Anda di halaman 1dari 61

Apa itu program I Think?

bertujuan mempertingkatkan & membudayakan kemahiran berfikir dalam kalangan murid menghasilkan murid berinovatif melalui modul yang akan dibangunkan oleh pihak AIM seperti penggunaan alat berfikir

APA ITU I THINK?


Lapan peta pemikiran (Proses
pemikiran) adalah alat berfikir visual

yang memudahkan murid-murid


dalam memahami konsep, menganalisis masalah dan mencari penyelesaian.

Mengapa perlukannya?

Pembelajaran terbukti sangat berkesan bila PERKATAAN digabungkan dengan IMEJ

Kegunaan:

Peta minda boleh digunakan pada semua subjek merentas kurikulum

I THINK
8 Thinking process 8 Peta pemikiran 8 Thinking maps 8 Proses minda

circle map (peta bulatan)

Tree map (peta pokok)

Multi flow map (peta pelbagai alir)

bubble map (peta buih) double bubble map (peta buih berganda)

Brace map (peta dakap)

Bridge map
(peta titi)

Flow map (peta alir)

mendefinisi mengikut konteks Peta Bulatan


Sempadan Konsep yang

Topik utama
anda tahu Proses sumbang saran

Adapted from Thinking Maps - Tools for Learning 1995

mendefinisi mengikut konteks

Peta Bulatan
Dokumen Standard P Moral Kepercayaan kepada Tuhan hormat bertanggungjawab Hemah tinggi Keadilan Kasih sayang

Kerjasama Toleransi Kejujuran

14 Nilai Universa l
Kerajinan Baik hati

Kederhanaan

Berterima kasih

Keberanian

Adapted from Thinking Maps - Tools for Learning 1995

Menerangkan PETA BUIH:

Membantu menerangkan sesuatu perkara atau idea dengan menyenaraikan kata adjektif supaya boleh menerang dan memahami sesuatu dengan lebih baik.

PETA BUIH BUBBLE MAP

Adapted from Thinking Maps - Tools for Learning 1995

Untuk menerangkan (adjektif) Peta Buih


Adjektif 2 Adjektif 3

Adjektif 1

Konsep utama

Adjektif 4

Adjektif 6

Adjektif 5

Adapted from Thinking Maps - Tools for Learning 1995

Peta Buih Untuk menerangkan, guna adjektif


budi bahasa

rajin

Krishnan

ikhlas

Amanah

baik hati

jujur

Adapted from Thinking Maps - Tools for Learning 1995

Membanding beza PETA BUIH BERGANDA:

Membantu menyenaraikan persamaan dan perbezaan antara dua perkara atau idea supaya dapat membezakan kedua-duanya dengan membanding & membeza

Untuk banding beza PETA BUIH BERGANDA


beza sama beza

beza

konsep 1

sama

konsep 2

beza

beza sama

beza

Adapted from Thinking Maps - Tools for Learning 1995

Untuk banding beza PETA BUIH BERGANDA


Cina
SAINS SOSIAL

India

Buddha

THAN

BPK

VELU

Hindu

Thn Baru Cina

Deepavali

UPM

Adapted from Thinking Maps - Tools for Learning 1995

Membuat Pengelasan PETA POKOK:

Membantu menyusun maklumat supaya berada dalam kumpulan yang berbeza agar boleh memahami maklumat tersebut dalam gambaran besar secara menyeluruh.

Membuat Pengelasan PETA POKOK


Pendidikan Moral

Fokus
Penaakulan
Kognitif

Tema
Diri Saya Saya & Jiran

Nilai

Perlakuan
Psikomotor

Reading Skills: Main Ideas & Details; Taxonomy


Adapted from Thinking Maps - Tools for Learning 1995

Hubungan Seluruh- bahagian PETA DAKAP:

Membantu memecahkan sesuatu kepada ciri-ciri selanjutnya supaya dapat memahami cara sesuatu benda berfungsi.

Hubungan seluruh & bahagian PETA DAKAP


mental menaakul
Penaakulan perlakuan baik/jahat salah/benar Tindakan Perlakuan tanggungjawab

Fokus PM Sek Ren

Perasaan

akauntabiliti

Adapted from Thinking Maps - Tools for Learning 1995

Urutan PETA ALIR:

Membantu menyenaraikan langkah-langkah yang terlibat dalam sesuatu proses supaya dapat memahami apa yang perlu dilakukan untuk mencapai sesuatu.

URUTAN PETA ALIR


Langkah 1 Langkah 2 Langkah 3

Langkah 1a

Langkah 1b

Langkah 2a

Langkah 2b

Langkah 3a

Langkah 3b

Adapted from Thinking Maps - Tools for Learning 1995

Urutan
PETA ALIR

Membersihkan bilik darjah

Pengajaran & Pembelajaran

Aktiviti ko-kurikulum

Sapu lantai

Buang sampah

Pendidikan Moral

Pendidikan Islam

Kelab & persatuan

Unit Beruniform

Adapted from Thinking Maps - Tools for Learning 1995

Sebab dan Akibat PETA PELBAGAI ALIR:

Membantu melakarkan sebab dan akibat sesuatu peristiwa agar boleh memahami akibat tindakantindakan yang diambil dan cara untuk mengubahnya.

Sebab dan akibat PETA PELBAGAI ALIR


Sebab 1 Masalah/ isu Sebab 2 Akibat 2 Akibat 1

Adapted from Thinking Maps - Tools for Learning 1995

SEBAB

AKIBAT

suka bantu keluarga

Disayangi keluarga

Hock Seng
Rajin belajar

Cemerlang dalam pelajaran

Suka tolong kawan

Disayangi rakan-rakan

Analogi (hubungan yang sama, mencari faktor penghubungan) PETA TITI:

Membantu menyenaraikan beberapa pasangan butiran yang berkaitan antara satu sama lain supaya dapat memahami perkara-perkara di dunia yang mempunyai hubungan yang serupa (analogi).

Analogi PETA TITI

Sama seperti

Adapted from Thinking Maps - Tools for Learning 1995

tokong Taoist as

kuil Hindu as

gereja Kristian

vihara as Buddhist

Faktor Penghubungan: tempat ibadat dengan penganutnya

six thinking hats Ways to Use the Hats

Individually (i.e., thinking alone)


In conversation

In meetings
Reports and presentations

Published by Advanced Practical Thinking Training, Inc. 1998 The McQuaig Group

six thinking hats

Six hats
Six colors

Six types of thinking


The hats are directions, not descriptions of thinkers Each thinker should be able to use all of the hats
Published by Advanced Practical Thinking Training, Inc. 1998 The McQuaig Group

six thinking hats

white hat
What information is available?
What information do we need? How are we going to get the missing information?

Published by Advanced Practical Thinking Training, Inc. 1998 The McQuaig Group

six thinking hats

red hat
What are my feelings right now?

What does my intuition tell me?


What is my gut reaction?

Published by Advanced Practical Thinking Training, Inc. 1998 The McQuaig Group

six thinking hats

black hat
What are some possible problems? What difficulties could we encounter? What are points for caution?

What are the risks?


Published by Advanced Practical Thinking Training, Inc. 1998 The McQuaig Group

six thinking hats

yellow hat
What are the benefits?

What are the positives?


What are the values?

Can this be made to work?


Published by Advanced Practical Thinking Training, Inc. 1998 The McQuaig Group

six thinking hats

green hat
What creative ideas do we have?

What are the alternatives?


How can we overcome the black hat difficulties?
Published by Advanced Practical Thinking Training, Inc. 1998 The McQuaig Group

six thinking hats

blue hat
Where should we start?
What is the agenda?

What are the objectives?


Which hats should we use?

How can we summarize?


What should we do next?
Published by Advanced Practical Thinking Training, Inc. 1998 The McQuaig Group

Taxonomy = Classification
Classification of thinking Six cognitive levels of complexity

Why use Blooms taxonomy?


Write and revise learning objectives Plan curriculum Identifies simple to most difficult skills Effectively align objectives to assessment techniques and standards

Incorporate knowledge to be learned (knowledge dimension) and cognitive process to learn Facilitate questioning (oral language = important role within framework)

Original
Evaluation

Revised
Creating

Synthesis
Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge

Evaluating
Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering

Noun

Verb

Creating Evaluating Analyzing

Applying
Understanding Remembering

Remembering
The learner is able to recall, restate and remember learned information Describing Finding Identifying Listing Retrieving Naming Locating Recognizing

Can students recall information?

Understanding
Student grasps meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learned Classifying Comparing Exemplifying Explaining Inferring Interpreting Paraphrasing Summarizing

Can students explain ideas or concepts?

Applying
Student makes use of information in a context different from the one in which it was learned Implementing Carrying out Using Executing

Can students use the information in another familiar situation?

Analyzing
Student breaks learned information into its parts to best understand that information Attributing Comparing Deconstructing Finding Integrating Organizing Outlining Structuring

Can students break information into parts to explore understandings and relationships?

Evaluating
Student makes decisions based on in-depth reflection, criticism and assessment
Checking Critiquing Detecting Experimenting Hypothesising Judging Monitoring Testing

Can students justify a decision or a course of action?

Creating
Student creates new ideas and information using what previously has been learned Constructing Designing Devising Inventing Making Planning Producing

Can students generate new products, ideas, or ways of viewing things?

Questioning . . .
Higher level questions require complex application, analysis, evaluation or creation skills Higher level questions
Encourage students to think more deeply and critically Facilitate problem solving Encourage discussions Stimulate students to seek information on their own
Handout #

University of Illinois (2006)

Remembering stems
What happened after...? How many...? What is...? Who was it that...? Name ... Find the definition of Describe what happened after Who spoke to...? Which is true or false...?
(Pohl, 2000)

Understanding stems
Explain why Write in your own words How would you explain? Write a brief outline... What do you think could have happened next...? Who do you think...? What was the main idea...? Clarify Illustrate
(Pohl, 2000)

Applying stems
Explain another instance where Group by characteristics such as Which factors would you change if? What questions would you ask of? From the information given, develop a set of instructions about

(Pohl, 2000)

Analyzing stems
Which events could not have happened? If. ..happened, what might the ending have been? How is...similar to...? What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did...changes occur? Explain what must have happened when... What are some or the problems of...? Distinguish between... What were some of the motives behind..? What was the turning point? What was the problem with...?
(Pohl, 2000)

Evaluating stems
Judge the value of... What do you think about...? Defend your position about... Do you think...is a good or bad thing? How would you have handled...? What changes to would you recommend? Do you believe...? How would you feel if...? How effective are...? What are the consequences...? What influence will....have on our lives? What are the pros and cons of....? Why is....of value? What are the alternatives? Who will gain & who will loose?

(Pohl, 2000)

Creating stems
Design a...to... Devise a possible solution to If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with...? Devise your own way to... What would happen if ...? How many ways can you...? Create new and unusual uses for... Develop a proposal which would...
(Pohl, 2000)

Summary
Blooms revised taxonomy
Systematic process of thinking & learning Assists assessment efforts with easy-to-use format Visual representation of alignment between goals & objectives with standards, activities, & outcomes Helps form challenging questions to help students gain knowledge & critical thinking skills Assists in development of goals, objectives, & lesson plans

The Three-Storey Intellect


Implementing a Thinking Curriculum There are one-storey, two-storey and three-storey intellects with skylights. All fact collectors who have no aim beyond their facts are one-storey people. Two-storey people compare, reason, generalise, using the labour of fact collectors as their own. Three-storey people idealise, imaging, predict their best illumination comes from above the skylight. (Oliver Wendell Holmes)

3. Applying
Requires you to use the ideas you have gained to solve problems or make decisions. Apply new knowledge and understanding to new situations and/or in meaningful ways.

Some words for applying are:


Apply a principle Create Debate Design/make Evaluate Find a better solution Forecast Generalise Hypothesise Improve If/then Imagine Invent Judge Predict Prepare a case Problem solving Prove/disprove Rearrange Rewrite Speculate Synthesise What if Revised Blooms Definitions

Creating Evaluating Analysing

2. Processing
Requires you to manipulate the information to try to make connections to prior knowledge and previous experience and/or develop concepts; to make sense of things; to do something with the gathered information.

Some words for processing are:


Classify Compare Contrast Design a questionnaire Distinguish Dissect Explain (why) Graphic organisers Group Infer Interpret Make a model, diorama, scrapbook, puzzle Order Prioritise Reason Solve Sort Summarise

Analysing Applying Understanding

1. Gathering
Requires you to find the facts, to acquire knowledge and to understand the material

Some words for gathering are:


Complete Count Define Describe Identify Match Name Observe Recall Recite Scan Select Tell List Locate Collect Record Note taking Bibliographies

Understanding Remembering

Question stems to be laminated, cut up and placed in a bag/container for the student Q Matrix lucky dip.

What is ?

What can ?

When/Where is? Which is ?

When/Where can? Which can ?

Who is ?

Who can ?

Why is?

Why can ?

How is ?

How can ?

What did ?

What would?

When/Where did?

When/Where would?

Which did ?

Which would ?

Who did ?

Who would ?

Why did ?

Why would ?

How did ? What can ? When/Where can?

How would ? What will ? When/Where will?

Which can ?

Which will ?

Who can ?

Who will ?

Why can ?

Why will ?

How can ?

How will ?

What might ?

Who might ?

When/Where might?

Why might ?

How might ?

Which might ?