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Analisis Strategi Organisasi

Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases. 9th edition Fred R. David

Kerangka Bab
Kerangka Komprehensif Formulasi Strategi Tahap Input Tahap Penyesuaian Tahap Keputusan

Analisis Strategi - Kutipan


Rusak atau tidak, perbaikilah buatlah menjadi lebih baik. Tidak hanya produk-produk saja, namun juga seluruh perusahaan jika memang diperlukan. - Bill Saporito (TIMEs first editor-at-large)

Keputusan Subyektif atas dasar Informasi Obyektif

Analisis strategi secara umum berarti membuat keputusan secara subyektif berdasarkan informasi obyektif.

Sifat Dasar Analisis Strategi

Menciptakan tujuan jangka panjang Membangkitkan beberapa alternatif strategi Memilih strategi mana yang diprioritaskan Alternatif terbaik untuk mencapai misi dan tujuan organisasi

Alternatif Strategi
Alternatif strategi diambil dari :
Visi Misi Tujuan Audit eksternal Audit internal Strategi masa lalu yang berhasil

Partisipasi dalam membangkitkan alternatif strategi sebaiknya melibatkan banyak pihak

Kerangka Analitis Formulasi Strategi

Tahap 1: The Input Stage

Tahap 2: The Matching Stage

Tahap 3: The Decision Stage

Formulation Framework

Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix (IFE)

Stage 1: The Input Stage

External Factor Evaluation Matrix (EFE)

Competitive Profile Matrix

Input Stage

Memberikan dasar informasi sebagai masukan untuk tahap penyesuaian dan pengambilan keputusan Memerlukan ahli strategi untuk menilai secara subyektif dalam proses awal Memerlukan intuisi penilaian yang baik

Formulation Framework
TOWS Matrix

SPACE Matrix
Stage 2: The Matching Stage

IE Matrix

Grand Strategy Matrix

Matching Stage

Menyesuaikan antara sumber daya internal organisasi dan peluang/resiko yang muncul karena faktor eksternal.

Penyesuaian Faktor-faktor Utama untuk Formulasi Alternatif Strategi


Key Internal Factor Key External Factor Pertumbuhan 20% setahun dlm industri telepon seluler (opportunity) Resultant Strategy

Kapasitas kerja yang besar (strength)

Akuisisi Cellfone, Inc.

Kapasitas pabrik kurang (weakness)

Keluarnya 2 kompetitor utama dari industri (opportunity)

Dahulukan horizontal integration dengan membeli fasilitas kompetitor

R&D yang kuat (strength)

Menurunnya jumlah orang muda (threat)

Kembangkan produk-produk baru untuk orang dewasa

Moral karyawan yang buruk (weakness)

Kuatnya aktivitas serikat pekerja (threat)

Kembangkan paket baru tunjangan karyawan

Formulation Framework
TOWS Matrix

SPACE Matrix
Stage 2: The Matching Stage

IE Matrix

Grand Strategy Matrix

Matching Stage
TOWS Matrix
Threats (Ancaman) Opportunities (Peluang) Strengths (Kekuatan) Weaknesses (Kelemahan)

TOWS Matrix
Kembangkan 4 (empat) tipe strategi :
Strengths-Opportunities (SO) Weaknesses-Opportunities (WO) Strengths-Threats (ST) Weaknesses-Threats (WT)

SO Strategies

Threats Opportunities Weaknesses Strengths (TOWS)

SO Strategies

Gunakan kekuatan internal untuk memanfaatkan peluang eksternal

WO Strategies

Threats Opportunities Weaknesses Strengths (TOWS)

WO Strategies

Kurangi kelemahan internal dengan memanfaatkan peluang eksternal

ST Strategies
Gunakan kekuatan internal perusahaan untuk menghindari / menurunkan pengaruh ancaman dari luar.

Threats Opportunities Weaknesses Strengths (TOWS)

ST Strategies

WT Strategies

Threats Opportunities Weaknesses Strengths (TOWS)

WT Strategies

Taktik bertahan dengan tujuan menurunkan kelemahan internal dan menghindari ancaman lingkungan.

TOWS Matrix
Langkah-langkah dalam menyusun Matrik TOWS :
1. 2.

Buat daftar peluang perusahaan Buat daftar ancaman perusahaan

Biasanya dari faktor eksternal perusahaan Biasanya dari faktor internal perusahaan

3.
4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Buat daftar kekuatan perusahaan (yg tidak dimiliki kompetitor) Buat daftar kelemahan perusahaan

Sesuaikan kekuatan internal dan peluang eksternal (SO Strategies) Sesuaikan kelemahan internal dengan peluang eksternal (WO Strategies) Sesuaikan kekuatan internal dengan ancaman eksternal (ST Strategies) Sesuaikan kelemahan internal dengan ancaman eksternal (WT Strategies)

TOWS Matrix
Leave Blank Strengths-S
List Strengths

Weaknesses-W
List Weaknesses

Opportunities-O
List Opportunities

SO Strategies
Use strengths to take advantage of opportunities

WO Strategies
Overcome weaknesses by taking advantage of opportunities

Threats-T
List Threats

ST Strategies
Use strengths to avoid threats

WT Strategies
Minimize weaknesses and avoid threats

Formulation Framework
TOWS Matrix

SPACE Matrix
Stage 2: The Matching Stage

IE Matrix

Grand Strategy Matrix

SPacE Matrix
Strategic Position and Action Evaluation Matrix

Kerangka dengan Empat Kuadran Menentukan strategi yang tepat antara :


Aggressive Conservative Defensive Competitive

SPacE Matrix
Two Internal Dimensions
Financial Strength [FS] Competitive Advantage [CA]

Two External Dimensions


Environmental Stability [ES] Industry Strength [IS]

SPacE Matrix
Overall Strategic position determined by: Financial Strength [FS] Competitive Advantage [CA] Environmental Stability [ES] Industry Strength [IS]

SPacE Matrix
Developing the SPACE Matrix:

EFE Matrix IFE Matrix Financial Strength Competitive Advantage Environmental Stability Industry Strength

SPacE Matrix

Select variables to define FS, CA, ES, & IS Assign numerical ranking from +1 (worst) to +6 (best) for FS and IS; Assign numerical ranking from 1 (best) to 6 (worst) for ES and CA. Compute average score for FS, CA, ES, & IS

SPacE Matrix

Plot the average scores on the Matrix Add the two scores on the x-axis and plot point on X. Add the scores on the y-axis and plot Y. Plot the intersection of the new xy point. Draw a directional vector from origin through the new intersection point.

SPACE Factors
Internal Strategic Position External Strategic Position

Financial Strength (FS)


Return on investment Leverage Liquidity Working capital Cash flow Ease of exit from market Risk involved in business

Environmental Stability (ES)


Technological changes Rate of inflation Demand variability Price range of competing products Barriers to entry Competitive pressure Price elasticity of demand

SPACE Factors
Internal Strategic Position External Strategic Position

Competitive Advantage CA
Market share Product quality Product life cycle Customer loyalty Competitions capacity utilization Technological know-how Control over suppliers & distributors

Industry Strength (IS)


Growth potential Profit potential Financial stability Technological know-how Resource utilization Capital intensify Ease of entry into market Productivity, capacity utilization

SPacE Matrix
Conservative FS
+6 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1

Aggressive

CA
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6

IS

Defensive

-6

Competitive ES

Formulation Framework
TOWS Matrix

SPACE Matrix
Stage 2: The Matching Stage

IE Matrix

Grand Strategy Matrix

Grand Strategy Matrix

Popular tool for formulating alternative strategies All organizations (or divisions) can be positioned in one of four quadrants Based on two evaluative dimensions:

Competitive position Market growth

RAPID MARKET GROWTH


1. 2.

3.
4. 5. 6.

Quadrant II Market development Market penetration Product development Horizontal integration Divestiture Liquidation

1. 2.

3.
4. 5. 6. 7.

WEAK COMPETITIVE POSITION


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Quadrant I Market development Market penetration Product development Forward integration Backward integration Horizontal integration Concentric diversification Quadrant IV Concentric diversification Horizontal diversification Conglomerate diversification Joint ventures GROWTH

Quadrant III Retrenchment 1. Concentric diversification 2. Horizontal diversification 3. Conglomerate diversification 4. Liquidation SLOW MARKET

STRONG COMPETITIVE POSITION

Grand Strategy Matrix

Quadrant I

Excellent strategic position Concentration on current markets and products Take risks aggressively when necessary

Grand Strategy Matrix

Quadrant II
Evaluate present approach seriously How to change to improve competitiveness Rapid market growth requires intensive strategy

Grand Strategy Matrix

Quadrant III
Compete in slow-growth industries Weak competitive position Drastic changes quickly Cost and asset reduction indicated (retrenchment)

Grand Strategy Matrix

Quadrant IV
Strong competitive position Slow-growth industry Diversification indicated to more promising growth areas

Formulation Framework

Stage 3: The Decision Stage

Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM)

QSPM

Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix

Only technique designed to determine the relative attractiveness of feasible alternative actions

QSPM

Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix


Tool for objective evaluation of alternative strategies Based on identified external and internal crucial success factors Requires good intuitive judgment

QSPM
Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix

List the firms key external opportunities & threats; list the firms key internal strengths and weaknesses

Assign weights to each external and internal critical success factor

QSPM
Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix

Examine the Stage 2 (matching) matrices and identify alternative strategies that the organization should consider implementing Determine the Attractiveness Scores (AS)

QSPM

Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix

Compute the total Attractiveness Scores (AS) Compute the Sum Total Attractiveness Score (TAS)

QSPM
Key External Factors Economy Political/Legal/Governmental Social/Cultural/Demographic/ Environmental Technological Competitive Key Internal Factors Management Marketing Finance/Accounting Production/Operations Research and Development Computer Information Systems Weight

Strategic Alternatives
Strategy 1 Strategy 2 Strategy 3

QSPM

Limitations:

Requires intuitive judgments and educated assumptions


Only as good as the prerequisite inputs

QSPM
Positives:

Sets of strategies examined simultaneously or sequentially Requires the integration of pertinent external and internal factors in the decision-making process

Role of A Board of Directors

Duties and Responsibilities:


1. 2. 3. 4. Control and oversight over management Adherence to legal prescriptions Consideration of stakeholder interests Advancement of stockholders rights

THE END

HOMEWORK
Formulate strategies of your case study by following 3 stages :
Input : IFE EFE CPM Matching : TOWS SPACE Matrix IE Matrix Grand Strategy Matrix Decision : QSPM