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OUTLINE

Fuzzy Sets

Fuzzy Logic

Fuzzy System

Sets and Fuzzy Sets

Classical sets either an element belongs to the

set or it does not. For example, for the set of

integers, either an integer is even or it is not (it is

odd).

However, either you are in the USA or you are not.

What about flying into USA, what happens as

you are crossing?

Another example is for black and white

photographs, one cannot say either a pixel is

white or it is black. However, when you digitize

a b/w figure, you turn all the b/w and gray scales

into 256 discrete tones.

Membership function of crisp logic

80F Temperature

HOT

1

If temperature >= 80F, it is hot (1 or true);

If temperature < 80F, it is not hot (0 or false).

0

True

False

Natural Language

Consider:

Joe is tall -- what is tall?

Joe is very tall -- what does this differ from tall?

Natural language (like most other activities in

life and indeed the universe) is not easily

translated into the absolute terms of 0 and 1.

false

true

Fuzzy Logic

An approach to uncertainty that combines

real values [01] and logic operations

Fuzzy logic is based on the ideas of fuzzy set

theory and fuzzy set membership often found

in natural (e.g., spoken) language.

Example: Young

Example:

Ann is 28, 0.8 in set Young

Bob is 35, 0.1 in set Young

Charlie is 23, 1.0 in set Young

Unlike statistics and probabilities, the degree

is not describing probabilities that the item is

in the set, but instead describes to what

extent the item is the set.

Sets and Fuzzy Sets

Classical sets are also called crisp (sets).

Lists: A = {apples, oranges, cherries, mangoes}

A = {a

1

,a

2

,a

3

}

A = {2, 4, 6, 8, }

Formulas: A = {x | x is an even natural number}

A = {x | x = 2n, n is a natural number}

Membership or characteristic function

e

e

= X

A x

A x

x

A

if 0

if 1

) (

Sets and Fuzzy Sets

Fuzzy sets admits gradation such as all tones

between black and white. A fuzzy set has a

graphical description that expresses how the

transition from one to another takes place. This

graphical description is called a membership

function.

Fuzzy Sets

Definition (Membership function of fuzzy

set) In fuzzy sets, each elements is mapped

to [0,1] by membership function.

A

: X [0, 1]

where [0,1] means real numbers between 0

and 1 (including 0,1).

Consequently, fuzzy set is vague boundary

set comparing with crisp set.

Fuzzy Sets

Example 1. Consider fuzzy set two or so. In this

instance, universal set X are the positive real numbers.

X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ....}

Membership function for A =two or so in this universal

set X is given as follows:

Usually, if elements are discrete as the above, it is

possible to have membership degree or grade as

A = {(2, 1.0), (3, 0.5)} or A = 1.0/2 + 0.5/3

Example 1. Consider fuzzy set two or so. In this

instance, universal set X are the positive real numbers.

X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ....}

Membership function for A =two or so in this universal

set X is given as follows:

Usually, if elements are discrete as the above, it is

possible to have membership degree or grade as

A = {(2, 1.0), (3, 0.5)} or A = 1.0/2 + 0.5/3

Fuzzy Sets

be sure to notice that the symbol + implies not addition

but union. More generally, we use

or

Suppose elements are continuous, then the set can be

represented as follows:

For the discrimination of fuzzy set with crisp set, the

symbol is frequently used. However in this lecture,

notation A or is used for it.

Example of Fuzzy Sets

Example 1

Consider statement "Jenny is young".

The term "young" is vague. To represent the meaning of

"vague" exactly, it would be necessary to define its

membership function.

For example, if we follow the definition of "young" . Ten

year-old boy may well be young. So the possibility for the

"age ten to join the fuzzy set of "young is 1. Also that of

"age twenty seven" is 0.9. But we might not say young to

a person who is over sixty and the possibility of this case

is 0.

Example of Fuzzy Sets

Example 1

Now we can manipulate our last sentence to "Jenny is

very young".

If we define fuzzy set as such, only the person who is

under forty years old can be included in the set of "very

young". Now the possibility of twenty-seven year old man

to be included in this set is 0.5.

That is, if we denote A= "young" and B="very young",

Example of Fuzzy Sets

Example 1

Fuzzy sets representing young and very young

Example of Fuzzy Sets

Example 2

Lets define a fuzzy set A ={real number near 0}. The

boundary for set real number near 0 is pretty

ambiguous. The possibility of real number x to be a

member of prescribed set can be defined by the

following membership function.

We can also write the fuzzy set with the function.

Example of Fuzzy Sets

Example 2

The membership degree of 1 is :

the possibility of 2 is 0.2 and that of 3 is 0.1.

Membership function of fuzzy

set real number near 0

Example of Fuzzy Sets

Example 3

Membership function of fuzzy set real number near 0

the possibility of 1 is 0.25, that of 2 is 0.04 and of 3 is

0.01.

By modifying the above function, it is able to denote

membership function of fuzzy set A = {real number near

a} as,

Example of Fuzzy Sets

Example 4

Example of Fuzzy Sets

Example 5

Example of Fuzzy Sets

Example 6

Relation between Universal Set and

Fuzzy Set

If there are a universal set and a crisp set, we consider

the set as a subset of the universal set. In the same way,

we regard a fuzzy set A as a subset of universal set X.

Example Let X = {a, b, c} be a universal set.

A1 = {(a, 0.5), (b, 1.0), (c, 0.5)} and

A2 = {(a, 1.0), (b, 1.0), (c, 0.5)}

would be subsets of X.

A1 _ X , A2 _ X.

The collection of these subsets of X (including fuzzy set)

is called power set P(X).

Expanding Concepts of Fuzzy Set

Example 7. Consider a universal set X which is defined on the age

domain.

X = {5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, 85}

Define fuzzy sets such as infant, young, adult and senior in X.

The possibilities of each element of x to be in those four fuzzy sets

are in Table

Expanding Concepts of Fuzzy Set

Support of A : a set that is made up of elements

contained in A

The support of fuzzy set young is :

Support(young) = {15, 25, 35, 45, 55}

The maximum value of the membership is called height.

Suppose this height of some fuzzy sets is 1, this fuzzy

set is normalized. The sets young, adult and senior

are normalized.

-Cut Set

The -cut set A

membership is not less than .

This -cut set is a crisp set

Example 8 :

The -cut set is derived from fuzzy set young by giving

0.2 to

Young

0.2

= {15, 25, 35, 45}

this means the age that we can say youth with

possibility not less than 0.2.

-Cut Set

If =0.4, Young

0.4

= {25, 35, 45}

If =0.8, Young

0.8

= {25, 35}.

When two cut sets A

and A

exist and if s , then

A

_ A

The relation Young

0.2

_Young

0.8

, for example, holds.

-Cut Set

Level set : the value which explicitly shows the value

of the membership function, is in the range of [0,1]. The

level set is obtained by the . That is,

The level set of the above fuzzy set young is,

Convex Fuzzy Set

Assuming universal set X is defined in n dimensional

Euclidean Vector space R

n

. If all the - cut sets are

convex, the fuzzy set with these - cut sets is convex.

If a relation below is holds, the fuzzy set A is convex.

The level set of the above fuzzy set young is,

Convex Fuzzy Set

Convex Fuzzy Set

Fuzzy Number

Real number implies a set containing whole real numbers

and Positive number implies a set holding numbers

excluding negative numbers.

Positive number less than equal to 10 (including 0) suggests

us a set having numbers from 0 to 10. So

A = positive number less than equal to 10 (including 0) = {x |

0 s x s 10, xe R }

or

since the crisp boundary is involved, the outcome of

membership function is 1 or 0.

Fuzzy Number

If a fuzzy set is convex and normalized, and its

membership function is defined in R and piecewise

continuous, it is called as fuzzy number.

Fuzzy number (fuzzy set) represents a real number

interval whose boundary is fuzzy

The Magnitude of Fuzzy Set

To show the magnitude of fuzzy set, there are three

ways of measuring the cardinality of fuzzy set

1. Summing up the membership degrees. It is scalar

cardinality

2. Comparing the magnitude of fuzzy set A with that of

universal set X. It is relative cardinality

3. Expresses the cardinality as fuzzy set

The Magnitude of Fuzzy Set

The magnitude of fuzzy set senior (in the previous

example) :

|senior| = 0.1 + 0.2 + 0.6 + 1 + 1 = 2.9

Scalar cardinality

The Magnitude of Fuzzy Set

In the case of senior,

|senior| = 2.9, |X| = 9

||senior|| = 2.9/9 = 0.32

Relative cardinality

The Magnitude of Fuzzy Set

Lets try to get -cut set (crisp set) A

, of A.

The number of elements is |A

for number of elements in A to be | A

| is . Then the

membership degree of fuzzy cardinality |A| is defined as,

Expresses the cardinality as fuzzy set

where A

A

is a level set

The Magnitude of Fuzzy Set

Example 9 :

If we cut fuzzy set senior at =0.1, there are 5 elements in

the -cut set. senior

0.1

= {45, 55, 65, 75, 85}, |senio

r0.1

| = 5.

In the same manner, there are 4 elements at =0.2, there are

3 at =0.6, there are 2 at =1. Therefore the fuzzy cardinality

of senior is

|senior| = {(5, 0.1), (4, 0.2), (3, 0.6), (2,1)}

Expresses the cardinality as fuzzy set

Subset of fuzzy set

Suppose there are two fuzzy sets A and B. When their

degrees of membership are same, we say A and B are

equivalent. That is,

If the following relation is satisfied in the fuzzy set A and B, A

is a subset of B

This relation is expressed as A _ B (A is a subset of B)

Subset of fuzzy set

Suppose there are two fuzzy sets A and B. When their

degrees of membership are same, we say A and B are

equivalent. That is,

If the next relation holds, A is a proper subset of B.

Subset of fuzzy set

Thanks for your

attention!

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