (TI TMS32010) Second generation (Motorola DSP56001, AT&T DSP16A, Analog Dev. ADSP-2100, TI TMS320C50) Third generation (Motorola DSP56301, TI TMS320C541, TI TMS320C80, Motorola MC68356) Fourth generation (TI TMS320C6201, Intel Pentium MMX)

First Generation (1982)

16-bit fixed-point Harvard architecture Accumulator Specialized instruction set 390 ns MAC time (228 ns today)


Second Generation (1987)

24-bit data, instructions 3 memory spaces (X, Y, P) Parallel moves Single- and multi instruction hardware loops Modulo addressing 75 ns MAC (21 ns today)

Third Generation (1995)

Enhanced conventional DSP architectures 3.0 or 3.3 volts More on-chip memory Application-specific function units in data path or as co-processors More sophisticated debugging and application development tools DSP cores (Pine & Oak from DSP G., cDSP from TI) 20 ns MAC (10 ns today)

Fourth Generation (1998)

Blazing clock speeds and super scalar architectures VLIW-like architectures, achieve top performance via high parallelism and increased clock speeds 3 ns MAC throughput Expensive, power-hungry


DSPs Evolution Chart


DSPs Performance Chart

Execution times for a 256point complex FFT in microseconds


Role of GPPs (1)

Added capabilities:

Add single-instruction, multiple-data instruction set extensions (e.g., MMX Pentium) Integrate a fixed-point DSP processor-like data path and related resources with an existing mC/mP core (e.g. Hitachi SH-DSP) Add a DSP co-processor to an existing mC/mP core (e.g., ARM Piccolo) Create an all-new, hybrid architecture (e.g. Siemens TriCore)

Role of GPPs (2)

Assisted capabilities:

Very high clock rates (500-1000 MHz) Super scalar (multi-issue) architectures Single-cycle multiplication and arithmetic ops. Good memory bandwidth Branch prediction In some cases, single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) ops Caching & pipelining

DSP processor performance has increased by a factor of about 150x over the past 15 years (~40%/year) Processor architectures for DSP will be increasingly specialized for applications, especially communications applications General-purpose processors will become viable for many DSP applications Users of processors for DSP will have an expanding array of choices Selecting processors requires a careful, application-specific analysis

Web Links & Information

Buyers Guide to DSP Processors, Berkeley, California: Berkeley Design Technology, Inc., 1994, 1995, 1997, 1999. Phil Lapsley, Jeff Bier, Amit Shoham, and Edward A. Lee, DSP Processor Fundamentals: Architectures and Features, Berkeley, California: Berkeley Design Technology, Inc., 1996. Will Strauss, DSP Strategies 2002, Tempe, Arizona: Forward Concepts, 1999.