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SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN REFRIGERASI

Andriyanto Setyawan Lab. Tata Udara POLBAN

Definisi Refrigerasi

Refrigerasi: proses untuk menghasilkan kondisi dingin atau menjaga sesuatu tetap dingin. Refrigerasi: proses pengambilan panas atau pemindahan panas dari tempat yang tidak diinginkan ke tempat lain.

Sejarah Refrigerasi

Pengawetan makanan merupakan masalah utama pada refrigerasi jaman dahulu Sebelum jaman Romawi telah ditemukan fakta bahwa makanan lebih tahan lama jika disimpan dalam keadaan dingin

Sejarah Refrigerasi

Pada kondisi dingin, pembusukan melambat karena pertumbuhan bakteri melambat. Pada suhu di bawah 0 0F pertumbuhan bakteri akan terhenti.

Sejarah Refrigerasi

Pada jaman dulu, di belahan bumi utara, es yang terbentuk secara alami pada musim dingin dipotong dan disimpan di dalam ruangan terinsulasi atau dalam serbuk gergaji. Pada musim semi dan panas es dijual untuk pengawetan makanan. Pada musim semi dan panas harga es sangat mahal. Hanya kalangan mampu yang dapat membelinya.

Sejarah Refrigerasi

Pada akhir abad ke-19 suhu pada musim dingin tidak terlalu dingin sehingga terjadi kekurangan es alami. Hal ini merangsang perkembangan refrigerasi mekanik untuk membuat es. Awal tahun 1900-an listrik mulai berkembang, dan telah ada perusahaan yang membuat lemari es.

Sejarah Refrigerasi Mekanik

Sistem yang digunakan sekarang memiliki prinsip kerja yang telah ditemukan dan dipatenkan tahun 1834.

Sejarah Refrigerasi Mekanik


1755: First known attempt at vapor compression refrigeration is made by William Cullen who cooled water by drawing a vacuum over it. 1844: Jacob Perkins builds the first workable refrigeration system using the vapor compression cycle.

Sejarah Refrigerasi Mekanik


1851: John Gorrie is granted a patent to build the first commercial machine in the world used for refrigeration and air conditioning. 1856: James Harrison introduces vaporcompression refrigeration to the brewing and meat-packing industries.

Sejarah Refrigerasi Mekanik


1867: First patent granted for the refrigerated railway car.

1890: Refrigeration is introduced as a method of preserving bodies in the morgue.

Sejarah Refrigerasi Mekanik


1902: Dr. Willis H. Carrier (Father of Air Conditioning) builds the first air conditioner to combat humidity inside a printing company.
1908: The world's first successful sealed vapor compression refrigeration system is presented at the First International Congress of Refrigeration. This accomplishment revolutionized refrigeration because it needed no additional refrigerant during its operating life.

Sejarah Refrigerasi Mekanik


1910: Mechanical domestic refrigeration first appears. 1920: The first air conditioned movie theater opens in Los Angeles, California (Grauman's Metropolitan Theatre).

Mengapa Refrigerasi Kompresi Uap Populer?


KOMPRESI UAP MEKANIK adalah metode pendinginan yang paling umum digunakan.

KOMPRESI UAP MEKANIK digunakan pada sistem refrigerasi dan tata udara, mulai skala domestik/rumah tangga sampai skala industri.
KOMPRESI UAP MEKANIK memiliki keunggulan: tahan lama, tidak berbahaya, murah.

Jenis Refrigerasi yang Lain


Types of Refrigeration Chart created by Christy Gajewski Source: Comptons

Evaporation

Vapor Absorption

Mechanical Vapor Compression

Air Cycle

Thermal Electric

When a liquid is readily vaporized, the energy motion of the molecules increases. This energy is drawn from the surroundings, which are cool. However, these methods are not long-lasting.

Ammonia is pumped through a cycle similar to the vapor-compression process. However, this requires large heat removal systems and there is a danger of ammonia leakage.

A refrigerant is re-circulated through a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve, and an evaporator. The key concept: low pressure = low temperature.

Air is compressed and cooled, then expands through a turbine. This method is more expensive then other refrigeration systems because large amounts of air must be circulated.

Junctions are placed in a series so that heat is absorbed on one side and dissipated on the other. This technique is not as effective because the junctions must be short to decrease electrical resistance.

Example: Perspiration

Example: Large central air-conditioning units

Example: Most widely used in refrigeration and air-conditioning units

Example: Aircraft air-conditioning systems

Limited to specialized areas of application (Comptons)

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