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Bab 4

Strategi Tingkat Bisnis

Michael A. Hitt R. Duane Ireland Robert E. Hoskisson


2000 South-Western College Publishing

Ch4-1

Strategic Inputs

Chapter 2 External Environment Strategic Intent Chapter 3 Internal Environment Strategic Mission

The Strategic Management Process


Strategy Implementation
Chapter 10 Corporate Governance
Chapter 12 Strategic Leadership Chapter 11 Structure & Control Chapter 13
Entrepreneurship

Strategy Formulation
Chapter 4 Business-Level Strategy Chapter 5 Competitive Dynamics Chapter 8 International Strategy Chapter 6 Corporate-Level Strategy Chapter 9 Cooperative Strategies

Strategic Actions

Chapter 7 Acquisitions & Restructuring

& Innovation

Outcomes

Strategic

Feedback

Strategic Competitiveness Above Average Returns


Ch4-2

Chapter 2

Lingkungan Eksternal Keunggulan Bersaing Berkelanjutan


Chapter 3

Lingkungan Internal

Bab 4 Strategi Tingkat Bisnis


Ch4-3

Analisis Lingkungan Eksternal

Analisis Pelanggan: Siapa Pelanggan (segmentasi) Kebutuhan /Keinginan Pelanggan

Analisis Lingkungan Internal

Analisis Kompetensi Inti

Ch4-4

Dasar Bagi Segmentasi Pelanggan


Pasar Konsumen
1. 2. 3. Faktor Demografi (umur,pendapatan,seks ,dll) Faktor Sosial ekonomi (kelas sosial, tingkatan dalam siklus keluarga) Faktor Geografis (budaya, perbedaan daerah atau negara) Faktor psikologis (Gaya hidup, kepribadian,) Pola konsumsi (pemakai berat, sedang dan ringan) Faktor persepsi (segmentasi manfaat, peta persepsi) Pola loyalitas merek
Ch4-5

4. 5. 6.
7.

Dasar Bagi Segmentasi Pelanggan


Pasar Industri
1. Segmen pemakai akhir (identifikasi oleh kode SIC )

2. Segmen produk (didasarkan pada perbedaan teknologi atau ekonomi produksi)


3. Segmen geografi (ditentukan oleh batas-batas antar negara atau oleh perbedaan daerah di dalamnya) 4. Segmen faktor pembelian umum (perbedaan produk/pasar dan segmen geografis)

5. Segmen ukuran pelanggan

Ch4-6

Core Competency

Sumber Daya dan Kapabilitas yang telah ditentukan menjadi sumber Keunggulan Bersaing bagi suatu perusahaan atas pesaingnya.

Strategi

Suatu rangkaian kegiatan yang terintegrasi dan terkoordinasi yang dilakukan untuk menggunakan kompetensi inti dan mendapatkan suatu keunggulan bersaing.

Strategi Tingkat Bisnis

Kegiatan yang dilakukan untuk memberikan nilai bagi pelanggan dan mendapatkan suatu keunggulan bersaing dengan menggunakan kompetensi inti dalam pasar produk tertentu.
Ch4-7

Strategi GenerikTingkat Bisnis


Sumber Keunggulan Bersaing
Biaya Keunikan

Pasar Target Luas

Kepemimpi Cost nan Biaya Leadership

Differensiasi

Keluasan Ruang lingkup persaingan

Pasar Target Sempit

Fokus Biaya Rendah

Fokus Differensiasi
Ch4-8

Strategi Tingkat Bisnis : Kepemimpinan Biaya

Kriteria Kunci:
Produk-produk relatif distandardisasi Penampilan diterima oleh kebanyakan pelanggan Harga bersaing terendah

Ch4-9

Strategi Tingkat Bisnis: Kepemimpinan Biaya


Upaya berlanjut mengurangi biaya melalui,a.l : Membangun fasilitas dengan skala efisien Kontrol ketat terhadap biaya produksi dan overhead Meminimumkan biaya penjualan,R&D,dan servis Menetapkan susunan manufacturing facilities Memonitor biaya aktivitas yang ditawarkan pihak luar Penyederhanaan proses
Ch4-10

Aktivitas Pencipta Nilai Berlaku pada Strategi Tingkat Bisnis : Kepemimpinan Biaya
Infrastruktur Perusahaan
Aktivitas Penunjang

Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia Pengembangan Teknologi

Pembelian
Pemasaran & Penjualan Operational

Logistik Kedalam

Aktivitas Primer

Logistik Keluar

Servis

Ch4-11

Aktivitas Pencipta Nilai Berlaku Pada Strategi Tingkat Bisnis: Kepemimpinan Biaya
Support Activities
Perencanaan sederhana menghemat biaya perencanaan Kebijakan konsisten mengurangi biaya turnover MIS yang efisien Teknologi pabrik mudah pakai

Firm Infrastructure

Lapisan manajemen yng sederhana mengurangi biaya overhead

Training Programs Human ResourceEffective Management to Improve Worker Efficiency and Effectiveness Investasi dalam teknologi yang Technological Development mengurangi biaya proses pabrik Proses evaluasi yang sering untuk Procurement memonitor kinerja suplier

Sistem dan prosedur menghasilkan produk murah dalam membeli bahan baku

Operations

Outbound Logistics

Ditempatkan dekat Kebijakan dengan suplier pemilihan teknologi pabrik Belajar organisasional

Pemilihan sarana transportasi dengan biaya rendah Besaran pesanan yang efisien Saling hubungan dg unit sekitarnya

Harga produk untuk meningkatkan volume penjualan Periklanan skope nasional

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Logistics

Sistem yang sangat Skala pabrik efisien untuk yang efisien menghubungkan untuk produk suplier meminimisir dengan proses biaya pabrik Waktu pembelian produksi assets perusahaan

Jadwal distribusi yang menghemat biaya

Tenaga penjual yang sedikit dan trampil

Pemasangan produk efektif untuk mengurangi frekwensi dan intensitaspemanggil an ulang

Service

Ch4-12

Value Creating Activities Common to a Logistik Cost Leadership Business Level Strategy Kedalam
Support Activities
Relatively Few Simplified Planning Management Practices to Reduce Sistem sangat efisien Layers untuk to Reduce Overhead Planning Costs mengkaitkan produk suplier dengan proses produksi Effective Training Programs perusahaan Consistent Policies to to Improve Worker Reduce Turnover Costs Efficiency and Effectiveness Cost Effective MIS Systems

Firm Infrastructure

Human Resource Management Technological Development


Efficient Plant Delivery Schedule Scale to Minimize that Reduces Manufacturing Costs Costs Selection of Low Timing of Asset Cost Transport Purchases Carriers Investments in Technology in order to Reduce Costs Associated with Manufacturing Processes

Easy-to-Use Manufacturing Technologies

Systems and Procedures to find the Lowest Cost Products to Purchase Raw Materials

Frequent Evaluation Processes to Procurement Monitor Suppliers Performances Lokasi dekat Trained Sales Force

Operations

Outbound Logistics

Located in Close Proximity with Suppliers

Policy Choice of Efficient Order Plant Technology Sizes Organizational Learning

National Scale Advertising

Interrelationships with Sister Units

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Inbound Logistics Logistics

Service

Highly Efficient Systems to Link Suppliers Products with the Firms Production Processes

dengan suplier Small, Highly

Effective Product Installations to Reduce Frequency and Severity Products Priced to of Recalls Generate Sales Volume

Ch4-13

Value Creating Activities Common to a Operational Cost Leadership Business Level Strategy
Cost Effective MIS Systems

Firm Infrastructure

Simplified Planning Practices to Reduce Planning Costs

Support Activities

Consistent Policies to Reduce Turnover Costs

Improve Worker Human Resourceto Management Efficiency and Waktu Effectiveness

mengurangi biaya Effective Training Programs pabrik


Investments in Technology in order to Reduce Costs Associated with Manufacturing Processes

Relatively Few Managementefisien Layers tountuk Reduce Overhead

Skala pabrik yang

Easy-to-Use Manufacturing Technologies

Technological Development

pembelian assets

Operations

Inbound Logistics

Costs

Force

Selection of Low Cost Transport Carriers

Reduce Frequency and Severity Products Priced to of Recalls Generate Sales Volume
National Scale Advertising

Located in Close Proximity with Suppliers

Policy Choice of Efficient Order Plant Technology Sizes Organizational Learning

Interrelationships with Sister Units

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales

Suppliers Manufacturing Products with the Costs Firms Production Timing of Asset Processes Purchases

Outbound Logistics

Service

Kebijakan Systems and Procedures to find the Frequent Evaluation Processes to pemilihan teknologi Lowest Cost Products to Purchase Procurement Monitor Suppliers Performances pabrik Raw Materials Highly Efficient Efficient Plant Delivery Schedule Belajar Small, Highly Effective Product Systems to Link Scale to Minimize that Reduces Trained Sales Installations to organisasional

Ch4-14

Value Creating Activities Common to a Logistik Cost Leadership Business Level Strategy Keluar
Cost Effective MIS Systems

Firm Infrastructure

Simplified Planning Practices to Reduce Planning Costs

Relatively Few Management Layers to Reduce Overhead

Support Activities

Consistent Policies to Reduce Turnover Costs

Human Resource ManagementPemilihan alat


Investments in Technology in order to Reduce Costs Associated with Manufacturing Processes

Effective Training Programs to Improve Worker Efficiency and Effectiveness

Jadwak kirim mengurangi biaya

Operations

Outbound Outbound Logistics Logistics

Products with the Costs Firms Production Timing of Asset Processes Purchases Located in Close Proximity with Suppliers

Selection of Low Cost Transport Carriers

and Severity Products Priced to of Recalls Generate Sales Volume National Scale Advertising

Policy Choice of Efficient Order Plant Technology Sizes Organizational Learning

Interrelationships with Sister Units

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Logistics

Service

angkut yg murah Technological Development Besaran order Systems and Procedures to find the yg efisien Frequent Evaluation Processes to Lowest Cost Products to Purchase Procurement Monitor Suppliers Performances Raw Materials Antarhubungan Highly Efficient Efficient Plant Delivery Schedule Small, Highly Effective Product dengan unit-unit Systems to Link Scale to Minimize that Reduces Trained Sales Installations to Suppliers Manufacturing Costs Force Reduce Frequency sekitarnya
Easy-to-Use Manufacturing Technologies

Ch4-15

Value Creating Activities Common to a Pemasaran Cost Leadership Business Level & Strategy Penjualan
Cost Effective MIS Systems

Firm Infrastructure

Simplified Planning Practices to Reduce Planning Costs

Relatively Few Management Layers to Reduce Overhead

Support Activities

Tenaga penjual sedikit dan trampil Harga produk meningkatkan volume penjualan Periklanan yang luas

Consistent Policies to Reduce Turnover Costs

Human Resource Management Technological Development


Efficient Plant Delivery Schedule Scale to Minimize that Reduces Manufacturing Costs Costs Selection of Low Timing of Asset Cost Transport Purchases Carriers Small, Highly Trained Sales Force Investments in Technology in order to Reduce Costs Associated with Manufacturing Processes

Effective Training Programs to Improve Worker Efficiency and Effectiveness

Easy-to-Use Manufacturing Technologies

Systems and Procedures to find the Lowest Cost Products to Purchase Raw Materials

Frequent Evaluation Processes to Procurement Monitor Suppliers Performances

Operations

Outbound Logistics

Located in Close Proximity with Suppliers

Policy Choice of Efficient Order Plant Technology Sizes Organizational Learning

National Scale Advertising

Interrelationships with Sister Units

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales & Sales

Inbound Logistics

Service

Highly Efficient Systems to Link Suppliers Products with the Firms Production Processes

Effective Product Installations to Reduce Frequency and Severity Products Priced to of Recalls Generate Sales Volume

Ch4-16

Value Creating Activities Common to a Cost Leadership Business Level Strategy


Cost Effective MIS Systems

Pemasangan produk yang efektif Effective Training Programs Consistent Policies to Improve Worker Human Resourceto Management untuk mengurang Reduce Turnover Costs Efficiency and Effectiveness panggilan Easy-to-Use Manufacturing Investments in Technology in order kembali Technologies to Reduce Costs Associated with Technological Development
Manufacturing Processes Systems and Procedures to find the Lowest Cost Products to Purchase Raw Materials Frequent Evaluation Processes to Procurement Monitor Suppliers Performances

Firm Infrastructure

Simplified Planning Practices to Reduce Planning Costs

Relatively Few Management Layers to Reduce Overhead

Servis

Support Activities

Operations

Outbound Logistics

Located in Close Proximity with Suppliers

Policy Choice of Efficient Order Plant Technology Sizes Organizational Learning

National Scale Advertising

Interrelationships with Sister Units

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Logistics

Service Service

Highly Efficient Systems to Link Suppliers Products with the Firms Production Processes

Efficient Plant Delivery Schedule Scale to Minimize that Reduces Manufacturing Costs Costs Selection of Low Timing of Asset Cost Transport Purchases Carriers

Small, Highly Trained Sales Force

Effective Product Installations to Reduce Frequency and Severity Products Priced to of Recalls Generate Sales Volume

Ch4-17

Value Creating Activities Common to a Cost Leadership Business Level Strategy


Cost Effective MIS Systems

Firm Infrastructure

Simplified Planning Practices to Reduce Planning Costs

Relatively Few Management Layers to Reduce Overhead

Support Activities

Consistent Policies to Reduce Turnover Costs

Human Resource Management Technological Development


Efficient Plant Delivery Schedule Scale to Minimize that Reduces Manufacturing Costs Costs Selection of Low Timing of Asset Cost Transport Purchases Carriers Small, Highly Trained Sales Force Investments in Technology in order to Reduce Costs Associated with Manufacturing Processes

Effective Training Programs to Improve Worker Efficiency and Effectiveness

Easy-to-Use Manufacturing Technologies

Systems and Procedures to find the Lowest Cost Products to Purchase Raw Materials

Frequent Evaluation Processes to Procurement Procurement Monitor Suppliers Performances Effective Product Installations to Reduce Frequency and Severity Products Priced to of Recalls Generate Sales Volume

Operations

Outbound Logistics

Pembelian
Interrelationships with Sister Units

Sistem dan prosedur Located in Close Policy Choice of Efficient Order mendapatkan produk termurah Proximity with Plant Technology Sizes Suppliers dalam pembelian bahan baku
Organizational Learning

Proses Evaluasi yang sering National Scale untuk memonitor perilaku Advertising pemasok
Ch4-18

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Logistics

Service

Highly Efficient Systems to Link Suppliers Products with the Firms Production Processes

Value Creating Activities Common to a Cost Leadership Business Level Strategy


Cost Effective MIS Systems

Firm Infrastructure

Simplified Planning Practices to Reduce Planning Costs

Relatively Few Management Layers to Reduce Overhead

Support Activities

Consistent Policies to Reduce Turnover Costs

Human Resource Management Technological Development


Efficient Plant Delivery Schedule Scale to Minimize that Reduces Manufacturing Costs Costs Selection of Low Timing of Asset Cost Transport Purchases Carriers Small, Highly Trained Sales Force Investments in Technology in order to Reduce Costs Associated with Manufacturing Processes

Effective Training Programs to Improve Worker Efficiency and Effectiveness

Easy-to-Use Manufacturing Technologies

Systems and Procedures to find the Lowest Cost Products to Purchase Raw Materials

Frequent Evaluation Processes to Procurement Monitor Suppliers Performances Effective Product Installations to Reduce Frequency and Severity Products Priced to of Recalls Generate Sales Volume National Scale Advertising

Operations

Outbound Logistics

Teknologi pabrik mudah pakai


Located in Close Proximity with Suppliers

Investasi pada teknologi untuk mengurangi biaya yang terkait dengan proses pabrik

Policy Choice of Efficient Order Plant Technology Sizes Organizational Learning

Interrelationships with Sister Units

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Logistics

Pengembangan Teknologi

Service

Highly Efficient Systems to Link Suppliers Products with the Firms Production Processes

Ch4-19

Value Creating Activities Common to a Cost Leadership Business Level Strategy


Cost Effective MIS Systems

Firm Infrastructure

Simplified Planning Practices to Reduce Planning Costs

Relatively Few Management Layers to Reduce Overhead

Support Activities

Consistent Policies to Reduce Turnover Costs

Improve Worker Human Resourceto Management Efficiency and Effectiveness

Effective Training Programs

Easy-to-Use Manufacturing Technologies

Technological Development

Investments in Technology in order to Reduce Costs Associated with Manufacturing Processes

Systems and Procedures to find the Lowest Cost Products to Purchase Raw Materials

Frequent Evaluation Processes to Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia Procurement Monitor Suppliers Performances

Operations

Outbound Logistics

Processes

Timing of Asset Purchases

Cost Transport Carriers

Generate Sales Volume National Scale Advertising

Located in Close Proximity with Suppliers

Policy Choice of Efficient Order Plant Technology Sizes Organizational Learning

Interrelationships with Sister Units

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Logistics

Service

Highly Efficient Efficient Plant Delivery Schedule Small, Highly Effective Product Kebijakan konsisten Program pelatihan yg efektif Systems to Link Scale to Minimize that Reduces Trained Sales Installations to untuk mengurangi Biaya Costs untuk meningkatkan efisiensi Suppliers Manufacturing Force Reduce Frequency Products with the Costs and Severity Turnover dan efektivitas pekerja Selection of Low Products Priced to of Recalls Firms Production

Ch4-20

Value Creating Activities Common to a Cost Leadership Business Level Strategy


Cost Effective MIS Systems

Firm Infrastructure

Simplified Planning Practices to Reduce Planning Costs

Relatively Few Management Layers to Reduce Overhead

Support Activities

Consistent Policies to Reduce Turnover Costs

Human Resource Management


Investments in Technology in order Infrastruktur Perusahaan to Reduce Costs Associated with Technological Development Manufacturing Processes

Effective Training Programs to Improve Worker Efficiency and Effectiveness

Easy-to-Use Manufacturing Technologies

Praktek perencanaan Lapisan Manajemen Sistem MIS Systems and Procedures to find the Frequent Evaluation Processes to Cost Products to Purchase Procurement yang sederhana untuk Performances yang relatif sedikit Monitor Suppliers yangLowest murah Raw Materials

Operations

Outbound Logistics

Located in Close Proximity with Suppliers

Policy Choice of Efficient Order Plant Technology Sizes Organizational Learning

National Scale Advertising

Interrelationships with Sister Units

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Logistics

Service

Highly Efficient Systems to Link Suppliers Products with the Firms Production Processes

Efficient Plant Delivery Schedule perencanaan Scale to Minimize that Reduces Manufacturing Costs Costs Selection of Low Timing of Asset Cost Transport Purchases Carriers

mengurangi biaya

Small, Highly Effective Product Overhead Trained Sales biaya Installations to Force Reduce Frequency and Severity Products Priced to of Recalls Generate Sales Volume

untuk mengurangi

Ch4-21

Bagaimana Mendapatkan Suatu Keunggulan Biaya


1. Menentukan dan mengontrol pendongkrak Biaya

2. Merancang Ulang Rantai Nilai sesuai keperluan


Merubah proses prosuksi Perubahan otomatisasi Saluran distribusi baru Media iklan baru Penjualan langsung di tempat penjualan tidak langsung Bahan baku baru Integrasi kemuka Integrasi kebelakang Merubah lokasi kearah pemasok atau pembeli

Ch4-22

Gambaran Rantai Nilai Pada Iowa Beef Packers (IBP)


Cara Ranch Lama: Cattle
Ship on the Hoof to Rail Center (Chicago) Slaughter into sides of beef Boxed Cuts at Markets

Cara New Baru: Way

Locate large automated plants near ranches

Process into Boxed Cuts at plants

Ship cuts already Boxed to Markets

Penghematan pada pengangkutan dan penurunan berat ternak Menggunakan tenaga kerja luar serikat pekerja yang murah
Ch4-23

Pilihan Yang Mendongkrak Biaya


Skala ekonomi Penampilan produk

Penggunaan assets
Penggunaan kapasitas - musiman, siklikal Antarhubungan -proses pesanan dan distribusi

Performance Bauran dan variasi produk


Tingkat pelayanan Besar kecilnya pembeli Teknologi proses Tingkat upah Product features Sewa,pelatihan, motivasi
Ch4-24

Hubungan rantai nilai - Iklan & penjualan - Logistik & Operasi

Tiga Pertanyaan Kunci


1. Dapatkah suatu aktivitas dilakukan dengan cara berbeda atau dihapuskan ? 2. Dapatkah suatu kelompok aktivitas yang saling terkait dikelompokan ulang atau disusun ulang? 3. Apakah koalisi / kerjasama dengan perusahaan lain dapat mengurangi atau menghapuskan biaya?
Gallo sold wine through grocery stores rather than liquor stores because they were more efficient distributors
Ch4-25

Kepemimpinan Biaya yang efektif dapat bertahan menguntungkan meskipun Lima Kekuatan tampak tidak atraktif

Ch4-26

Pemimpin Biaya tetap untung meskipun Lima Kekuatan nampak tidak menarik
Tekanan Pendatang Baru

Dapat membuat Pendatang Baru takut karena keperluan untuk: * Masuk harus dengan
skala besar untuk persaingan biaya * Menurunkan curve permintaan perlu waktu

Ch4-27

Pemimpin Biaya tetap untung meskipun Lima Kekuatan nampak tidak menarik
Threat of New Entrants
Can frighten off New Entrants due to the need to: * Enter at Large Scale to be Cost Competitive * Take time to move down the Learning Curve

Dapat mengurangi Kekuatan Pembeli dengan: * Menurunkan harga jauh dibawah pesaing dapat mengeluarkan pesaing dan menarik kembali kekuatan ke perusahaan

Daya tawar Pembeli

Ch4-28

Pemimpin Biaya tetap untung meskipun Lima Kekuatan nampak tidak menarik
Threat of Mengambil posisi mendekati New Pengganti agar: Entrants investasi untuk * Melakukan menciptakan pengganti
Can frighten off New Entrants due to the need to: * Enter at Large Scale to be Cost Competitive * Take time to move down the Learning Curve

* *

Membeli hak paten dari pengganti potensial Menurunkan harga untuk mempertahankan posisi nilai

Bargaining Power of Buyers


Can mitigate Buyer Power by: Driving prices far below competitors which may cause exit and shift power back to firm
Ch4-29

Tekanan Barang Pengganti

Pemimpin Biaya tetap untung meskipun Lima Kekuatan nampak tidak menarik
Threat of New Entrants
Can frighten off New Entrants due to the need to: * Enter at Large Scale to be Cost Competitive * Take time to move down the Learning Curve

Daya Tawar Pemasok

Bargaining Dapat mengurangi Kekuatan Pemasok Power of dengan: Buyers * Posisi biaya rendah membuat pemimpin biaya dapat menyerap kenaikan biaya Can mitigate Buyer Power by: Well positioned relative to
Substitutes in order to:

Melakukan pembelian jumlah * Make investments to create substitutes

besar yang dapat Driving prices far below Threat of competitors which may mengurangi kekuatan pemasok Can buy patents developed by

potential substitutes * Lower prices to maintain value position

Substitute Products

cause exit and shift power back to firm


Ch4-30

Pemimpin Biaya tetap untung meskipun Lima Kekuatan Para pesaing menghindari nampak tidak menarik perang harga dengan
Can mitigate Supplier Power by: * Low cost position makes them better able to absorb cost increases * More likely to make very large purchases which reduces chance of supplier power

Threat of New Entrants

Pemimpin Biaya , yang menciptakan keuntungan Can frighten off New Entrants due lebih tinggi to the need to: bagi industri keseluruhan * Enter at Large Scale to be
Cost Competitive * Take time to move down the Learning Curve

Bargaining Power of Suppliers


Well positioned relative to Substitutes in order to:

Perang Antar Perusahaan Bersaing dalam Industri

Bargaining Power of Buyers


Can mitigate Buyer Power by:

* Make investments to create substitutes * Can buy patents developed by potential substitutes * Lower prices to maintain value position

Threat of Substitute Products

Driving prices far below competitors which may cause exit and shift power back to firm
Ch4-31

Risiko Utama dari Kepemimpinan Biaya Strategi Tingkat Bisnis


Perubahan teknologi yang drastis dapat membuat kehilangan keunggulan biaya
Para pesaing dapat belajar bagaimana meniru Rantai Nilai Fokus terhadap efisiensi dapat menyebabkan Pemimpin Biaya salah menilai perubahan preferensi pelanggan

Ch4-32

Strategi Generik Tingkat Bisnis


Source of Competitive Advantage
Cost Uniqueness

Breadth of Competitive Scope

Broad Target Market

Cost Leadership

Narrow Target Market


Ch4-33

Strategi Generik Tingkat Bisnis


Source of Competitive Advantage
Cost Uniqueness

Breadth of Competitive Scope

Broad Target Market

Cost Leadership

Differensiasi

Narrow Target Market


Ch4-34

Strategi Tingkat Bisnis : Differensiasi


Kriteria Kunci :
Nilai yang diberikan oleh penampilan unik dan karakteristik nilai

Menghendaki harga premium Pelayanan pelanggan yang tinggi Kualitas Superior Prestise atau ekslusivitas Inovasi yang cepat
Ch4-35

Strategi Tingkat Bisnis : Differensiasi


Persyaratan :
Upaya Berlanjut mendeferensiasi produk melalui : Mengembangkan sistem dan proses baru Membentuk persepsi melalui periklanan Fokus terhadap kualitas

Kapabilitas dalam R & D


Memaksimalisasi kontribusi Sumber Daya Manusia melalui turnover rendah dan motivasi tinggi

Ch4-36

Aktivitas Penciptaan Nilai pada Deferensiasi


Infrastruktur Perusahaan
Aktivitas Penunjang

Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia Pengembangan Teknologi

Pembelian
Pemasaran & Penjualan Operational

Logistik Kedalam

Aktivitas Primmer

Logistik Keluar

Servis

Ch4-37

Aktivitas Penciptaan Nilai pada Differensiasi


Highly Developed Information Systems to better understand customers purchasing preferences

Firm Infrastructure
Extensive use of subjective rather than objective performance measures

A companywide emphasis on producing high quality products Superior personnel training Strong capability in basic research

Support Activities

Compensation programs intended to encourage worker creativity and productivity Coordination among R&D, product development and marketing

Human Resource Management Technological Development


Investments in technologies that will allow the firm to consistently produce highly differentiated products

Systems and procedures used to find the highest quality raw materials Superior handling of incoming raw materials to minimize damage and improve the quality of the final product Consistent manufacturing of attractive products

Purchase of highest quality Procurement replacement parts

Operations

Outbound Logistics

Rapid responses to customers unique manufacturing specifications

Extensive Rapid and timely personal product deliveries relationships to customers with buyers Premium Pricing

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Logistics

Service

Accurate and responsive order processing procedures

Strong Coordin- Complete field ation among stocking of functions in R&D, replacement parts Marketing and Product Development

Ch4-38

Value Creating Activities Common to a Logistik Differentiation Business Level Strategy Kedalam
Highly Developed Information Systems to better understand customers purchasing preferences

Firm Infrastructure Pengelolaan yang


Extensive use of subjective rather than objective performance measures

A companywide emphasis on producing high quality products

Operations

Outbound Logistics

incoming raw materials to minimize damage and improve the quality of the final product

attractive products

processing procedures

functions in R&D, replacement parts Marketing and Product Development

Rapid responses to customers unique manufacturing specifications

Extensive Rapid and timely personal product deliveries relationships to customers with buyers Premium Pricing

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Inbound Logistics Logistics

Service

terbaik terhadap Superior bahanManagement baku yang personnel Human Resource training masuk untuk Coordination among R&D, Investments in technologies that will Strong mengurangi product development and allow the firm to consistently produce capability in Technological Development marketing highly differentiated products basic research kerusakan dan Systems and procedures used to find Purchase of highest quality meningkatkan the highest quality rawProcurement materials replacement parts kualitas barang Strong Coordin- Complete field Superior Consistent Accurate and jadi handling of manufacturing of responsive order ation among stocking of
Compensation programs intended to encourage worker creativity and productivity

Support Activities

Ch4-39

Value Creating Activities Common to a Operational Differentiation Business Level Strategy


Pembuatan produk-produk Firm Infrastructure yang menarik Compensation programs Extensive use of subjective Superior intended to encourage worker rather than objective personnel secara konsisten Human Resource Management creativity and productivity performance measures training Tanggapan yang Coordination among R&D, Investments in technologies that will Strong cepat terhadap product development and allow the firm to consistently produce capability in Technological Development marketing highly differentiated spesifikasi products basic research produksi yang Systems and procedures used to find Purchase of highest unik quality
Highly Developed Information Systems to better understand customers purchasing preferences A companywide emphasis on producing high quality products the highest quality raw materials Superior handling of incoming raw materials to minimize damage and improve the quality of the final product

Support Activities

Procurement replacement parts


Operations Outbound Logistics
Accurate and responsive order processing procedures

Rapid responses to customers unique manufacturing specifications

Extensive Rapid and timely personal product deliveries relationships to customers with buyers Premium Pricing

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Logistics

Service

Consistent manufacturing of attractive products

Strong Coordin- Complete field ation among stocking of functions in R&D, replacement parts Marketing and Product Development

Ch4-40

Value Creating Activities Common to a Logistik Differentiation Business Level Strategy Keluar
Highly Developed Information Systems to better understand customers purchasing preferences

Support Activities

Prosedur proses order yang Compensation programs Extensive use of subjective Superior intended to encourage worker rather than objective personnel akurat dan cepat Human Resource Management creativity and productivity performance measures training
Coordination among R&D, product development and marketing

Firm Infrastructure

A companywide emphasis on producing high quality products

Technological Development

Investments in technologies that will allow the firm to consistently produce highly differentiated products

Systems and procedures used to find the highest quality raw materials Superior handling of incoming raw materials to minimize damage and improve the quality of the final product Consistent manufacturing of attractive products

Purchase of highest quality Procurement replacement parts Accurate and responsive order processing procedures

Operations

Outbound Outbound Logistics Logistics

Rapid responses to customers unique manufacturing specifications

Extensive Rapid and timely personal product deliveries relationships to customers with buyers Premium Pricing

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Logistics

Service

Strong Coordin- Complete field ation among stocking of functions in R&D, replacement parts Marketing and Product Development

Penyerahan produk yang cepat dan tepat waktu

Strong capability in basic research

Ch4-41

Value Creating Activities Common to a Pemasaran Differentiation Business Level Strategy & Penjualan
Highly Developed Information Systems to better understand customers purchasing preferences

Koordinasi yang kuat antara fungsi-fungsi Compensation programs Extensive use of subjective Superior R&D, Pemasaran dan intended to encourage worker rather than objective personnel Human Resource Management Pengembangan creativity and productivity performance measures training Produk Coordination among R&D, Investments in technologies that will Strong

Firm Infrastructure

A companywide emphasis on producing high quality products

Support Activities

product development and marketing

allow the firm to consistently produce Technological Development highly differentiated products Purchase of highest quality Procurement replacement parts Accurate and responsive order processing procedures

capability in basic research

Systems and procedures used to find the highest quality raw materials Superior handling of incoming raw materials to minimize damage and improve the quality of the final product Consistent manufacturing of attractive products

Hubungan pribadi yang ekstensif dengan pembeli Harga Premium

Operations

Outbound Logistics

Rapid responses to customers unique manufacturing specifications

Extensive Rapid and timely personal product deliveries relationships to customers with buyers Premium Pricing

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales & Sales

Inbound Logistics

Service

Strong Coordin- Complete field ation among stocking of functions in R&D, replacement parts Marketing and Product Development

Ch4-42

Value Creating Activities Common to a Differentiation Business Level Strategy


Highly Developed Information Systems to better understand customers purchasing preferences

Support Activities

Persediaan komponen Compensation programs Extensive use of subjective Superior intended to encourage worker rather than objective personnel Human Resource Management pengganti yang creativity and productivity performance measures training lengkap
Coordination among R&D, product development and marketing

Firm Infrastructure

A companywide emphasis on producing high quality products

Servis

Technological Development

Investments in technologies that will allow the firm to consistently produce highly differentiated products

Strong capability in basic research

Systems and procedures used to find the highest quality raw materials Superior handling of incoming raw materials to minimize damage and improve the quality of the final product Consistent manufacturing of attractive products

Purchase of highest quality Procurement replacement parts

Operations

Outbound Logistics

Rapid responses to customers unique manufacturing specifications

Extensive Rapid and timely personal product deliveries relationships to customers with buyers Premium Pricing

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Logistics

Service Service

Accurate and responsive order processing procedures

Strong Coordin- Complete field ation among stocking of functions in R&D, replacement parts Marketing and Product Development

Ch4-43

Value Creating Activities Common to a Differentiation Business Level Strategy


Highly Developed Information Systems to better understand customers purchasing preferences

Firm Infrastructure
Extensive use of subjective rather than objective performance measures

A companywide emphasis on producing high quality products Superior personnel training Strong capability in basic research

Support Activities

Compensation programs intended to encourage worker creativity and productivity Coordination among R&D, product development and marketing

Human Resource Management Technological Development


Investments in technologies that will allow the firm to consistently produce highly differentiated products

Systems and procedures used to find the highest quality raw materials Superior Consistent handling of manufacturing of incoming raw attractive materials to products minimize damage and improve the Rapid responses quality of prosedur the Sistem dan to customers final product unique

Purchase of highest quality Procurement replacement parts Procurement

Operations

Outbound Logistics

Pembelian

untuk mendapatkan manufacturing bahan baku dg kualitas specifications terbaik

Pembelian komponen pengganti kualitas tinggi Premium


Pricing

Extensive Rapid and timely personal product deliveries relationships to customers with buyers

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Logistics

Lokasi mendekati suplier


Ch4-44

Primary Activities

Service

Accurate and responsive order processing procedures

Strong Coordin- Complete field ation among stocking of functions in R&D, replacement parts Marketing and Product Development

Value Creating Activities Common to a Differentiation Business Level Strategy


Highly Developed Information Systems to better understand customers purchasing preferences

Firm Infrastructure
Extensive use of subjective rather than objective performance measures

A companywide emphasis on producing high quality products Superior personnel training Strong capability in basic research

Support Activities

Compensation programs intended to encourage worker creativity and productivity Coordination among R&D, product development and marketing

Human Resource Management Technological Development


Purchase of highest quality Procurement replacement parts Consistent manufacturing of attractive products Accurate and responsive order processing procedures Investments in technologies that will allow the firm to consistently produce highly differentiated products

Systems and procedures used to find the highest quality raw materials Superior handling of incoming raw materials to minimize damage and improve the quality of the final product

Operations

Outbound Logistics

Koordinasi diantara Investasi pada teknologi R&D< pemasaran, dan yang menghasilkan produk Rapid responses Extensive pengembangan produk sangat berbeda Rapid and timely to customers personal
unique manufacturing specifications product deliveries relationships to customers with buyers Premium Pricing

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Logistics

Pengembangan Teknologi

Service

Strong Coordin- Complete field ation among stocking of functions in R&D, replacement parts Marketing and Product Development

Kemampuan tinggi dl riset dasar

Primary Activities

Ch4-45

Value Creating Activities Common to a Differentiation Business Level Strategy


Highly Developed Information Systems to better understand customers purchasing preferences

Firm Infrastructure
Extensive use of subjective rather than objective performance measures

A companywide emphasis on producing high quality products Superior personnel training Strong capability in basic research

Support Activities

Compensation programs intended to encourage worker creativity and productivity Coordination among R&D, product development and marketing

Human Resource Management Technological Development


Investments in technologies that will allow the firm to consistently produce highly differentiated products

Systems and procedures used to find the highest quality raw materials

Purchase of highest quality Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia Procurement replacement parts

Operations

Outbound Logistics

minimize damage and improve the quality of the final product

Product Development

Rapid responses to customers unique manufacturing specifications

Extensive Rapid and timely personal product deliveries relationships to customers with buyers Premium Pricing

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Logistics

Service

Program yang Superiorkompensasi Consistent handling of kreativitas manufacturing of mendorong dan incoming raw attractive materials to products produktivitas karyawan

Accurate and responsive order processing procedures

Penggunaan Strongyang Coordin- Complete Pelatihan field ation among stocking of karyawan ekstensif functions pengukuran in R&D, replacement parts yang baik Marketing and kinerja yang subjektif

Ch4-46

Value Creating Activities Common to a Differentiation Business Level Strategy


Highly Developed Information Systems to better understand customers purchasing preferences

Firm Infrastructure
Extensive use of subjective rather than objective performance measures

A companywide emphasis on producing high quality products Superior personnel training Strong capability in basic research

Support Activities

Compensation programs intended to encourage worker creativity and productivity Coordination among R&D, product development and marketing

Human Resource Management


Infrastruktur Perusahaan Technological Development
Investments in technologies that will allow the firm to consistently produce highly differentiated products

Operations

Outbound Logistics

Rapid responses to customers unique manufacturing specifications

Extensive Rapid and timely personal product deliveries relationships to customers with buyers Premium Pricing

Primary Activities

Marketing & Sales

Inbound Logistics

handling of incoming raw materials to minimize damage and improve the quality of the final product

manufacturing of responsive order attractive processing products procedures

ation among stocking of functions in R&D, replacement parts Marketing and Product Development

Service

Komitmen seluruh komponen Sistem Informasi yang maju untuk Systems and procedures used to find Purchase of highest quality perusahaan untuk menghasilkan the highest quality rawProcurement materials replacement parts memahami preferensi pembelian produk berkualitas tinggi pelanggan Strong Coordin- Complete field Superior Consistent Accurate and

Ch4-47

Strategi Tingkat Bisnis:Differensiasi


Effectivitas dengan Differensiasi dari aktivitas Value Chain
Contoh:

Heineken beer Steinway pianos Mercedes Benz autos Intel microprocessors Caterpillar tractors

Bahan baku

Bahan baku dan Ketrampilan kerja Teknologi dan Ketrampilan kerja Teknologi tinggi Pelayanan kebutuhan pembeli yang cepat diseluruh dunia Ch4-48

Menciptakan Nilai dengan Differensiasi melalui :


Mengurangi Biaya Pembeli Meningkatkan Penampilan Pembeli

Menciptakan keberlanjutan dengan :


Menciptakan pencegah melalui persepsi keunikan Menciptakan biaya pindah melalui diferensiasi

Ch4-49

Faktor Pendorong untuk Differensiasi


Contoh :

Penampilan produk yang unik Performance produk yang unik Pelayanan yang prima Teknologi baru Kualitas masukan
Ketrampilan atau pengalaman yg luar biasa

Informasi lengkap
Ch4-50

Pelaku Differensiasi yang efektif tetap dapat untung meskipun Lima Kekuatan nampak tidak menarik

Ch4-51

Pelaku Differensiasi yang efektif tetap dapat untung meskipun Lima Kekuatan nampak tidak menarik
Tekanan dari Pendatang Baru

Dapat mengatasi pendatang baru karena : * Barang baru harus lebih baik
daripada barang lama

* Atau sama performancenya dengan harga lebih rendah


Ch4-52

Pelaku Differensiasi yang efektif tetap dapat untung meskipun Lima Kekuatan nampak tidak menarik
Threat of New Entrants
Can fend off New Entrants because: * * New products must surpass proven products Or be equal to performance at lower prices

Dapat menetralisir Kekuatan Pembeli karena : Produk-produk yang diferensiasi dengan baik mengurangi sensitivitas pelanggan terhadap kenaikan harga

Daya Tawar Pembeli

Ch4-53

Pelaku Differensiasi yang efektif tetap dapat untung meskipun Lima Kekuatan nampak tidak menarik
Threat of New Entrants
Can fend off New Entrants because: * * New products must surpass proven products Or be equal to performance at lower prices

Berada pada posisi lebih baik dari barang pengganti karena:

Loyalitas atas merek cenderung mengurangi tekanan produk baru dan perpindahan merek

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

Ancaman Barang Pengganti

Can mitigate Buyer Power because well differentiated products reduce customer sensitivity to price increases
Ch4-54

Pelaku Differensiasi yang efektif tetap dapat untung meskipun Lima Kekuatan nampak tidak menarik
Threat of New Entrants
Can fend off New Entrants because: * * New products must surpass proven products Or be equal to performance at lower prices

Daya Tawar Pemasok

Dapat menetralisir Kekuatan Pemasok melalui : adanya Bargaining * Menyerap kenaikan harga karena margin yang lebih tinggi Power of
Well positioned relative to Substitute s because: harga Mengatasi

Suppliers

pemasok yang lebih tinggi karena loyalitas merek dari pembeli Brand loyalty tends to
reduce new product trial and brand switching

Threat of Substitute Products

Can mitigate Buyer Power because well differentiated products reduce customer sensitivity to price increases
Ch4-55

Pelaku Differensiasi yang efektif tetap dapat untung meskipun Lima Kekuatan nampak tidak menarik
Can mitigate Supplier Power by: * * Absorbing price increases due to higher margins Passing on higher supplier prices because buyers are brand loyal

Threat of New Entrants

Can fend off New Entrants because:

Loyalitas merek New products must * surpass proven products mengatasi * Or be equal to performance persaingan harga at lower prices

Bargaining Power of Buyers

Perang Antar Perusahaan dalam Industri

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

Well positioned relative to Substitutes because:

Brand loyalty tends to reduce new product trial and brand switching

Threat of Substitute Products

Can mitigate Buyer Power because well differentiated products reduce customer sensitivity to price increases
Ch4-56

Risiko Utama dari suatu Differensiasi


Pelanggan mungkin memutuskan bahwa biaya keunikan terlalu besar Para pesaing mungkin mempelajari bagaimana meniru Value Chain Arti dari suatu keunikan mungkin tidak lama bernilai bagi pelanggan
Ch4-57

Strategi Generik Tingkat Bisnis


Source of Competitive Advantage
Cost Uniqueness

Breadth of Competitive Scope

Broad Target Market

Cost Leadership

Differensiasi

Narrow Target Market


Ch4-58

Strategi Generik Tingkat Bisnis


Source of Competitive Advantage
Cost Uniqueness

Breadth of Competitive Scope

Broad Target Market

Cost Leadership

Differentiation

Narrow Target Market

Fokus Biaya Rendah

Fokus Differensiasi
Ch4-59

Strategi Fokus Tingkat Bisnis


Strategi Fokus Tingkat Bisnis mencakup pendekatan dasar yang sama sebagai Strategi Pasar yan Luas. Peluang Fokus mungkin timbul karena : Perusahaan besar tidak tertarik pada ceruk pasar kecil Perusahaan mungkin kekurangan sumber untuk bersaing dalam pasar ruang lingkup industri Mungkin mampu melayani suatu segmen pasar kecil lebih efektif daripada pesaing ruang lingkup industri
Fokus memungkinkan anda mengarahkan sumber daya pada aktivitas value chain tertentu untuk membangun keunggulan bersaing

Ch4-60

Strategi Fokus Tingkat Bisnis


Strategi Fokus Tingkat Bisnis mencakup pendekatan dasar yang sama sebagai Strategi Pasar yang Luas. Peluang Fokus mungkin timbul karena: Mungkin mampu memanfaatkan peralatan lama untuk mempertahankan biaya rendah Mengurangi biaya R&D dengan menjiplak penemuan penemuan baru
Contoh : Bang & Olufsen Snap-on tools Iams Company

Upscale komponen elektronik


Alat mekanik kualitas tinggi Makanan ternak kualitas tingi
Ch4-61

Strategi Fokus Tingkat Bisnis

Strategi Fokus tingjkat bisnis mencakup pendekatan dasar yan sama sebagai Strategi Pasar yang Luas. Peluang fokus mungkin timbul karena : Pelaku diferensiasi fokus mungkin berhasil dengan memilih suatu pasar kecil yang kurang dilayani oleh perusahaan besar
Contoh:

Pabrik kostum komponen untuk Harley-Davidson motorcycles


Ch4-62

Risiko Utama Bagi Fokus Diferensiasi

Perusahaan mungkin dibuat tidak fokus lagi oleh pesaing yang lebih fokus Pesaing yang lebih besar mungkin melirik ceruk pasar anda

Preferensi pada ceruk pasar mungkin berubah kearah preferensi pada pasar yang luas
Ch4-63

Strategi Generik Tingkat Bisnis


Source of Competitive Advantage
Cost Uniqueness

Breadth of Competitive Scope

Broad Target Market

Narrow Target Market

Cost DifferenLeadership tiation Integrasi Biaya Rendah & Focused Focused Differensiasi DifferenLow Cost tiation
Ch4-64

Strategi Integrasi Biaya Rendah dan Differensiasi


Perusahaan yang menggunakan Strategi Integrasi mungkin : Beradaptasi lebih cepat Mempelajari ketrampilan dan teknologi baru

Menggunakan Flexible Manufacturing Systems untuk menciptakan produk unik dengan biaya rendah

Memberdayakan kompetensi inti melalui Jaringan Informasi ke seluruh unit-unit bisnis Menggunakan Total Quality Management (TQM) untuk menciptakan produk unik kualitas tinggi yang sekaligus menghemat biaya

Ch4-65

Strategi Integrasi Biaya Rendah dan Differensiasi


Mengakui bahwa Integrasi Biaya Rendah / Differensiasi memerlukan suatu kompromi

Risiko adalah bahwa perusahaan mungkin menjadi Stuck in the Middle karena tidak mempunyai komitmen yang kuat untuk atau kurang pengetahuan tentang kedua jenis strategi generik.
Ch4-66

Strategi Integrasi Biaya Rendah dan Differensiasi

Southwest Airlines

Biaya Rendah Memakai satu jenis pesawat (Boeing 737) Memakai bandara sekunder Melayani rute pendek Tanpa makanan Waktu tunggu 15 menit Tanpa kursi cadangan

Differensiasi Fokus pada kepuasan pelanggan Dedikasi karyawan yang tinggi

Tanpa reservasi travel agent

Pelayanan penerbangan baru bagi penumpang kalangan bisnis (phones and faxes)
Ch4-67