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# Fuzzy Set

OUTLINE
Fuzzy Sets
Fuzzy Logic
Fuzzy System
Sets and Fuzzy Sets
Classical sets either an element belongs to the
set or it does not. For example, for the set of
integers, either an integer is even or it is not (it is
odd).
However, either you are in the USA or you are not.
What about flying into USA, what happens as
you are crossing?
Another example is for black and white
photographs, one cannot say either a pixel is
white or it is black. However, when you digitize
a b/w figure, you turn all the b/w and gray scales
into 256 discrete tones.
Membership function of crisp logic
80F Temperature
HOT
1
If temperature >= 80F, it is hot (1 or true);
If temperature < 80F, it is not hot (0 or false).
0
True
False
Natural Language
Consider:
Joe is tall -- what is tall?
Joe is very tall -- what does this differ from tall?

Natural language (like most other activities in
life and indeed the universe) is not easily
translated into the absolute terms of 0 and 1.
false
true
Fuzzy Logic
An approach to uncertainty that combines
real values [01] and logic operations

Fuzzy logic is based on the ideas of fuzzy set
theory and fuzzy set membership often found
in natural (e.g., spoken) language.
Example: Young
Example:
Ann is 28, 0.8 in set Young
Bob is 35, 0.1 in set Young
Charlie is 23, 1.0 in set Young

Unlike statistics and probabilities, the degree
is not describing probabilities that the item is
in the set, but instead describes to what
extent the item is the set.
Sets and Fuzzy Sets
Classical sets are also called crisp (sets).
Lists: A = {apples, oranges, cherries, mangoes}
A = {a
1
,a
2
,a
3
}
A = {2, 4, 6, 8, }
Formulas: A = {x | x is an even natural number}
A = {x | x = 2n, n is a natural number}
Membership or characteristic function

e
e
= X
A x
A x
x
A
if 0
if 1
) (
Sets and Fuzzy Sets
between black and white. A fuzzy set has a
graphical description that expresses how the
transition from one to another takes place. This
graphical description is called a membership
function.

Fuzzy Sets
Definition (Membership function of fuzzy
set) In fuzzy sets, each elements is mapped
to [0,1] by membership function.

A
: X [0, 1]
where [0,1] means real numbers between 0
and 1 (including 0,1).
Consequently, fuzzy set is vague boundary
set comparing with crisp set.

Fuzzy Sets
Example 1. Consider fuzzy set two or so. In this
instance, universal set X are the positive real numbers.
X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ....}
Membership function for A =two or so in this universal
set X is given as follows:

Usually, if elements are discrete as the above, it is
possible to have membership degree or grade as
A = {(2, 1.0), (3, 0.5)} or A = 1.0/2 + 0.5/3

Example 1. Consider fuzzy set two or so. In this
instance, universal set X are the positive real numbers.
X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ....}
Membership function for A =two or so in this universal
set X is given as follows:

Usually, if elements are discrete as the above, it is
possible to have membership degree or grade as
A = {(2, 1.0), (3, 0.5)} or A = 1.0/2 + 0.5/3

Fuzzy Sets
be sure to notice that the symbol + implies not addition
but union. More generally, we use
or
Suppose elements are continuous, then the set can be
represented as follows:
For the discrimination of fuzzy set with crisp set, the
symbol is frequently used. However in this lecture,
notation A or is used for it.
Example of Fuzzy Sets
Example 1
Consider statement "Jenny is young".
The term "young" is vague. To represent the meaning of
"vague" exactly, it would be necessary to define its
membership function.
For example, if we follow the definition of "young" . Ten
year-old boy may well be young. So the possibility for the
"age ten to join the fuzzy set of "young is 1. Also that of
"age twenty seven" is 0.9. But we might not say young to
a person who is over sixty and the possibility of this case
is 0.
Example of Fuzzy Sets
Example 1
Now we can manipulate our last sentence to "Jenny is
very young".
If we define fuzzy set as such, only the person who is
under forty years old can be included in the set of "very
young". Now the possibility of twenty-seven year old man
to be included in this set is 0.5.
That is, if we denote A= "young" and B="very young",
Example of Fuzzy Sets
Example 1
Fuzzy sets representing young and very young
Example of Fuzzy Sets
Example 2
Lets define a fuzzy set A ={real number near 0}. The
boundary for set real number near 0 is pretty
ambiguous. The possibility of real number x to be a
member of prescribed set can be defined by the
following membership function.
We can also write the fuzzy set with the function.
Example of Fuzzy Sets
Example 2
The membership degree of 1 is :
the possibility of 2 is 0.2 and that of 3 is 0.1.
Membership function of fuzzy
set real number near 0
Example of Fuzzy Sets
Example 3
Membership function of fuzzy set real number near 0
the possibility of 1 is 0.25, that of 2 is 0.04 and of 3 is
0.01.
By modifying the above function, it is able to denote
membership function of fuzzy set A = {real number near
a} as,
Example of Fuzzy Sets
Example 4
Example of Fuzzy Sets
Example 5
Example of Fuzzy Sets
Example 6
Relation between Universal Set and
Fuzzy Set
If there are a universal set and a crisp set, we consider
the set as a subset of the universal set. In the same way,
we regard a fuzzy set A as a subset of universal set X.
Example Let X = {a, b, c} be a universal set.
A1 = {(a, 0.5), (b, 1.0), (c, 0.5)} and
A2 = {(a, 1.0), (b, 1.0), (c, 0.5)}
would be subsets of X.
A1 _ X , A2 _ X.
The collection of these subsets of X (including fuzzy set)
is called power set P(X).
Expanding Concepts of Fuzzy Set
Example 7. Consider a universal set X which is defined on the age
domain.
X = {5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, 85}
Define fuzzy sets such as infant, young, adult and senior in X.
The possibilities of each element of x to be in those four fuzzy sets
are in Table
Expanding Concepts of Fuzzy Set
Support of A : a set that is made up of elements
contained in A
The support of fuzzy set young is :
Support(young) = {15, 25, 35, 45, 55}

The maximum value of the membership is called height.
Suppose this height of some fuzzy sets is 1, this fuzzy
set is normalized. The sets young, adult and senior
are normalized.
-Cut Set
The -cut set A

## is made up of members whose

membership is not less than .
This -cut set is a crisp set
Example 8 :
The -cut set is derived from fuzzy set young by giving
0.2 to
Young
0.2
= {15, 25, 35, 45}
this means the age that we can say youth with
possibility not less than 0.2.
-Cut Set
If =0.4, Young
0.4
= {25, 35, 45}
If =0.8, Young
0.8
= {25, 35}.
When two cut sets A

and A

exist and if s , then
A

_ A

The relation Young
0.2
_Young
0.8
, for example, holds.
-Cut Set
Level set : the value which explicitly shows the value
of the membership function, is in the range of [0,1]. The
level set is obtained by the . That is,
The level set of the above fuzzy set young is,
Convex Fuzzy Set
Assuming universal set X is defined in n dimensional
Euclidean Vector space R
n
. If all the - cut sets are
convex, the fuzzy set with these - cut sets is convex.
If a relation below is holds, the fuzzy set A is convex.
The level set of the above fuzzy set young is,
Convex Fuzzy Set
Convex Fuzzy Set
Fuzzy Number
Real number implies a set containing whole real numbers
and Positive number implies a set holding numbers
excluding negative numbers.
Positive number less than equal to 10 (including 0) suggests
us a set having numbers from 0 to 10. So
A = positive number less than equal to 10 (including 0) = {x |
0 s x s 10, xe R }
or
since the crisp boundary is involved, the outcome of
membership function is 1 or 0.
Fuzzy Number
If a fuzzy set is convex and normalized, and its
membership function is defined in R and piecewise
continuous, it is called as fuzzy number.
Fuzzy number (fuzzy set) represents a real number
interval whose boundary is fuzzy
The Magnitude of Fuzzy Set
To show the magnitude of fuzzy set, there are three
ways of measuring the cardinality of fuzzy set
1. Summing up the membership degrees. It is scalar
cardinality
2. Comparing the magnitude of fuzzy set A with that of
universal set X. It is relative cardinality
3. Expresses the cardinality as fuzzy set
The Magnitude of Fuzzy Set
The magnitude of fuzzy set senior (in the previous
example) :
|senior| = 0.1 + 0.2 + 0.6 + 1 + 1 = 2.9
Scalar cardinality
The Magnitude of Fuzzy Set
In the case of senior,
|senior| = 2.9, |X| = 9
||senior|| = 2.9/9 = 0.32
Relative cardinality
The Magnitude of Fuzzy Set
Lets try to get -cut set (crisp set) A

, of A.
The number of elements is |A

## |. In other words, the possibility

for number of elements in A to be | A

| is . Then the
membership degree of fuzzy cardinality |A| is defined as,
Expresses the cardinality as fuzzy set
where A

## is a -cut set and

A
is a level set
The Magnitude of Fuzzy Set
Example 9 :
If we cut fuzzy set senior at =0.1, there are 5 elements in
the -cut set. senior
0.1
= {45, 55, 65, 75, 85}, |senio
r0.1
| = 5.
In the same manner, there are 4 elements at =0.2, there are
3 at =0.6, there are 2 at =1. Therefore the fuzzy cardinality
of senior is
|senior| = {(5, 0.1), (4, 0.2), (3, 0.6), (2,1)}
Expresses the cardinality as fuzzy set
Subset of fuzzy set
Suppose there are two fuzzy sets A and B. When their
degrees of membership are same, we say A and B are
equivalent. That is,
If the following relation is satisfied in the fuzzy set A and B, A
is a subset of B
This relation is expressed as A _ B (A is a subset of B)
Subset of fuzzy set
Suppose there are two fuzzy sets A and B. When their
degrees of membership are same, we say A and B are
equivalent. That is,
If the next relation holds, A is a proper subset of B.
Subset of fuzzy set
Thanks for your
attention!