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• Data-communication is the combination of data-
processing and communication. It includes the
processing of data of program's running on computer-
systems, and the communication over great distance
where the information is transported by using of
electrical-conductivity, radio-waves, light-signals, etc.
With data-communication it is possible to
communicate over great distances from terminals
connected on the communication network.
Three Components of Data
 Ddata
 Aanalog: Continuous value data (sound, light,
 Ddigital: Discrete value (text, integers, symbols)

 Aanalog: Continuously varying electromagnetic wave

 Ddigital: Series of voltage pulses (square wave)

 Transmission

Analog: Works the same for analog or digital signals

Digital: Used only with digital signals
1. Data
• Voice
• Images
• Digital data
• Analog data
• Text
• Digitized voice or images
ElectroMagnetic Signals
Function of time
Analog (varies smoothly over time)
Digital (constant level over time,

followed by a change to another level)

Function of frequency (more

Spectrum (range of frequencies)
Bandwidth (width of the spectrum)
Width of the spectrum of
frequencies that can be transmitted
if spectrum=300 to 3400Hz,
Greater bandwidth leads to greater
Limited bandwidth leads to
BandWidth on a Voice Circuit
Human hearing ranges from about 20
Hz to about 14,000 Hz (some up to
20,000 Hz). Human voice ranges from
20 Hz to about 14,000 Hz.
The bandwidth of a voice grade
telephone circuit is 0 to 4000 Hz or
4000 Hz (4 KHz).
Guardbands prevent data transmissions
from interfering with other transmission
when these circuits are multiplexed using
Bandwidth on a Voice Circuit
Data Transmissions
 Analog Transmission of Analog Data
 Telephone networks (PSTN)
 Digital Transmission of Digital Data
 A computer system

 Analog Transmission of Digital Data

 Uses Modulation/Demodulation (Modem)

 Digital Transmission of Analog Data

 Uses Coder/Decoder (CODEC)
Advantages of Digital
The signal is exact
Signals can be checked for errors
Noise/interference are easily
filtered out
A variety of services can be offered
over one line
Higher bandwidth is possible with
data compression
Why Use Analog

Already in place
Significantly less expensive
Lower attenuation rates
Fully sufficient for transmission of
voice signals
Analog Encoding of Digital
Data encoding and decoding
technique to represent data using the
properties of analog waves
Modulation: the conversion of digital
signals to analog form
Demodulation: the conversion of
analog data signals back to digital
Methods of Modulation

Amplitude modulation (AM) or

amplitude shift keying (ASK)
Frequency modulation (FM) or
frequency shift keying (FSK)
Phase modulation or phase shift
keying (PSK)
Differential Phase Shift Keying
Analog Channel Capacity:
BPS vs. Baud
Baud=# of signal changes per second.

BPS=bits per second

In early modems only, baud=BPS. The bit rate and the
symbol rate (or baud rate) are the same only when one bit is
sent on each symbol.

Each signal change can represent more than one bit,

through complex modulation of amplitude, frequency, and/or
Digital Transmission of
Analog Data
Codec = Coder/Decoder
Converts analog signals into a digital
form and converts it back to analog
Where do we find codecs?
Sound cards

Voice mail

Video capture/conferencing
Codec vs. Modem
Codec is for coding analog data
into digital form and decoding it
back. The digital data coded by
Codec are samples of analog waves.
Modem is for modulating digital
data into analog form and
demodulating it back. The analog
symbols carry digital data.
Digital Encoding
of Analog Data
Primarily used in retransmission devices
The sampling theorem: If a signal is
sampled at regular intervals of time and
at a rate higher than twice the significant
signal frequency, the samples contain all
the information of the original signal.
Pulse-code modulation (PCM)
 8000 samples/sec sufficient for 4000hz
Pulse Code Modulation
Analog voice data must be translated into
a series of binary digits before they can
be transmitted.
With Pulse Code Modulation (PCM), the
amplitude of the sound wave is sampled
at regular intervals and translated into a
binary number.
The difference between the original
analog signal and the translated digital
signal is called quantizing error.
Pulse Code Modulation
Analog voice data must be translated into
a series of binary digits before they can
be transmitted.
With Pulse Code Modulation (PCM), the
amplitude of the sound wave is sampled
at regular intervals and translated into a
binary number.
The difference between the original
analog signal and the translated digital
signal is called quantizing error.

PCM uses a sampling rate of 8000

samples per second.

Each sample is an 8 bit sample

resulting in a digital rate of 64,000 bps
(8 x 8000).
Converting Samples to Bits

Similar concept to pixelization
Breaks wave into pieces, assigns a
value in a particular range
8-bit range allows for 256 possible
sample levels
More bits means greater detail,
fewer bits means less detail
Transmission Timing -
Asynchronous vs.
Sampling timing – How to make the
clocks in a transmitter and a receiver
Asynchronous transmission – sending
shorter bit streams and timing is
maintained for each small data block.
Synchronous transmission – To prevent
timing draft between transmitter and
receiver, their clocks are synchronized.
For digital signal, this can be
accomplished with Manchester encoding
Digital Interfaces
The point at which one device
connects to another
Standards define what signals are
sent, and how
Some standards also define
physical connector to be used
Generic Communications
Interface Illustration
Transmission Efficiency:
Several data sources share a
common transmission medium
Line sharing saves transmission
Higher data rates mean more cost-
effective transmissions
Takes advantage of the fact that
most individual data sources require
relatively low data rates
Multiplexing Diagram
Alternate Approaches to
Terminal Support
Direct point-to-point links
Multidrop line
Integrated MUX function in host
Direct Point-to-Point
Multidrop Line
Integrated MUX in Host
Frequency Division
Requires analog signaling &
Total bandwidth = sum of input
bandwidths + guardbands
Modulates signals so that each occupies
a different frequency band
Standard for radio broadcasting, analog
telephone network, and television
(broadcast, cable, & satellite)
Frequency Division
Multiplexing (FDM)
Division Multiplexing
Used in digital transmission
Requires data rate of the medium to
exceed data rate of signals to be
Signals “take turns” over medium
Slices of data are organized into frames
Used in the modern digital telephone
US, Canada, Japan: DS-0, DS-1 (T-1), DS-3 (T-3),
Europe, elsewhere: E-1, E3, …
Statistical Time Division
Multiplexing (STDM)
“Intelligent” TDM
Data rate capacity required is well
below the sum of connected
Digital only, because it requires
more complex framing of data
Widely used for remote
communications with multiple
*Transmission Efficiency:
Data Compression
Reduces the size of Codes are substituted
data files to move for compressed
more information with portions of data
fewer bits Lossless:
Used for transmission reconstituted data is
and for storage identical to original
Combines w/ (ZIP, GIF)
multiplexing to Lossy: reconstituted
increase efficiency data is only
Works on the “perceptually
principle of eliminating equivalent” (JPEG,
redundancy MPEG)
Computer Network
• An interconnected collection of autonomous
• Two computers are said to be interconnected if
they are able to exchange information.
• A system with one control unit and many slaves
is not a network.
Computer Network (Cont.)
Distributed Systems Computer
The existence of multiple autonomous User must explicitly
computers is transparent to the user. do everything.

Allocation of jobs to processor and files to disks

and all other system functions must be
Distributed system is a software system built
on top of a network.
Overlap between distributed systems and
Computer Network
More files around System can involve the User
Computer Network (Cont.)
Uses of Computer Network
Companies People Social Issues

Resource Sharing Access to remote News-groups

Geography Person To Person Bulletin Boards
communication & e-
High reliability: Interactive
replication Entertainment
Saving money on the flow

Client-server model

Scalability: Ability to
increase system
performance gradually
as the workload grows.
A Communications Model
• Source
– Generates data to be transmitted
• Transmitter
– Converts data into transmittable signals
• Transmission system
– Carries data
• Receiver
– Converts received signal into data
• Destination
– Takes incoming data
Simplified Communications Model -
Key Communications Tasks
• Transmission system utilization
• Interfacing
• Signal generation
• Synchronization
• Exchange management
• Error detection and correction
• Addressing and routing
• Recovery
• Message formatting
• Security
• Network management
Network Hardware
Transmission Technology
Broadcast Network Point – To – Point Network

Single communication channel that Many connections between

is shared by all the machines on individual pairs of machines
the network.

All the others receive “Packets” in A packet may have to visit one
certain contexts, sent by any or more intermediate machine.

An address field within the packet Routing algorithms play an

specifies for whom it is intended. important role in PTP networks.

Multicasting: transmission to a
subnet of the machines.
Simplified Data Communications
• Point to point communication not usually
– Devices are too far apart
– Large set of devices would need impractical
number of connections
• Solution is a communications network
Simplified Network Model
Local Area Networks
• Smaller scope
– Building or small campus
• Usually owned by same organization as
attached devices
• Data rates much higher
• Usually broadcast systems
• Now some switched systems and ATM are
being introduced
Local Area Networks (Cont.)

Size Transmission Technology Topology

Restricted in Single Cable BUS (Ethernet)

10 to 100 Mbps
Ring (Token ring)
Low delay (ms)
Very few Errors
Megabits/Sec. (Unit)
• Metropolitan Area Network
• Support data and voice
• No switching elements
• Standard: DQDB
(Distributed Queue Dual Bus)
• Two unidirectional buses to which all the computers are
• Each bus has a head-end, a device that initiates
transmission activity.
• Traffic that is destined for a computer to the right of the
sender uses the upper bus, traffics to the left uses the
lower one.
Wide Area Networks
• Large geographical area
• Crossing public rights of way
• Rely in part on common carrier circuits
• Alternative technologies
– Circuit switching
– Packet switching
– Frame relay
– Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)
Wide Area Networks (Cont.)
• Host (end system).
• Subnet (communication subnet).
• WANs typically have irregular topologies.


Transmission Lines:- Circuits, Switching Elements:-

Channels or Tanks Specialized computers used to
connect two or more
transmission lines.
• Collection of interconnected networks.
• Example: A collection of LAN’s connected
by a WAN.
• WAN : (router + hosts).
• SUBNET : (only routers).
Circuit Switching
• Dedicated communications path established
for the duration of the conversation
• E.G. Telephone network
Packet Switching
• Data sent out of sequence
• Small chunks (packets) of data at a time
• Packets passed from node to node between
source and destination
• Used for terminal to computer and
computer to computer communications
Frame Relay
• Packet switching systems have large
overheads to compensate for errors
• Modern systems are more reliable
• Errors can be caught in end system
• Most overhead for error control is stripped
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
• ATM (cell relay)
• Evolution of frame relay
• Little overhead for error control
• Fixed packet (called cell) length
• Anything from 10mbps to Gbps
• Constant data rate using packet switching
• Offers a constant data rate channel
Integrated Services Digital Network
• Designed to replace public telecom system
• Wide variety of services
• Entirely digital domain
• First generation ( narrowband ISDN )
– 64 kbps channel is the basic unit
– Circuit-switching orientation
– Contributed to frame relay
• Second generation ( broadband ISDN )
– 100s of mbps
– Packet-switching orientation
– Contributed to ATM ( cell relay )
• Used for communications between entities in a
• Must speak the same language
• Entities
– User applications
– E-mail facilities
– Terminals
• Systems
– Computer
– Terminal
– Remote sensor
Protocol Hierarchies
• Organized as a series of layers or levels.
• The purpose of each layer is to offer certain services to
the higher layers.
• Layer n on one-machine carries on a conversation with
layer n on another machine.
• Protocol: is an agreement between the communicating
parties on how communication is to proceed.
• Peers communicate using the protocol.
• In reality, no data directly transferred from layer n on one
machine to layer n on another machine.
Protocol Hierarchies (Cont.)
• Each layer passes data and control information to the
layer immediately below it.
• Between each pair of adjacent layers there is an
• The design of layers helps in:
– Minimizing the amount of information that must be passed
between layers
– Make it simpler to reduce the implementation of one layer with
a completely different one
• Protocol stack:
A list of protocol used by a certain system, one protocol
per layer.
Key Elements of a Protocol
• Syntax
– Data formats
– Signal levels
• Semantics
– Control information
– Error handling
• Timing
– Speed matching
– Sequencing
Design Issues for the Layers
• Addressing.
• Data transfer.
– Simplex communication.
– Half-duplex communication.
– Full-duplex communication.
• Number and priorities of the logical connection channels.
Many networks provide at least two logical channels per
connection, one for normal data and one for urgent data.
• Error control.
– Error detecting code.
– Error correcting code.
Design Issues (Cont.)
• How to receive data in order (sequence no.).
• How to keep a fast sender from swamping a
slow receiver with data (flow control).
• Size of the message: disassembling
>transmitting >reassembling messages.
• Routing: multiple paths between source and
Protocol Architecture
• Task of communication broken up into
• For example file transfer could use three
– File transfer application
– Communication service module
– Network access module
Simplified File Transfer
A Three Layer Model
• Network access layer
• Transport layer
• Application layer
Network Access Layer
• Exchange of data between the computer and
the network
• Sending computer provides address of
• May invoke levels of service
• Dependent on type of network used (LAN,
packet switched etc.)
Transport Layer
• Reliable data exchange
• Independent of network being used
• Independent of application
Application Layer
• Support for different user applications
• e.g. e-mail, file transfer
Interfaces and Services
• Active elements in each layer are called ENTITIES.
• Entity.
– Software [example: process.].
– Hardware [example: intelligent I/O chip.].
• The entities in layer n implement a service used by layer
• Layer n called service provider.
• Layer n + 1 called service user.
• Services are available at sap’s (service access points).
• Each SAP has an address that uniquely identifies it.
Interfaces and Services (Cont.)
– IDU: interface data unit.
– ICI: interface control info.
– SDU: service data unit.
• At a typical interface, the layer n + 1 entity passes an IDU
to the layer n entity through the SAP.
• In order to transfer the SDU, the layer n entity may have
to fragment it into several pieces, each of which is given a
header and send to as a separate PDU (protocol data unit)
such as a packet.
Addressing Requirements
• Two levels of addressing required
• Each computer needs unique network
• Each application on a (multi-tasking)
computer needs a unique address within the
– The service access point or SAP
Protocol Architectures and Networks
Protocols in Simplified
Protocol Data Units (PDU)
• At each layer, protocols are used to communicate
• Control information is added to user data at each
• Transport layer may fragment user data
• Each fragment has a transport header added
– Destination SAP
– Sequence number
– Error detection code
• This gives a transport protocol data unit
Network PDU
• Adds network header
– Network address for destination computer
– Facilities requests
Connection Oriented Connectionless

Modeled after the telephone Modeled after posted system


Establish a connection
Use the Connection
Release the connection
Acts like a tube: receive data by Messages could be received in
the same order was sent different order than it was sent

Reliable connection oriented Unreliable connectionless

service service
(not acknowledged)
Request reply service
• Sender transmits a single datagram
containing a request, the reply contains the
• Used to implement communication in the
client-server model.
Operation of a Protocol
Service Primitives
• A service is formally specified by a set of primitives
(operations) available to a user or other entity to access
the service.
• Primitive tells the service to
– Perform some action OR
– Report an action by a peer entity.
• Example: Connection oriented service with 8 service
– CONNECT.request – Request a connection to be established.
– CONNECT.indication – Signal the called party.
Example (Cont.)
– CONNECT.response – Used by the caller to accept/reject calls.
– CONNECT.confirm – Tell the caller whether the call was
– DATA.request – Request the data be sent.
– DATA.indication – Signal the arrival of data.
– DISCONNECT.request – Request that a connection be released.
– DISCONNECT.indication – Signal the peer about the request.
– Service Could be.
• Confirmed (Example: CONNECT).
• Unconfirmed (Example: DISCONNECT).
Relationship of Services to Protocols
• Service: is a set of primitives (operations) that a layer
provides to the layer above it.
• Protocol.
– A set of rules governing the format and meaning of the frames,
packets, or messages that are exchanged by the peer entities
within a layer.
– Entities use protocols in order to implement their service
– Entities are free to change their protocols, provided they do not
change the service visible to their users.
OSI References Model TCP/IP Reference Model
TCP/IP Protocol Architecture
• Developed by the US defense advanced research
project agency (DARPA) for its packet switched
network (ARPANET).
• Used by the global internet.
• No official model but a working one.
– Application layer.
– Host to host or transport layer.
– Internet layer.
– Network access layer.
– Physical layer.
Physical Layer
• Physical interface between data
transmission device (e.G. Computer) and
transmission medium or network
• Characteristics of transmission medium
• Signal levels
• Data rates
• Etc.
Network Access Layer
• Exchange of data between end system and
• Destination address provision
• Invoking services like priority
Internet Layer (IP)
• Systems may be attached to different
• Routing functions across multiple networks
• Implemented in end systems and routers
Transport Layer (TCP)
• Reliable delivery of data
• Ordering of delivery

Application Layer
• Support for user applications
• e.g. http, SMPT
TCP/IP Protocol Architecture Model
OSI Model
• Open systems interconnection
• Developed by the international organization
for standardization (ISO)
• Seven layers
• A theoretical system delivered too late!
• TCP/IP is the de facto standard
OSI References Model

• International Standards Organization.

• OSI (Open Systems Interconnection).
• Reference model: deals with connecting
open systems that are; Open for
communication with other systems.
• A layer should be created where a different level of
abstraction is needed.
• Each layer should perform a well-defined function.
• The function of each layer should be chosen with an eye
toward defining internationally standardized protocols.
• The layer boundaries should be chosen to minimize the
information flow across the interfaces.
• The number of layers should be large enough that distinct
functions need not be thrown together on the same layer
out of necessity.
OSI Layers
• Application
• Presentation
• Session
• Transport
• Network
• Data link
• Physical
The Physical Layer
• Deals with transmitting raw bits over a
communication channel.
• How many volts for 1 or 0.
• How many microseconds a bit lasts.
• Mechanics, electrical and procedural
Data link Layer
• Break the input data up into data frames.
• Process the acknowledgement frames sent back by the
• Insert the frame delimiter.
• Solve the problems caused by damaged, lost and duplicate
• Flow control.
• Full duplex transmission (piggybacking)
• Medium access sub layer deals with how to control access
to the shared channel in broadcast networks.
Network Layer

• Routing packets from source to destination.

• Routes can be static or dynamic
• Bottleneck, congestion
• Connect heterogeneous networks (different
addressing method, larger packet service).
• In broadcast networks, routing problem is
simple, so the network layer is thin.
Transport Layer
• Accept data from the session layer, split it up into smaller
units if needed, pass these to the network layer and ensure
that the all pieces arrive correctly at the other end
• Under normal conditions, the transport layer creates a
distinct network connection for each transport connection
required by the session layer
• If the transport connection requires a high throughput, the
transport layer might create multiple network
connections, dividing the data among the network
connections to improve throughput
Transport Layer (Cont.)
• Transport layer determines what type of service to provide
the session layer with and ultimately, the users of the
entire network
• The transport layer is a true end-to-end layer, from source
to destination
• Multiple connections will be entering and leaving each
host. There is a need to tell which message belongs to
which connection (transport header)
• Establishing and deleting connections across the network
• Flow control between hosts (as oppose between routers)
so fast host cannot overrun a slow one
Session Layer
• Allows users on different machines to establish sessions
between them
• A session might be used to allow a user to log into a
remote timesharing system or to transfer a file between
two machines
• Example: token management. Only the side holding the
token may perform the critical operation.
• Synchronization: insert a checkpoint.
– Example: sending file for 20 hours. After a crash the portion
after the checkpoint will be resend again.
Presentation Layer

• Concerned with the syntax and semantics of

the information transmitted.
• A typical example of a presentation service
is encoding data in a standard agreed upon
way. [Character strings, integers, floating-
point numbers…].
Application Layer
• The application layer contains a variety of protocols
that are commonly needed.
• Example: incompatible terminal type.
• One way to solve this problem is to define an abstract
network virtual terminal that editor can be written to
deal with. To handle each terminal type, a piece of s/w
must be written to map the functions of the network
virtual terminal onto the real terminal.
• Other application is file transfer(ftp).
TCP/IP and OSI Protocol Architectures
Example Of Networks
• Novell NETWARE.
– Client-server model.
– Network layer runs IPX (internet packet exchange).
– IPX uses 10 byte address (IP uses 4 bytes) flat addressing.
– Transport protocol.
• NCP (network core protocol).
• Transport service & other services.
• SPX (sequenced packet exchange):
• Just transport service.
Example Of Networks (Cont.)
• The application can choose between NCP & SPX
– Transport control field counts how many networks the packet
has traversed.
– About once a minute, each server broadcasts a packet giving its
address and telling what services it offers.
– SAP (Service Advertising Protocol) is used for broadcasting
– Routers run some kind of special agent processes to construct
databases of which servers are running.
– When a client is booted, it sends a request for a server. The
agent on the local router machine sees this request, and
matches up the request with the best server.
Example Of Networks (Cont.)
– Packet switched network, consisting of subnet and host computers.
– IMPS (interface message processors) connected by transmission
– Each IMP would be connected to at least two other imps.
– Each node consists of IMP and a host.
– Host sends messages of up to 8063 bits to its IMP.
– IMP breaks the message into packets of at most 1008 bits and
forwards them independently toward the destination.
– 56-kbps lines leased from telephone companies interconnect the
– By 1990, the ARPANET had been overtaken by newer networks.
Example Of Networks (Cont.)
– By 1984 NSF Fig 1.26(the U.S. national science
Foundation) began designing a high-speed successor to
the ARPANET that would be open to all university
research groups.
– By 1995 the NSFNET backbone was no longer needed
to interconnect the NSF regional networks because
numerous companies were running commercial IP
Example Of Networks (Cont.)
• The Internet.
In 1992, the internet society was set up, to
promote the use of the internet.
• Four main applications.
– Email.
– News.
– Remote login: telnet, rlogin.
– File transfer: FTP.
Example Of Networks (Cont.)
• Gigabit TESTBEDS.
– The backbones operate at megabit speeds.
– Gigabit networks provide better bandwidth but not always
much better delay.
– Example: sending a 1-kbit packet from NYC to san Francisco at
(1 mbps) take.
– 1 msec to pump the bits out and 20 msec for the delay, for a
total of 21 msec. A 1-Gbps network can reduce this to 20.001
– For some applications, bandwidth is what counts, and these are
the applications for which gigabit networks will make a big
– Examples:- telemedicine & virtual meeting.