Anda di halaman 1dari 32

ETIKA dan KODE ETIK

Materi Ke dua Mata Kuliah : Etika Profesi Kelas: IF Bilingual dan SI Bilingual Yang sedang belajar di UTM Malaysia
Dosen : Julian Supardi, M.T
Disunting dari sumber: 1. Etika Komputer Teguh Wahyono .ppt 2. Pengertian Etika : amutiara.staff.gunadarma.ac.id 3. http://java.cs.vt.edu/public/users/dunlapd/CS3604/powerpoints/ACM+C ode+of+Ethics.ppt

Pengertian Etika (1)


Ilmu yang membahas perbuatan baik dan perbuatan buruk manusia sejauh yang dapat dipahami oleh pikiran manusia Etika adalah studi ttg kehendak manusia, yaitu kehendak yg berhubungan dg keputusan yg benar dan yg salah dalam tindak perbuatannya. Fagothey (1953)

Pengertian Etika (2)


Menurut Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, ada 3 pengertian tentang etika, yaitu:
Ilmu tentang apa yg baik dan yg buruk, ttg hak dan kewajiban sosial. Kumpulan azas atau nilai yg berkenaan dg akhlak. Nilai mengenai benar dan salah yg dianut masyarakat

Pengertian lain dari Etika dirumuskan oleh Sumaryono (1995), yakni:


Etika adalah studi ttg kebenaran dan ketidak benaran berdasarkan kodrat manusia yg diwujudkan melalui kehendak manusia dlm perbuatannya.

Tujuan Mempelajari ETIKA


Untuk menyamakan persepsi tentang penilaian perbuatan baik dan perbuatan buruk bagi setiap manusia dalam ruang dan waktu tertentu

Domain ETIKA dalam Ranah Ilmu Pengetahuan


ILMU PENGETAHUAN

FILSAFAT
ETIKA

Struktur Etika
ETIKA ETIKA UMUM ETIKA KHUSUS ETIKA INDIVIDUAL ETIKA SOSIAL SIKAP THD SESAMA ETIKA KELUARGA ETIKA PROFESI BIOMEDIS HUKUM BISNIS TEK. INFORMASI LAIN-LAIN ETIKA POLITIK LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

Penjabaran
ETIKA UMUM,
berbicara mengenai kondisi-kondisi dasar, teori-teori etika dan prinsip-prinsip moral dasar yang menjadi pegangan bagi manusia dalam bertindak serta tolak ukur dalam menilai baik atau buruknya suatu tindakan.

ETIKA KHUSUS,

merupakan penerapan prinsip-prinsip moral dasar dalam bidang kehidupan yang khusus
ETIKA KHUSUS dibagi lagi menjadi dua bagian : Etika individual, yaitu menyangkut kewajiban dan sikap manusia terhadap dirinya sendiri. Etika sosial, yaitu berbicara mengenai kewajiban, sikap dan pola perilaku manusia sebagai anggota umat manusia.

Profesi
Pekerjaan yg mengandalkan ketrampilan dan keahlian khusus Pekerjaan yg dilakukan sebagai sumber utama nafkah hidup dg keterlibatan pribadi yg mendalam dalam menekuninya. Pekerjaan yg menuntut pengembangan untuk terus menerus memperbaharui pengetahuan dan ketrampilan sesuai perkembangn teknologi.

Etika Profesi
Etika Profesi adalah : Etika sosial yg menyangkut hubungan antar manusia dalam satu lingkup profesi dan masyarakat pengguna profesi tersebut.

Ciri-ciri Etika Profesi


Secara umum ada beberapa ciri atau sifat yang selalu melekat pada profesi, yaitu :

Adanya pengetahuan khusus,

Adanya kaidah dan standar moral yang sangat tinggi. Mengabdi pada kepentingan masyarakat,

Biasanya keahlian dan keterampilan ini dimiliki berkat pendidikan, pelatihan dan pengalaman yang bertahun-tahun. Hal ini biasanya setiap pelaku profesi mendasarkan kegiatannya pada kode etik profesi. artinya setiap pelaksana profesi harus meletakkan kepentingan pribadi di bawah kepentingan masyarakat. Setiap profesi akan selalu berkaitan dengan kepentingan masyarakat, dimana nilai-nilai kemanusiaan berupa keselamatan, keamanan, kelangsungan hidup dan sebagainya, maka untukmenjalankan suatu profesi harus terlebih dahulu ada izin khusus.

Ada izin khusus untuk menjalankan suatu profesi.

Menjadi anggota dari suatu profesi.

PRINSIP-PRINSIP ETIKA PROFESI : 1. Tanggung jawab 2. Keadilan.


Terhadap pelaksanaan pekerjaan itu dan terhadap hasilnya. Terhadap dampak dari profesi itu untuk kehidupan orang lain atau masyarakat pada umumnya.

3. Otonomi.

Prinsip ini menuntut kita untuk memberikan kepada siapa saja apa yang menjadi haknya. Prinsip ini menuntut agar setiap kaum profesional memiliki dan di beri kebebasan dalam menjalankan profesinya.

Kode Etik
Kode etik yaitu norma atau azas yang diterima oleh
suatu kelompok tertentu sebagai landasan tingkah laku sehari-hari di masyarakat maupun di tempat kerja.

Tujuan Kode Etik


Untuk menjunjung tinggi martabat profesi. 2. Untuk menjaga dan memelihara kesejahteraan para anggota. 3. Untuk meningkatkan pengabdian para anggota profesi. 4. Untuk meningkatkan mutu profesi. 5. Untuk meningkatkan mutu organisasi profesi. 6. Meningkatkan layanan di atas keuntungan pribadi. 7. Mempunyai organisasi profesional yang kuat dan terjalin erat. 8. Menentukan baku standarnya sendiri.
1.

Are computer professionals special?

Do Computer Professionals Have Special Responsibilities?


Gotterbarn (1999) believes that because software engineers and their teams are have significant opportunities to: (i) do good or cause harm
(ii) enable others to do good or cause harm

(iii) influence others to do good or cause harm.

Gotterbarn suggests that the roles and responsibilities involved in the development of safety-critical systems is a differentiating factor. A "safety-critical system" = computer system that can have a direct life-threatening impact.
aircraft and air traffic control systems mass transportation systems nuclear reactors missile systems
and

Critical-Safety Software

medical treatment systems. design of bridges and buildings; election of water disposal sites; development of analytical models for medical treatment.

Professional Codes of Ethics


Many professions have established professional societies, which have adopted codes of conduct.
AMA (American Medical Association) ABA (American Bar Association).

Two computing professional societies


The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) The Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society (IEEE-CS)

ACM Code of Ethics and Conduct


1.1 Contribute to society and human well-being. 1.2 Avoid harm to others. 1.3 Be honest and trustworthy. 1.4 Be fair and take action not to discriminate. 1.5 Honor property rights including copyrights and patent. 1.6 Give proper credit for intellectual property. 1.7 Respect the privacy of others. 1.8 Honor confidentiality.

ACM

2. MORE SPECIFIC PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES.

As an ACM computing professional I will .... 2.1 Strive to achieve the highest quality, effectiveness and dignity in both the process and products of professional work. 2.2 Acquire and maintain professional competence. 2.3 Know and respect existing laws pertaining to professional work. 2.4 Accept and provide appropriate professional review. 2.5 Give comprehensive and thorough evaluations of computer systems and their impacts, including analysis of possible risks. 2.6 Honor contracts, agreements, and assigned responsibilities. 2.7 Improve public understanding of computing and its consequences. 2.8 Access computing and communication resources only when authorized to do so.

ACM

3. ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP IMPERATIVES.

BACKGROUND NOTE: This section draws extensively from the draft of IFIP (International Federation for Information Processing) Code of Ethics, especially its sections on organizational ethics and international concerns. The ethical obligations of organizations tend to be neglected in most codes of professional conduct, perhaps because these codes are written from the perspective of the individual member. This dilemma is addressed by stating these imperatives from the perspective of the organizational leader. In this context "leader" is viewed as any organizational member who has leadership or educational responsibilities. These imperatives generally may apply to organizations as well as their leaders. In this context "organizations" are corporations, government agencies, and other "employers," as well as volunteer professional organizations. (emphasis added) Progress towards a World-Wide Code of Conduct by John A. N. Lee and Jacques Berleur http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~cs3604/lib/WorldCodes/Gatlinburg.html

ACM

3. ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP IMPERATIVES.

As an ACM member and an organizational leader, I will .... 3.1 Articulate social responsibilities of members of an organizational unit and encourage full acceptance of those responsibilities. 3.2 Manage personnel and resources to design and build information systems that enhance the quality of working life. 3.3 Acknowledge and support proper and authorized uses of an organization's computing and communication resources. 3.4 Ensure that users and those who will be affected by a system have their needs clearly articulated during the assessment and design of requirements; later the system must be validated to meet requirements. 3.5 Articulate and support policies that protect the dignity of users and others affected by a computing system. 3.6 Create opportunities for members of the organization to learn the principles and limitations of computer systems.

ACM
4. COMPLIANCE WITH THE CODE.

As an ACM member I will ....

4.1 Uphold and promote the principles of this Code.


4.2 Treat violations of this code as inconsistent with membership in the ACM.

IEEE Code of Ethics


1. to accept responsibility in making engineering decisions consistent with the safety, health and welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment; 2. to avoid real or perceived conflicts of interest whenever possible, and to disclose them to affected parties when they do exist; 3. to be honest and realistic in stating claims or estimates based on available data; 4. to reject bribery in all its forms; 5. to improve the understanding of technology, its appropriate application, and potential consequences;

IEEE Code of Ethics (continued)


6. to maintain and improve our technical competence and to undertake technological tasks for others only if qualified by training or experience, or after full disclosure of pertinent limitations; 7. to seek, accept, and offer honest criticism of technical work, to acknowledge and correct errors, and to credit properly the contributions of others; 8. to treat fairly all persons regardless of such factors as race, religion, gender, disability, age, or national origin; 9. to avoid injuring others, their property, reputation, or employment by false or malicious action; 10. to assist colleagues and co-workers in their professional development and to support them in following this code of ethics.

Ladd (1995) argues that ethical codes rest on a series of confusions that are both "intellectual and moral." His argument has three main points.

Criticisms of Ethical Codes

First, ethics is basically an "open-ended, reflective, and critical intellectual activity." Second, codes introduce confusions with respect to micro-ethics vs. macro-ethics. Third, giving codes a disciplinary function makes them more like legal than ethical rules.

In Defense of Professional Codes


Gotterbarn argues that we need to distinguish between: codes of ethics codes of conduct codes of practice

In Defense of Professional Codes (Continued)


Codes of ethics are "aspirational," because they often serve as mission statements for the profession and thus can provide vision and objectives. Codes of conduct are oriented more toward the professional and the professional's attitude and behavior. Codes of practice relate to operational activities within a profession.

Purpose of Professional Codes


Professional codes of ethics are often designed to motivate members of an association to behave in certain ways. Four primary functions of codes are to:
inspire guide educate discipline the members.

Table 4-1: Some Strengths and Weaknesses of Professional Codes


Strengths
Codes inspire the members of a profession to behave ethically. Codes guide the members of a profession in ethical choices. Codes educate the members of a profession about their professional obligations. Codes discipline members when they violate one or more of the codes directives. Codes sensitize members of a profession to ethical issues and alert them to ethical aspects they otherwise might overlook. Codes inform the public about the nature and roles of the profession. Codes enhance the profession in the eyes of the public.

Weaknesses
Directives included in many codes tend to be too general and too vague. Codes are not always helpful when two or more directives conflict. A professional codes directives are never complete or exhaustive. Codes are ineffective (have no teeth) in disciplinary matters. Codes do not help us distinguish between microethics issues and macro-ethics issues. Directives in codes are sometimes inconsistent with one another. Codes can be self-serving for the profession.

Conflicts of Professional Responsibility: Employee Loyalty and Whistle-blowing

What exactly is employee loyalty? Do employees and employers have a special obligation of loyalty to each other? Should loyalty to ones employer ever preclude an employees "blowing the whistle" in critical situations? In which cases can whistle-blowing be justified?

Do Employees Have a Special Obligation to Employers?


Some believe we have a prima facie obligation of loyalty in employment contexts. In other words, all things being equal, an employee should be loyal to his or her employer and visa versa.

Does employee loyalty still make sense in the context of a large computer corporation?

Duska (1991) argues that in employment contexts, loyalty only arises in special relationships based on a notion that he calls "mutual enrichment." So in relationships in which parties are pursuing their self-interests, the notion of loyalty would not be applicable.