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Computer Communication Networks

Week 1 Dr. Farah Haroon IIEE, PCSIR, Karachi


Rationale: To lay the foundation of computer communication networks. Emphasis would be given to lower most four layers of open system interconnection (OSI) model. The theoretical work would be complemented with related Lab assignments. Text Book: Data and Computer Communications by William Stallings Reference Book: Computer Communication and Networks by Tenamn Baum Credit Hrs: 3 + 1 Class Timings: Tuesday: 10:10 to 11:50 (Theory) Wednesday : 11:00 to 11:50 (Theory) 8:30 to 11:00 (Practical)

The Challenges of Computer Networking

represent all types of information as bits. move the bits

In large quantities, everywhere, cheaply, Securely, with quality of service, .

Todays Networks are complex!

hosts routers links of various media applications protocols hardware, software

Tomorrows will be even more!

Internet Physical Infrastructure

Residential access
Cable Fiber DSL Wireless


Backbone ISP


The Internet is a network of

Campus access, e.g.,

Ethernet Wireless

networks Each individually administrated network is called an Autonomous System (AS)

Early Communication Systems

point-to-point directly use if


connect together the users wishing to communicate dedicated communication circuit distance between users increases beyond the length of the cable, the connection is formed by a number of sections connected end-to-end in series.

Data Networks

of interconnected nodes exchange information of the transmission circuits= "switching".

sharing many

links allow more than one path between every 2 nodes. must select an appropriate path for each required connection.


Computer Network
Multiple computers are connected together to share information and other resources. Examples of Computer Network Usage
sending an email message to a remote computer using the SMTP protocol browsing documents residing on a remote computer using the HTTP protocol downloading or uploading files to a remote computer using the FTP protocol


A protocol is a set of rules and formats that govern the communication between communicating peers. The key elements of a protocol are Syntax: data format and signal level. Semantics: control information for coordination and error handling. Timing: speed matching and sequencing. Necessary for any function that requires cooperation between peers. A protocol provides a service. Peer entities use a protocol to provide a service to a higher-level peer entity.

Protocol Layers
A network


that provides many services needs many


services are independent, But others depend on each other. execution. may use another protocol as a step in its

A Protocol This

form of dependency is called layering. a protocols defines an


Interface to higher layers Interface to peer

Format and order of messages Actions taken on receipt of a message

Advantages of Layering

structure allows identification & relationship of complex systems pieces layered reference model for discussion


eases maintenance & updating of

system change of implementation of layers service transparent to rest of system

Open protocols and systems

A set

of protocols is open if

protocol details are publicly available changes are managed by an organization whose membership and transactions are open to the public
A system

that implements open protocols is called an open system Organization for Standards (ISO) prescribes a standard to connect open systems
open system interconnect (OSI)


The seven Layers

There are only 5 !!
Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical End system Network Data Link Physical Intermediate system Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical End system



how to transmit bits Data link: how to transmit frames Network: how to route packets Transport: how to send packets end2end with flow and congestion control Session: how to tie flows together Presentation: byte ordering, security Application: everything else

The seven Layers - protocol stack


Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical



data data

Application Presentation Session Transport

data data NH data

Network Data Link Physical

Network Data Link Physical

DH+data+DT bits


and presentation layers are not so important, and are often ignored

Source Application Identical message Transport Identical message Network Identical message Data-Link

Destination Application





OSI Layers and Locations

Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Host Switch Router Host

Types of Computer Networks

According to the network access policy
Organizations Access This

having many computers usually connect them in the form of private networks. to these network is restricted to authorized computers only. allows computers from within the organization to exchange info, but keeps the info private and protected from outsiders. equipment on a private network is generally for the exclusive use of that organization



All networks that are not private, are public. Example Internet. Communication equipment used in these networks is generally being used by users belonging to several (possibly thousands of) organizations as well as those belonging to no organization. Virtual Private Network

From the users point-of-view, a VPN looks like a secure, private network. use public telecom infrastructure, maintaining privacy through security procedures.



VPNs provide secure network connections for distance computers without using dedicated, private channels to supply the connection. Key benefit of VPNs over conventional PNs: Lower cost.

According to the distance b/w nodes

LAN: (Local Area Network)

A network of computers located in the same building or a handful of nearby buildings. For example Computer network of a University campus.


WAN: (Wide Area Networks)

A network May

in which computers are separated by great distances, typically across cities or even continents consist of several interconnected LANs


The network connecting the ATM of a bank located in various cities. A network connecting the local and oversea offices of a SW house. Internet