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Konsep B2B

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Tujuan pembelajaran
Memahami konsep dan karakteristik B2B Menggambarkan tipe model B2B Menggambarkan karakteristik marketplace sell-side dan buy side

Prentice Hall, 2002

Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B2B


Definisi EC B2B

Suatu transaksi bisnis yang dilakukan secara elektronik melalui jaringan Internet, Extranet, Intranet, private network (Contoh EDI). Suatu Transaksi dapat dilakukan antara bisnis dan anggota supply chain-nya, seperti melakukan antar bisnis. Suatu bisnis bisa suatu organisasi, umum atau swasta, untuk kepentingan profit / non profit Karakteristik B2B adalah perusahan yang melakukan otomatisasi proses jual-beli / trading

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Konsep dan karakteristik EC B2B


Ukuran dan isi pasar
Diperkirakan tumbuh dari $1.1 juta di 2003 sampai $10 juta di 2005 Persentase of Internet-based B2B dari 2.1% di 2000 sampai 10% di 2005

Private and public e-marketplace


Privateone-to-many mode Publicmany-to-many mode
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Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B2B


Bagaimana B2B bisa berjalan ?
Bisa Secara langsung antara pembeli/buyer dan penjual/seller melalui perantara / intermediary online. Intermediary dapat berupa organisasi, orang, atau sistem elektronik Biasanya Melalui supply chain dengan atau tidak melalui perantara-perantara/ intermediaries Spot buying / pembeli spotberdasarkan pembelian barang dan jasa pada pasar harga/market price yang ditentukan oleh dynamic supply dan permintaan pasar /demand. Penjual dan pembeli biasanya tidak saling kenal. Contoh stock exchange dan commodity exchange (minyak gula,jagung) Strategic sourcing/sumber strategikmelibatkan kontrak jangka panjang biasanya berdasarkan negosiasi antara penjual dan pembeli.

Tipe transaksi B2B

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Figure 6-1 B2B Supply Chain

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Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B2B


Hubungan Supply chain
Saling berhubungan subproses dan aturan-aturan
mendapatkan material memroses produk dan jasa Menuju distributor Dibeli oleh pelanggan

Proses Traditional diatur melalui transaksi kertas Aplikasi B2B menawarkan keuntungan competitive untuk supply chain management (SCM)

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Konsep dan karakteristik EC B2B


Entitas B2B
Selling company / Perusahaan penjual perspektif manajemen marketing Buying company / perusahaan pembeli perspektif manajemen pengadaan Electronic intermediaries / perantara elektronikoptional third party directory service provider (scope of service may be extended to order fulfillment) Trading platformspricing and negotiation protocol (auctions, reverse auctions)
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Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B2B


Payment servicesmechanism for
transferring money to sellers

Logistics providerslogistics to complete

transaction (packaging, storage, delivery)

Network platformsInternet, VAN, intranet,


extranet

Protocols of communicationEDI or XML Back-end integrationconnecting to ERP

systems, databases, functional applications


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Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B2B


Information processed in B2B
Product Customer Supplier Product process Transportation
Inventory Supply chain Competitor Sales and marketing Supply chain process and performance
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Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B2B


Electronic intermediaries in B2B
Pelanggan dan bisnis bisa saling berbagi perantara/intermediaries Bisnis dapat menggunakan intermediaries yang berbeda dengan supplier yang berbeda

Keuntungan model B2B


Menghilangkan sistem yang menggunakan kertas Mempercepat waktu siklus Mengurangi kesalahan Meningkatkan produktifitas karyawan Mengurangi biaya Meningkatkan pelayanan pelanggan dan manajemen partnership / kerjasama 11 Prentice Hall, 2002

Model B2B
Company-centric models
Sell-side marketplace (one-to-many), satu perusahaan melakukan semua penjualan Buy-side marketplace (many-to-one), satu perusahaan melakukan semua pembelian

Many-to-many marketplacesthe exchange


Buyers and sellers meet to trade
Trading communities Trading exchanges Exchanges
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Model B2B
Other B2B models and services
Tujuan penjualan / selling Tujuan pembelian / buying Integrator Value chain Service provider Value chain Information brokers

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Arsitektur Sell-Side Marketplace

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Sell-Side Marketplaces: One-to-Many


Successful cases
Dell Intel
IBM Cisco

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Sell-Side Case: CISCO Connection Online (CCO)


Benefitssaves the company $363 million
per year in:
Technical support Human resources Software distribution Marketing material

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Cisco Connection Online (CCO) (cont.)


Benefits to Cisco
Reduced operating costs for order taking Enhanced technical support and customer service Reduced technical support staff cost Reduced software distribution costs Lead times reduced fro 4-10 days to 2-3 days

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Cisco Connection Online (CCO) (cont.)

Benefits to customers
Quick order configuration Immediate cost determination Collaboration with Cisco staff

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Buy Side: One-from-Many, E-Procurement


Purchasing agents (buyers)
Direct purchasing
Use of material is scheduled Not a shelf item

Indirect purchasing
MROs Nonproduction materials

Inefficiencies in procurement management of indirect materials


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Figure 6-3 A Traditional Purchasing Process Flow

Source: ariba.com, February 2001.

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Figure 6-4 Buy-Side B2BMarketplace Architecture

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Procurement Revolution at GE
TPN at GE Lighting Division
Purchasing was inefficienttoo many administrative transactions
Process for each requisition took 7 days Complex and time-consuming Could only send out bids for 2 or 3 suppliers

Trading Process Network (TPN)electronic bids


Entire process takes 7 days (for suppliers to bid) 2 hours to send information to suppliers Evaluate and award bids same day
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Procurement Revolution at GE (cont.)


Benefits to GE
Involvement in procurement process
Labor declined 30% Material costs declined 5%-20%--wider base of suppliers online

Redeployment
60% of the staff Sourcing department concentrates on strategic activities instead of paperwork, etc.
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Procurement Revolution at GE (cont.)


Benefits to GE
Time to identify suppliers, prepare a request for bid, negotiate a price, and award the contract
Was 18-23 days Now 9-11 days

Invoices automatically reconciled reflecting modifications GE procurement departments share information about their best suppliers across the world
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Procurement Revolution at GE (cont.)


Benefits to buyers
Worldwide supplier partnerships Current business partners
Strengthen relationships Streamline sourcing process

Rapid distribution of information Transmit electronic drawings to multiple suppliers Decrease sourcing cycle time Quick receipt and comparison of pricing bids
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Procurement Revolution at GE (cont.)


Benefits to suppliers
Increased sales volume Expanded market reach, finding new buyers Lowered administration costs for sales and marketing activities Shortened requisition cycle time Improved sales staff productivity Streamlined bidding process
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Procurement Revolution at GE (cont.)

Deployment strategies
Start EC in one division and slowly go to all divisions Use the site as public bidding marketplace to generate commission income to GE

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B2B Infrastructure

Server to host database and applications Software for executing sell-side (catalogs) Software for conducting auctions and reverse auctions Software for e-procurement (buy-side)

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B2B Infrastructure (cont.)

Software for CRM Security hardware and software Software for building a storefront Telecommunications networks and protocols

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Extranet and EDI


Secure interorganizational networks Traditional EDI limits accessibility of small companies Internet-based EDI offers wide accessibility to companies around the world

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Figure 6-7 Intelligent Agent-Based Commerce

B2B Agents

Source: J. K. Lee and W. Lee (1997).

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